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GOVERNMENT OP INDIA 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 

CENTRAL 

ARCHEOLOGICAL 

LIBRARY 


ACCESSION NO _ 5218 

CALL No. APa? 



i 


D.G.A. 79 


ARTHUR PROBSTHftiH, 

Oriental Booksoller, 
41 Gt Rus-^elt Street . 
British Museum 

I ON nON W . C. 






BOOK OF THE KINDRED SAYINGS 

(SAN YUTTA-NIK AYA) 

OR GROUPED SUTTAS 





iJali ^ext 

Thanslatiox Series, No. 14 
(Extra Subscriptiox) 

THE BOOK OF THE 

KINDRED SAYINGS 

(SANYUTTA - NIKAYA) 

OR GROUPED SUTTAS 

PART IV. 

TRANSLATED BY 

F. L. WOODWARD, M.A. 

TRAN^L^TOP. OF 

‘■.NUNt.^L OF A MV-'TH.,' “ THE BIDDHA PATH VIRTUE, 

‘ KIM'hED PART III., ’ “ &oML •^AYINO-j Ot THE BUDL-llA," KU.. 





WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 

MRS. RHYS DAVIDS, D.Litt., M.A. 


I IH 


• Sav on, bAver^ ' sing on. singers ' 

Delve ' mould ' piE the wor<K of the euth ’ 

Woik on, age after age. nothing i& to be lost, 

It rnay have to wait long, but it will eeitainly eoinc 
in u^e ; 

When the materials aic all prepared and leady. the 
aiehitects shall appear ’ " 

Walt WlIIlMA^ 








lon&on 

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INTRODUCTORY NOTES 


This is the second volume which Mr. Woodward has added 
to the two for which I am responsible. I welcome its com- 
pletion and greatly appreciate the quality of the translation. 
I find it both accurate and alive. And discounting the some- 
what greater space taken in the Pali text by footnotes, we have 
here a volume of 283 pages reproducing one of 403 pages without 
the omission of any of the subject-matter whatever, nor of a 
single characteristic phrase. Nothing has been omitted save 
repetitions. WTere these occur is duly noted. I have met 
readers who demur to such omissions. They have found 
a certain aesthetic pleasure of repercussion in the Pali refrains, 
even in a modern translation. I would only point out that 
such omissions are often met with in palm-leaf manuscripts. 
Hence they are sanctioned by the Buddhist Sangha. And so 
far as I can gather, Buddhist monks no longer memorize many 
books, so as to be able-, as they read or recite, to fill in these 
omissions without referring to the text. (The laity apparently 
does not read its scriptures.) The English reader is there- 
fore not asked to do more than the Buddhist monk is pre- 
pared to do. 

There are only two terms lecurring in the book I should 
prefer to have seen changed. One is ‘ brother, brethren,’ 
for ‘ bhikkhu, -u.’ I may seem captious; I am certainly 
recanting, since I led oil with the rendering, herein following 
my husband's lead. ^ I have now learnt more. The rendering 
is historically misleading. No man at that time called his 
fellow-man ‘ brother.’ Even a blood-brother was ‘ tata.’ The 
word ‘ bhatar ’ was there, had the need been there. The monk 
called the laywoman ‘ sister ’ (bhagini). But he called the 
nun (as nuns did inter se) ‘ ayya ’ (lady). And he called his 
fellow-monks ‘avuso,’ a contracted altered form of ‘ayasmant.' 

1 The translator follows the lead iu his independent selection; Some 
Sayings oj Buddha , 1925. 


vi Introductory Notes 

‘ venerable.’^ So little was any modern sense of brotherhood 
worded in the Order ! So little was that Order or Sangha, 
religious or lay, worded as a ‘ Confraternity ’ ! 

To render ‘ bhikkhn ’ by ‘ priest,’ as is done in Ceylon, is 
also misleading. It is true that literally ‘ priest ’ and ‘ thera ’ 
mean ‘ elder.’ But only some bhikkhus are theras, nor does 
bhikkhu mean for the Buddhist what priest means for the 
Christian. The priest could never be described as ‘ the 
supreme field of merit for the laity.’^ Nor does the bhikkhu, 
with the priest, ‘ celebrate a sacrifice.’ A bhikkhu comes 
nearest to the Christian friar, cleric, monk. A few Europeans 
object to calling him monk, albeit I have not found Asiatics 
siding with them. The one is as much ' under orders ’ as is 
the other. And the life-pledge is not of the essence of monk- 
hood. Both have returned to ‘ the world,’ under stress of 
circumstances or altered convictions. And whereas I know 
little about their present status, I find that in the past such 
bhikkhus were virtually proscribed as ‘ having turned towards 
the base,’ or ‘ low ’ (hina).® ilorally they were judged to be 
as much life-pledged as any Christian monk, whatever they 
may be now. 

But there is the word ‘ almsman,’ which is etymologically 
much closer to bhikkhu than any other. Bhikkhu in its ‘ first 
intention’ is ‘ scrapman,’ ‘ broken-food-er.’'^ Exegetically 
he is also connected with spiritual breakages, to wit, of sinful 
hindrances, but the literal meaniug will unquestionably have 
been the original designation of the world-forsaker : 

Pleased with what scraps his bowl is filled 
(so 'jja bhaddo sututiko ‘ unchapattcigate rato ').® 

Hence there is no need to leave the word untranslated, or 
to use, forestalling man’s growth, the word ‘ brother.’ If I 
now use ‘ monk,’ it is not because of etymological equivalence, 
for monk means the lone one, and the monk, and the bhikkhu 
too, for that matter, were for the most part cenobites. Only 

^ Translated in this work by ‘ friend.’ 

^ £.(/., i, 282/. 3 Below, pp. 63, 123, etc. 

“ E.g., I ibhanga, p. 245. ® Psalms of the Brethren, verse 843 /f. 



Introductory Notes vii 

the minority have ever been true anchorets. It is because in 
all essentials the monk and the bhikkhu were and are the same. 
IVe, to whom Buddhism has meant and still means much, 
have not faced this fact scjuarely enough. 

The other dubious rendering is ‘ rebirth ’ for ‘ bhava,’ 
literally ‘ becoming,’ to which I am coining. 

To come to the subject-matter of these ten sets of ‘ kindred 
sayings ’ now made accessible to the general reader, I here 
submit a brief comment on a few of the more striking features. 

1. Monl'-world and Lay-world. — It is worth the reader’s 
while to note the contrast in the mandate addressed to each, 
in Part I on the one hand, and Parts VII and YIII on the 
other. Perhaps no section of the Pali scriptures is so markedly 
by and for the monk as Part I: Sayings on the five senses 
and mind as engaged with them. There is here no psycholog- 
ical interest, such as was glanced at in a preceding collection. 
Sense and mind are shown solely as being the chief fact ors in 
an all-encompassing world of 111 be.setting not man only, but 
‘ beings.’ We are not told that this constitutes ‘ life ’ (jJviia), 
as we should word it. We here and there find it called ‘ faring 
on ’ (saysdra).^ We oftener find it called ‘ becoming,’ that 
is, bhava — a truer translation than ‘ being.’ ‘ The world,’ 
we read, ‘ has the state of changing, is a becoming-being, 
delights in becoming ’ {nnnathdbhdvi bhavasatto loho bhavam 
ev' abhinandati).- Vow this becoming, and the joy in it, is 
what the monk saw as ill, and is what he made it his business 
here and elsewhere to condemn. ‘ Becoming ’ he more usually 
called ’again-becoming ’ (puna-bbhava), and his aim professedly 
was so to become, in any one span of life, as to get rid of all 
subseipieut becoming. ’ Becoming ’ expressed itself through 
sense and mind; ‘again-becoming’ was the natural sequel 
to this self-expression. Hence the work of sense and mind 
was ■ ill.’® The world, the ‘ all,’ the everything that it implied 

' E.g., below, p. 98 : ' round of rebirth.’ 

- Below, p. 12; cf. 17-1. It is to me a pitiful tragedy to see 
Sariputta, Gotama's right hand, made to call the Founder’s Way the 
means for abandoning becoming. 

^ Below, i, 1 g^assim. 



viii Introductory Notes 

was ill. ^ Xot to work was better.^ Nirvana was the stopping 
of becoming.® 

In these terms is shown in this collection the sharp contrast 
between the man of the world, nay, of the worlds, and the 
Buddhist monk. And the man is proved to be right, the 
monk wrong. Mankind does not now look to the monk-world 
for help. Help came to it in Gotama, whose teaching about 
sense, if we may credit as more t^'iily his the personal talk to 
Uttara,^ was not the suppression, hut the development, 
literally the making-to-become, of sense and mind by way of 
what we now can, as he could not. call ‘ will." And the later 
new mandates to man, which we call gospels, were not revealed 
to monk- worlds. Man’s salvation lies in his nature being a 
‘ bhava,’ a becoming. Sense and mind are the means thereto. 
The worlds beyond the grave of any one span of life are 
the means thereto. Not to his hope of ultimate perfect 
becoming belongs the shrivelled cosmic and human outlook 
superimposed upon the founder’s teaching by the influence of 
its monastic vehicle. This was not, as is sometimes said, the 
ancient Indian outlook. That outlook too was a ‘ becoming ’ 
thing. MTien Buddhism arose, the sense of ‘ 111 ’ was 
darkening it already. 

MTien we turn to the collections of the Chitta and Headmen 
Sayings® we are in a largely different atmosphere. Though 
we still see through a monastic medium, we are now contem- 
plating the facts in the life of man-as-becoming — the facts of 
life with unsuppres.sed faculties, of death, of the hereafter, 
of the man as choosing, willing, working, growing. It is 
crudely, not too worthily, worded. There is no clear call any- 
where that any one stage of life is but an opportunity for 
growth in the great M ay of the worlds. But it is .saner, and 
we are in the open air. Here we find not that body and mind 
are ill, and their ceasing to be devoutly hoped for. Here 
is the founder shown shepherding his fellow-men to believe: 
‘ This world is. The world beyond is. . . . Parents are, and 


^ Below.p.S. - tii'A.p. 8.5 ; A'amwa =work = actioii. A'./S. ii, 82. 
^ Further Itialoyues ii, Sutta 152. s Ptlow, Pts. VII, VIII. 



IX 


Introdmtory Notes 

beings of the nest world, and teachers realizing both worlds 
. . . and I, if I live wisely and well, shall be reborn in the happy 
beyond. . . . But if I do not so live, then nothing that well • 
wishers may say to or of me will bring me there.’ ^ 

Here do we feel near to Gotama ! Here is his Magga,^ the 
Way, and Man the wayfarer. How absurd, in face of such 
pages, appear the opinions of persons who will not carefully 
read them, that Buddhism was originally a system of ethics 
with no call for faith in the unseen, and a metaphysic centring 
in the rrnreality of man or self ! 

2. The Man, the Unrevealed, and Suicide. — But the Sangha 
not only decentralized the Way, but also dropped from it 
the wayfarer. Buddhaghosa very aptly said, when dis- 
cussing Jhana as way for access to the unseen, ‘ there is a way 
ivhen there is a ivayfarer.’ ^ Yet it was he more than anyone 
who, for the Buddhism of today, drove the final nail into the 
coffin of ‘ the man.’ In this volume’s contribution to Bud- 
dhism’s thesaurus of parables, some of them very notable, 
we may see both stages of teaching — ^that where the ‘ man ’ 
is not thrust out and that where he is. In the composite 
parable of the Snake,^ the climax is when the man (purisa), 
toiling on the raft of the Way, leaves the hither shore of things 
bodily and mental and, as brahmam, i.e. ‘ a worthy man,’ 
reaches and stands upon the further shore of the Way to the 
Goal. Here is clearly explained ‘man’ surviving the loss of the 
body-cum-mind of the world he has left. But in the equally 
notable parable of the ‘six-gated border-town,’® the mind 
(vinnam) sits as lord of the town at the four -ways, usurping 
the place of him whose instrument it is. The Pitaka editors 
did not discern that, in dethroning the worther and replacing 

1 Pp. 253, 218-20; c/. Dialogues i, 309 /. 

2 P. 231. This is the only occurrence of the ‘ First Sermon,’ 
except that in the Vinaya, and it is spoken to a layman. 

3 Commentary on Dliammasangani, p.lGi; Expositor i,2l8: ‘patipada 
nam’ esa, paUpannake sati.’ (‘ Progress arises when there is a person 
progressing.’) 

* Below, p. 107 /. The word ‘ brahmin ’ was often used in the Sayings 
to mean ‘ saint. Cf. K.S. i, 2, 67, n. 2. 

= Ibid., p. 126. 



X 


Introductory Notes 

him by the process of worthing, they were virtually creating a 
neiv woriher. They were making the ‘ minding ’ the ‘ mind-er ! 

It is no fit retort to say this was parable-talk for the many , 
and that the unreality of the man, or attan, was philosophical 
truth. It is not the many, but a single monk who is being 
instructed, and there is nothing to show that he was without 
culture. And the distinction in teaching, referred to in the 
retort, does not appear till the later date of the Milinda 
Questions.^ It is not in keeping with Gotama’s repudiation 
of the closed fist“ or esoteric teaching of the professional 
teacher, nor with his parable here of the three qualities of 
soil for the seed sown.® The teaching, he is made to say, is 
the same in each quality of hearer. The one may hear and 
grow much, another hardly at all. 

The dethronement of the man (piiggah, attan) and the 
enthronement in his place of his instrument, mind, appear to 
have been the joint work of (a) a protestant attitude against 
the brahmin’s confounding the real with the unchanging, and 
(6) of the new fascination of the study of mind apart from the 
man, inaugurated by the so-called Sankhya teaching of Kapila. 
The latter aflirmed ‘ the man ’ (piirusa), but sharply severed 
him from his mind and body. And Gotama from the first 
warned men that these two were not the man, not the self, 
not ‘ of you,’ not you.** And he brought in the pregnant, 
new idea, that the self changes, grows, can be made to become, 
that it is not eternally the same. But the anti-brahmin 
attitude and the new psychology combined distorted his 
warning into the curious position that the ‘ you ’ is non- 
existent, that there is only body and mind, a position strangely 
akin to our own temporary ‘ man ’-less outlook. 

One of the sinister effects of this dropping of the ‘ man ’ 
was the condoning in certain cases of suicide. A third occurs 
in this volume.® There is no suggestion whatever that 
Channa was sacrificing himself to save others, as when a man 


1 Questions of Kg, Milinda (S.B.E.) i, 226. ^ Dialogues ii, 107. 

^ P. 221/. * See below, pp. 48, 83, 271; vol. iii, 33. 

^ P. 30/.; cf. K.S. i, loO; iii, 101 /. 



Introductory Notes xi 

drops oil an overcrowded raft in shipwreck, or goes out ill into 
a deadly Arctic blizzard no more to imperil his comrades’ 
advance. Channa judged that, being rid of desire for more 
‘ becoming,’ he could safely end his own sufferings. It did 
not occur to him or his world that, as ‘ man ’ (not body or 
mind) in a stage of wayfaring toward the inconceivable Con- 
summation, it was his to use the opportunities of the Way in 
his stage of it, but not to cut them off at will. These Buddhist 
suicides are indications of man’s orphaned state in India, 
orphaned in respect of knowledge of his own nature and any 
worthy conception of the Highest^ and the Goal thereto. A 
man had come to it with the Dhamma of immanent Deity : 

/ lay no wood, brahmin, for fires on altars. 

Only within hurneth the fire I kindle. 

Ever my fire burns; ever tense and ardent 

1 arahant live the life of God-faring. - 

But men understood it not, and they make him sanction the 
unworthy act of the poor little sufferer. 

It may well have been the little understanding he met with 
that made Gotama’s teaching so notable for its silences. AVe 
saw this in the Lakkhana Collection.^ AVe see it here in the 
silence with A’’acchagotta.^ His message involved much that 
was new: the idea of man the wayfarer himself choosing the 
right way by heeding That AAlio was within him as juompting 
his will, his choice — the Dhamma of the ’ ought-to-be,’ the 
‘may-be,’ the ‘ coming-to-be ’ — which called no less for faith 
to accept it than did any vision of the Unseen otherwise con- 
ceived. AA’ords for the new were not alwa vs at hand ; words that 
were might be misconstrued. The unwise reasons assigned for 
his silences are only convincing in the light of these difficulties. 
On the contrary, it would conduce greatly to better, wiser 
living® to have a truly inspired man, let alone an all-knower, 
reveal the mysteries of life. It has helped many, however 

Cf. below, p. 269. 

- fimS ma-can'j/a (worsened in time to mean celibacy !) Seevol.i, 212. 

= Vol. ii, 170. « P. 281 ; cf. p. 272. 

^ Further Dialogues i, 306 (Mllunkya Sutta). 



xii Introductory Notes 

deaf the majority has remained. But in Gotama’s day the 
many were unfit to receive more than this: that the good, ife 
meant salvation hereafter, and was within the reach, from 
within, of every man and woman. 

3. Gotama and Magic. — ‘ All-knower ’ Gotama will hardly 
have been to his world, even at his maximum vigour. ‘ Sab- 
bafinu-Buddha ’ was a title of later date, and the attribute 
‘ omniscient,’ in Sutta verses^ and in Abhidhamma,^ the 
homage of idealizing after-worshippers. At Vesali, for 
instance, the important centre, where most likely he first 
resorted on leaving home, to learn of and follow Jain auster- 
ities — the one town to which he turned to bid a last farewell® — 
it was a debatable opinion whether he had any mandate of a 
‘ superhuman ’ kind.^ But we not seldom find him described 
as iddhimd, i.e. having psychic power, and 7ndydvi, i.e. 
exercising conjurer’s ‘ magic.’ 

It is fairly obvious that the latter ascription is the sceptical 
interpretation of the former attribute made by those who dis- 
believed in him, or who feared him.® No unprejudiced reader 
can fail to see, that even after discounting later tendencies 
to magnify and make more wonderful, we have in Gotama a 
man who was what is now called psychically sensitive. It is 
scarcely wise to describe him as a my'stic, for the word is 
ambiguous. ‘ Union with God,’ or ‘ with the Absolute,’ is 
here no just definition. But if we are to cut out from 
the records of him, as unplausible, all that may be called 
access to the unseen, to wit, clairvoyance, clairaudience, tele- 
pathy, iddhi (or superwill), hypnotism, we may, I grant, 
retain intact the centre of Gotama’s mandate, but we shall 
lop off the entire Left wing. (I say ‘ Left wing ’ deliberately; 
our new terms above, far more apt with the one exception of 

1 E.g., Vin. Texts i, 90; Further Dialogues i, 121; 340 (Gotama re- 
pudiates the attribute); Anguttara ii, 24 (trs. in my Buddhism, 226), etc. 

- E.g., Designation of Human Types, pp. 21, 97. 

^ Dialogues \\, 131. 

^ E.g., Further Dialogues i, 45. 

5 'Be\o-vr,p.2iA;FurtherDialoguesi,'2QQ-, ‘ cozening person ’=literally 
an illusionist, the usual word for ‘ conjurer ’ (mdydm). 



Introductory Notes xiii 

iddhi than any known to Buddhists, justify me.) Here I go 
no further into the matter.’- For readers of these collections 
the historical interest involved lies in this: that psychic 
powers, once the monopoly perhaps of the Rishis, or ascetic 
seers, of a former day.” and also of some among the brahmins,® 
— nor should we omit the conjurer^ — are in these volumes 
claimed to be known to, and practised by, some in the 
‘ protestant, dissenting ' world of the men® and women first 
called Sakya-sons. and among these by its founder. 

4. Woman. — The little collection about Womankind, taken 
with its pendant, Collection Xo. on Sisters, i.e. Xuns, lends 
to this third (or Sapyutta-) Xikilya the special interest in 
this connection that attaches also to the Vinaya'’ and to the 
Anthology.® Had there been no forward movement among 
women in the day and also in the will of the founder, we should 
have found no distinct chapters on women, let alone by women, 
at all. To repeat a phrase just used, it was only a movement 
of the Left . hence the two sections are very small. And whereas 
the women in the Order, although technically juniors to all 
monks, reveal in these sections an ability to think, decide, 
and express themselves not inferior to the men, the lay- 
women of ‘Mother-village,’® as in Pali they came to be 
called, are not allowed to speak for themselves. They are 
herded by the monastic editor, with or without the men 
with whom they fit,’® in a few rough, not over-wise generaliza- 
tions. The one notable Sayiug about the attitude of sex to 
sex in general — that monks should develop towards them the 
attitude as toward mother, sister, daughter” — is here omitted. 

More in my Dhijnna in Early Buddhism, Ind. Hist. Quarterly, 
December, 1927, and more to come. 

- C/., e.y.. Further Dialogues i, 271 ; here called ‘ sages." 

’ Dialog lies * X.jS. iii, 120. 

^ Cf. below, the unworthy exhibition by Mahaka and the experience 
of the worthy Citta (pp. 198, 210). 

® Ihid. i, p. 10 ' gl. ' Bhikkhunl's. Duties of. and P.ltimokkha. 

® Psalms of the Sisters. 

“ Matu-gama (-u-omen-' kind,’ or world ’). It is not a derogatory term. 

George Eliot: ‘ God . . . made ’em to fit the men." {Mill on the 
Floss.) '' Below, p. G8. 



xiv Introductory JS/otes 

Nor is any woman admonished to develop the corresponding 
attitude towards men. 

But the last Saying in this collection (p. 168) is notable 
enough to give distinction to all these collections: that on 
Ariyan Growth {Ariya-rnddhi). We shall await with no 
small interest what the Commentary, which Mr. Woodward 
is editing for us, may tell us about the occasion for it. VaddJii 
and hJidvand were the two words ready to hand,^ had Buddhist 
monasticism really grasped the priceless New Word com- 
mitted to it, namely, that man, the very man (not body and 
mind only) is in ceaseless process of change and becoming. 
Here in a very corner of its scriptures comes a sound — 

0 hark ! 0 hear ! hoiv thin and char, 

And thinner, clearer, farther going . . . 

of true teaching, showing what might have been made of Anicca 
and Bhava. Why should Anicca ever be harnessed to 111 
Were man not at any given moment changing, he could not 
become, he could not grow. The new man is not always the 
better man, but the better man is always the new man. And 
here too we have not the very man, the man-in-man who is 
woman too, dethroned and mind, or ‘aggregates ’ substituted; 
we have ' the woman ’ who grows, ‘ the woman ’ who wins 
the essential, the better ! What lost opportunities does not 
the Saying reveal ! 

5, The Six Nulfaia Places. — A word more, in continuance 
of what I put forward in my introductory note to volume 
three, on Sayings beginning, not in the usual way, but 
with just Samtthl nidunayj. AMiat I have to say would come 
better in the next, the last volume, but I would say it while 
I can. 

Siivatthi is not the only ‘ nidaiia ’ in the Kindred Sayings. 
There are in all six such institutions or repositories, and there 
are references to them at the beginning of eighty-live Sayings. 
They occur in this proportion : 


Buddhaghosa equates them, E.rpositor i, 217. 



XV 


lntrodv£tory Notes 

Savatthi nidanaq: in vol. i, 25 times. 

!) )) ^ )J 

?) )) )> m> 3) 

)j j) )j IV j 8 

„ „ „ V, 35 „ =71 times 

Rajagaha nidanag : „ i, once. 

Saketa „ ,, v, twice. 

Benares „ „ ii, 3 times. 

Kapilavatthu ,, ,, v, 6 ,, 

Pa taliputta (Patna) „ v, twice =14 times. 

I give these places and numbers (without revising the 
latter), not to build upon them any premature theorizing, 
but to facilitate future research in the matter of how and 
where and when the Sayings were collected and edited. 
Mr. Woodward has here rendered nidma by ‘ occasion ’ 
(p. 23). The more usual commentarial term is uppatti. 
But nidma appears to be so used by Dhammapala in his 
Udana Commentary, edited recently by Mr. Woodward, and 
on the other hand I have no textual support for reading 
nidhdna. Let it lie awhile. I do not yet relinquish the belief 
that nidcina here refers to the source of the deposited^ and 
transmitted record (whatever the form it bore when the 
Mkaya was finally compiled), and not to the original scene of 
the original utterance, dleanwhile it is of interest to note 
that Patna nidana is found only in the fifth volume. In 
Dialogues ii, 92, we are shown Patna as a village with all its 
future as a metropolis before it. 

I set out to be very brief, and lo ! the many words. This 
one w’ord more: — great is our debt to the labourer, gifted, 
genial, patient, accurate, trustworthy, who has here placed 
within mu reach more knowledge about that old-world move- 
ment, concerning which many knowing very little, have written 
much. Great will one day prove to he his merit ! 

C. A. F. RHYS DAVIDS. 

Chtpstead, 

September, 1927. 

^ Cf. K.S. ii, 203: 'Nidana is a kUruna in that it stores up (nideli) 
the result, then as if saying ‘'here, take it !" makes it go.’ Com- 
mentary on the Sutta ' Nidana,' S. ii, XTth 2, § 12. 




TRANSLATOR’S NOTE 

I AM indebted to Mrs. Rbys Davids for her valuable intro- 
duction to this volume, apart from which I have nothing to 
add here. In addition to this, she has kindly given me several 
suggestions and references which will be foimd in the notes. 
I should like to mention how useful I have foimd the new 
Pali Dictionary, published by the Pali Text Society, and to 
welcome the first part of Volume I (A-ajja) of A Critical Pali 
Dictionary, begun by V. Trenckner, revised, continued, and 
edited by Professor Dines Andersen and Helmer Smith. 

F. L. WOODWARD. 

West Tam as, Tasmania, 1927. 


xvu 




CONTENTS 


THE SALlYATANA BOOK 
{Salayatana Vagya) 

Part I 

' II.VPTiK I'AOE 

XXXV. THE KIXDRED SAVIXGS ON THE SIXFOLD SPHERE 

or sense: 

I. THE FIRST FIFTY SUTTAS: 

1. Impermanence - - - - i 

2. The Pairs .... 4 

3. The All 8 

4. Quality of Rebirth - - - 14 

5. Impermanence {repeated) - - - 14 

II. THE SECOND FIFTY SUTTAS.’ 

1. Ignorance - - - - - 15 

2. Migajala - - - - 16 

3. The Sick Man - - - - 23 

4. Channa and Others - - - 28 

5. The Six - .... 40 

III. THE THIRD FIFTY SUTTAS: 

1. On M’ inning Security - - - 51 

2. Worldly Sensual Elements - . 56 

3. The Housefathers - - - 66 

4. At Devadaha - - - - 80 

5. New and Old - - - - 85 

IV, THE FOURTH FIFTY SUTTAS: 

1. The Destruction of the Lure - - 91 

2. The Sixty Summaries - - - 93 

3. The Ocean - - - - 97 

4. The Snake .... 407 


SIX 



XX CwUents 

Part II 

CHAPTE.r. PAGE 

XXXVI. KIXDRED SAYINGS ABOUT FEELING: 

1. The Section with Verses - - 136 

2. On Solitude - - - - 115 

3. The Method of the Hundred and Eight - 154 

Part III 

XXXVII. KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT WOJLYSKIND: 

1. First Repetition - - - 162 

2. Second Repetition - - - 165 

3. The Fives - - - - - 165 

Part IV 

XXXVIII. KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT J.-IMBUKHADAKA - 170 

Part V 

XXXIX. KINDRED SAYINGS .ABOUT S.VJUNUAKA - 177 

P.ART VI 

XL. KINDRED SAYINGS .ABOUT MOGG.ALL.aNA - 179 

Part VII 

XLI. KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT CITTA - - 190 

Part VIII 

XLII. KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT HE.ADiIEN - - 213 

Part IX 

XLIII. KINDRED S.AA'INGS ABOUT THE U’NCOAIPOUNDED 256 

Part X 

XLIV. KIXDRED SAVINGS ABOUT THE UNREVEALED - 265 

indexes: 

I. GENERAL - - - - - 284 

II. CHIEF PALI WORDS IN NOTES - - - 292 

III. TITLES OF THE SAYINGS - - - 296 

APPENDIX 298 



THE BOOK 

OF THE KINDRED SAYINGS 

(SA^YUTTA NIK AY A) 


PART IV 

THK BOOK CALLED THE ‘ SALAYATAXA ’ - VAGGA 
CONTAINING KINDRED SAYINGS ON THE ‘ SIX- 
FOLD SPHERE’ OF SENSE AND OTHER SUBJECTS 

PART I [CHAPTER XXXV] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ON THE SIXFOLD SPHERE OF 

SENSE 

§ I.— ‘ THE FIRST FIFTY ’ SUTTAS 
L TrfE First Chapter ox Impermanexce 
§ 1 (1). Impermanent (i): the personal^ 

Thus have I heard : — The Exalted One was once staying near 
SavatthI, at Jeta Grove, in Anathapindika’s Park. Then 
the Exalted One addressed the brethren, saying: — ‘ Brethren.’ 

‘ Lord,’ responded those brethren to the Exalted One. 

The Exalted One thus spake: — ‘The eye,^ brethren, is 
impermanent. What is impermanent, that is 111.^ VTiat is 

1 Ajjhattatj, lit. ' what refers to self,’ personal, interior, as opposed 
to bdhiratj, external or objective. 

^ ‘There are two eyes: the eje of cognition (iidna) and the eye of 
the flesh (may’^a). The eye of cognition is fivefold, to wit : the Buddha 
eye, the Norm eye, the all-seeing eye, the divine eye and the wisdom 
eye. . . . The eye of the flesh is twofold: that composed of the 
elements {sasambhdra) and that of the sensitive surface (pasnda).' 
(Buddhaghosa’s Commentary on Sayyuita Sikdya, called Sdmtiha 
Pakdsinl, an edition of which I am now preparing. — F. L. W.) 

^ Cf. K.S. iii, 21 n.. and Buddhist Psyrholoyy (Mrs. Rhys Davids), 
2nd ed., chap. 4. 


IV 


1 



2 The Salayatana Boole [text iv, 2 

111, that is void of the self. 'W'liat is void of the self, that is 
not niiue: I am not it: it is not niy self. That is how it is 
to be regarded with perfect insight of what it really is. 

The ear is impermanent. MTiat is impermanent, that is 111. 
IITiat is 111, that is void of the self. . . . The nose, . . . the 
tongue, . . . the body, . . . the mind is impermanent. lyhat 
is impermanent, that is 111. WTiat is 111, that is void of the 
self. IITiat is void of the self, that is not mine : I am not it : 
it is not my self. That is how it is to be regarded with perfect 
insight of what it really is. So seeing, brethren, the well- 
taught Ariyan disciple is repelled by eye, ear, nose, tongue, 
body, and mind. Being repelled by them, he lusts not for 
them. Kot lusting, he is set free. In this freedom comes 
insight of being free. Thus he realizes : — ‘ Eebirth is destroyed, 
lived is the righteous life, done is the task, for life in these 
conditions there is no hereafter.’^ 

§ 2 (2). Ill (i): the personal. 

The eye, brethren, is 111. What is 111, that is void of the 
self. WTiat is void of the self, that is not mine: I am not 
it : it is not my self ... (as before) . , . there is no hereafter. 

§ 3 (3). Void of the self (i) : the personal. 

The eye, brethren, is void of the self. What is void of the 
self, that is not mine . . . (as before) . . . there is no here- 
after. 

§ 4 (4). Impermanent (ii): the external. 

Objects,^ brethren, are impermanent. IVhat is imper- 
manent, that is 111. BTiat is 111, that is void of the self. 
I\Tiat is void of the self, that is not mine . . . (as before). . . . 
Sounds, scents, savours, thiugs tangible are impermanent. . . . 
Mind-states^ are impermanent. . . . MTiat is impermanent, 
that is 111. . . . That is how it is to be regarded by perfect 
insight of what it really is. 

1 Vf. K.S. iii. 20 and n. *. 

- liripd here means ‘ things seen.’ Cf. K.S. ii, 75, 97. 

^ JJJmmmd. Tehhumahi-dhammdrammanay — ‘base for the thought 
in the three worlds.’ Corny. 



3 


XXXV, i, § 9] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

So seeing, brethren, the well-taiight Ariyau disciple is 
repelled by bodies, by sounds, scents, savours, things tangible. 
He is repelled by mind-states. Being repelled by them, he 
lusts not for them. Not lusting, he is set free. In this 
freedom comes insight of being free. Thus he realizes: 

‘ Eebirth is destroyed. Lived is the righteous life, done is 
the task, for life in these conditions there is no hereafter.’ 

§ 5 (5). Ill (ii): the external. 

Objects, brethren, are 111 . . . sounds, scents, savours, 
things tangible . . . mind-states are 111 . . . {as before) . . . 

‘ there is no hereafter.’ 

§ G (6). Void of the self (ii); the external. 

Objects, brethren, are void of the self . . . {as in § 3). 

§ 7 (7). Impernianent (iii): the personal. 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent, both in the past and 
in the future,^ not to speak of the present. So seeing, 
brethren, the well-taught Ariyan disciple cares not for an 
eye that is past, is not in love with an eye to be, and, for the 
present eye, seeks to be repelled by it, seeks dispassion for 
it, seeks the ceasing of it. So also with the ear, the nose, 
the tongue, the body. . . 

The mind is impernianent, both in the past and in the future, 
not to speak of the present . . . {as before) . . . seeks the 
ceasing of it. 

§ 8 (8). Ill (iii): the personal. 

The eye, brethren, is 111, both in the past and in the future, 
not to speak of the present. So seeing . . . The mind is 111 
. . . seeks the ceasing of it. 

§ 9 (9). Void of the self (iii): the external. 

The eye . . . tongue . . . body . . . mind is void of the 
self . . . {as before). 


r Cf. K.S. iii. IS. 


- Here kaya. 



4 


T}ie Salayatana Book 


[text iv, 6 


§ 10 (10). Impermanent (iv); the external. 

Objects . . . sounds . . . scents . . . savours . . . things 
tangible . . . mind-states are 111. (The same for lb, § 11.) 

§ 12 (12). Void of the self: the external. 

Objects, brethren, are void of the self, both in the past and 
in the futiue. . . . Sounds, scents, savours, things tangible, 
mind-states are void of the self. ... So seeing, the . . . 
{as before).' 


2. The Second Chapter on the Pairs^ 

§ 13 (1). By enlightenment. 

At Savatthl. . . . Then the Exalted One said : — 

‘ Before my enlightenment, brethren, while I was yet un- 
enlightened and a Bodhisat, I had this thought:^ Now what 
is the satisfaction, what is the misery of the eye ? What is 
the way of escape from the eye ? . . . likewise from the 
ear . . . nose . . . tongue . . . body . . . what is the satis- 
faction, what the misery, what the way of escape from mind ? 

Then, brethren, I thought thus; That ease, that pleasure 
that arises owing to the eye, — that is the satisfaction of the 
eye. That impermanence, that ill, that instability which is 
the eye, — that is the misery of the eye. That restraint of 
desire and lust, that renouncing of desire and lust which are 
in the eye, — that is the way of escape from the eye. 

Likewise, that ease, that pleasiue which arises from the 
tongue . . . and the rest, which arises from the mind, — that 
is the satisfaction of the mind. That impermanence, that 111, 
that instability which is in the mind, — that is the misery of 
the mind. That restraint of desire and lust, that renouncing 
of desire and lust which are in the mind, — that is the way of 
escape from the mind. 

1 Yamaka-vagga. There are two sayings on each subject in this 
.section. 

2 Sainbodhena. Of. Dialogues, i, 193 v. 



5 


XXXV, ii, § 15] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

Now so long, brethren, as I did not thoroughly imderstand, 
as they really are, the satisfaction of this sixfold external ^ 
sphere of sense as such, the misery of it as such, the way of 
escape from it as such, — so long, brethren, was I doubtful 
whether I was enlightened with that supreme enlightenment, 
unsurpassed in the world with its devas, its Maras, its Brahmas, 
among the host of recluses and brahmins and of devas and 
men. 

Then indeed the knowledge arose in me and insight arose 
in me: ‘ Sure is my release. This is my last birth. There is 
no more rebirth for me now.’ 

§ 14 (2). By enlightenment (ii). 

{The same as before for objects, sounds, scents, savours, 
tangibles and mind-states, regarded as externals.) 

§ 15 (3). By satisfaction.^ 

Brethren, I practised the search after the satisfaction 
which is in the eye, and to this conclusion I came: ‘ In so far 
as there is satisfaction of the eye, that by insight have I 
rightly seen.’ 

Brethren, I practised the search after the misery which is 
in the eye, and to this conclusion I came: ‘ In so far as there 
is misery of the eye, that by insight have I rightly seen.’ 

Brethren, I practised the search after the way of escape 
from the eye, and to this conclusion I came: ‘ In so far as 
there is a way of escape from the eye, that by insight have 
I rightly seen.’ 

Likewise as regards ear, nose, tongue, body and mind I 
practised the search after the satisfaction, the misery of them, 
the way of escape from them, and to this conclusion I came: 
‘ In so far as . . .’ 

^ Cf. K.S. iii, 27. Here Corny, likens the personal passions to the 
inside of a house, the externals to the approach to it. tV'hen the house 
is full of ehihlren, wives, wealth, grain, etc., and the passions are very 
strong, they allow of no approach to anyone. Even if they hear the 
rattle of a pot, they ask, ‘ IMiat is that ?’ 

2 K.S. iii, 28. 



6 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 9 

So long, brethren, as I did not thoroughly understand, as 
they really are, the satisfaction, the misery, the way of escape 
from them as such, so long was I doubtful . . . devas and 
men. But as soon as I understood ... I knew for certain 
. . . devas and men. 

Then indeed the knowledge arose in me . . . ‘ there is no 
more rebirth for me now.’ 

§ 16 (1). By satisfaction (ii). 

{The same for bodies, etc., and mind-states). 

§ 17 (5). Without satisfaction (i).^ 

Brethren, if there were not this satisfaction which comes 
from the eye, beings would not lust after the eye. But inas- 
much as there is satisfaction in the eye, therefore beings lust 
after it. 

If misery, brethren, pertained not to the eye, beings would 
not be repelled by the eye. But inasmuch as there is misery 
in the eye, beings are rejielled by it. 

If there were no way of escape from the eye, beings could 
not escape from it. But inasmuch as there is a way of escape 
from it, beings do escape. 

So likewise with regard to the satisfaction, the misery, the 
way of escape from the ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. . . . 
But inasmuch as there is a way of escape from the mind, 
therefore beings do escape from it. 

So long, brethren, as beings have not understood, as they 
really are, the satisfaction as such, the misery as such, the 
way of escape as such, in this sixfold personal sphere of sense, 
so long, brethren, beings have not remained aloof, detached, 
separated, with the barriers to the mind- done away with, 
nor have the world and its devas, its Maras, its Brahmas, 
nor the host of recluses and brahmins, of devas and mankind. 

1 < /. K.S. iii. 2i>. 

- ( iiiiiini/tiiti-hik'nfi cehiv'i. Jliirii/dilii is a dyke or boimdary. so a 
check or liiudrance. Anethas or adepts, says ('(imy.. live free from 
these baiTicr.s. Cf. Pt^. ii., 206; I'J/. a»6; VdA. 186. 



7 


XXXV, ii, § 2i] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

But so soon, brethren, as beings thoroughly understand, 
as they really are, the satisfaction as such, the misery as such, 
the way of escape as such, in this sixfold personal sphere of 
sense, — then, brethren, beings and the world, with its devas 
. . . do remain aloof, detached, separated, with the barriers 
of mind done away with. 

§ 18 (6). Without satisfaction (ii). 

{The same for bodies, etc., and mind-states.) 

§ 19 (7). By taking delight in (i). 

Wlioso, brethren, takes delight in the eye, takes delight 
in 111. AlTioso takes delight in 111, is not released from 111, 
I declare. Whoso takes delight in the tongue ... in the 
mind, takes delight in 111, I declare. kWroso delights in 111, 
is not released from 111, I declare. But whoso takes not delight 
in the eye, in the tongue ... in mind, — he takes not delight 
in 111, and he who takes not delight in 111 is released from 111, 
so I declare. 


§ 20 (8). By taking delight in (ii). 

{The same as the above for objects, sounds, scents, savours, 
tangibles and mind-states.) 

§ 21 (9) By the uprising (i).^ 

That, brethren, which is the uprising, the persisting, the 
rebirth, the manifestation of objects, — that is the uprising 
of 111, the persisting of diseases, the manifestation of decay 
and death. 

So also with regard to sounds, scents, savours and tan- 
gibles. . . . 

That which is the uprising, the persisting, the rebirth, the 
manifestation of mind-states, — that is the uprising of 111, the 
persisting of diseases, the manifestation of decay and death. 

But that, brethren, which is the ceasing, the quelling, the 


1 Cf. K.S.iu,30. 



8 


The Salayaia^ia Book [text iv, 14 

goiDg out of objects, — that is the ceasing of 111, the quelling 
of diseases, the going out of decay and death. 

So also ■ft’ith regard to sounds, scents, savours and tan- 
gibles. . , . 

That which is the ceasing, the quelling, the going out of 
mind-states, — that is the ceasing of III, the quelling of 
diseases, the going out of decay and death. 

§ 22 (10). By the uprising (ii). 
some/or objects, sounds, . . . mind-states.)’ 


3. The Chapter on the All 

§ 23 (1). The all} 

At Savatthl. . . . Then the Exalted One said: — 

‘ Brethren, I will teach you the all. Do you listen to it. 

And what, brethren, is the all ? It is eye and object, ear 
and sound, nose and scent, tongue and savour, body and 
things tangible, mind and mind-states. That, brethren, is 
called ‘ the all.’ 

MTioso, brethren, shoidd say: ‘Eejecting this all, I will 
proclaim another all, — it would be mere talk" on his part, 
and when questioned he could not make good his boast, and 
further would come to an ill pass. 'WTiy so ? Because, 
brethren, it would be beyond his scope® to do so.’ 

24 (2). Abandoning, 

I will show you a teaching, brethren, for the abandoning 

the all. Do ye listen to it. 

And what, brethren, is the teaching for the abandoning of 
the all ? 

1 See Buildh. Pstjrh.. 74; Pis. of Control-., 8.5 n. At K.S. ii, 52, sabbaij 
means ‘ tlie universe ’ (.a.s existing in reality). 

\ dra-ral/hn. ‘ l>ase(l on talk.’ Viicdija rnttnbha vntihu-mattalani 
evn, hluii'eyyn. Cotny. 

^ He might just as well try to lift a roof-pinnacle cn his head, or 
ford a deep water, or pull down sun and moon.’ Corny. 



9 


XXXV, iii, § 26] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

The eye, brethren, must be abandoned, objects must be 
abandoned, eye-consciousness . . . eye-contact must be 
abandoned. That weal or woe or neutral state experienced 
which arises owing to eye-contact, — that also must be 
abandoned. 

The tongue must be abandoned . . . savours . . . tongue- 
consciousness . . . tongue-contact must be abandoned. That 
weal or woe or neutral state experienced, which arises owing 
to tongue-contact, — that also must be abandoned. 

Mind must be abandoned, mind-states, mind-consciousness, 
mind contact must be abandoned. That weal or woe . . . 
which arises owing to mind contact, — that also must be 
abandoned. 

This, brethren, is the teaching for the abandoning of the all.^ 
§ 25 (3). Abandoning (ii). 

I will teach you a teaching, brethren, for the abandoning 
of the all by fully knowing, by comprehending it. Do ye 
listen to it. And what, brethren, is that teaching ? 

The eye, brethren, must be abandoned by fully knowing, 
by comprehending it. Objects . . . eye-consciousness . . . 
eye-contact . . . that weal or woe or neutral state . . . that 
also must be abandoned by fully knowing, by compre- 
hending it. 

The tongue . . . savours and the rest . . . that weal or 
woe . . . which arises owing to mind-contact, — that also 
must be abandoned by fully knowing it, by comprehending it. 

§ 26 (4). Comprehension (i).^ 

Without fully knowing, without comprehending the all, 
brethren, without detaching himself from, without abandon- 
ing the all, a man is incapable of extinguishing 111. 

Without fully knowing, -without comprehending, without 
detaching himself from, without abandoning what (all) is a 
man incapable of extinguishing 111 ? 

1 Cf. S. V, 3(>4. Sabbatthn-gamini-palipuda. 

^ ('f. Pis. of Control'., 117 and n. The three parinnCi, says Com;/., 
are here referred to. 



10 The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 19 

It is by not fully knowing the eye . . . the tongue . . . 
that a man is incapable of extinguishing 111. This is the all, 
brethren, without fully knowing which ... a man is so 
incapable. 

But by fully knowing, by comprehending, by detaching 
himself from, by abandoning the all, one is capable of extin- 
guishing 111.’ 

{The scmie is repeated ivithout the negative, together with the 
last sentence, for § 27.) 

§ 28 (6). On fire. 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Gaya on Gaya 
Head^ with a thousand brethren. 

Then the Exalted One said to the brethren: ‘Brethren, 
the all is on fire. What all, brethren, is on fire ? 

The eye, brethren, is on fire, objects are on fire, eye- 
consciousness . . . eye-contact . . . that weal or woe or 
neutral state experienced, which arises owing to eye-contact, — 
that also is on fire. On fire with what ? On fire with the 
blaze of lust, the blaze of ill-will, the blaze of infatuation, the 
blaze of birth, decay and death, sorrow and grief, woe, lamenta- 
tion and despair. So I declare. 

The tongue is on fire, tongue-consciousness. . . . The 
mind is on fire, mind-states . . . mind-consciousness. . . . 
So I declare. 

So seeing, brethren, the well-taught Ariyan disciple is 
repelled by the eye, is repelled by objects, by eye-conscious- 
ness, by that weal or woe ... by mind, by mind-conscious- 
ness {as before). . . . Being repelled by it, he lusts not for 
it. Xot lusting he is set free. In this freedom comes insight 
that it is a being free. Thus he realizes ; “ Eebirth is destroyed, 
lived is the righteous life, done is the task. For life in these 
conditions there is no hereafter.” ’ 

Thus spake the Exalted One, and those brethren were 
pleased at the words, of the Exalted One and welcomed them. 

1 r/rt.i.:U. Thi.s is tlie third recorded address of Gotama. His little 
band of follow-teachers was now expanded and constituted as a nionk- 
eommunity. ( '/. Psalms of the Prethren, 207; Klip.\. i, 2o2; PyA. 19. 



11 


XXXV, iii, § 30] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

And when the teaching was thus expounded the hearts 
of those thousand brethren weie utterly set free from the 
asavas. 

§ 29 (7). Afflictedd 

Thus have I heard: Once the Exalted One was staying near 
Eajagoha, in Bamboo Grove, at the Squirrels" Feeding-ground. 

Then the Exalted One said to the brethren: ‘ Brethren, the 
all is afflicted. MTiat all, brethren, is afflicted ? 

The eye, brethren, objects . . . eye-consciousness {as above). 
. . . With what ? With birth, decay and death, sorrow and 
grief, woe, lamentation and despair. So I declare. 

Tongue is afflicted, savoms . . . body . . . mind. ... So 
seeing, the well-taught Ariyan disciple . . .’ 

§ 30 (8). Proper. 

I will show you, brethren, the proper way of approach to 
the uprooting of all conceits.'” Do ye listen to it carefully. 
Apply your minds and I will speak. 

And what, brethren, is the proper way of approach to the 
uprooting of all conceits ? 

Here,® brethren, a brother has no conceits of being the 
eye or in the eye or coming from the eye. He imagines not: 
I have an eye. He has no conceits of objects ... of eye- 
consciousness . . . eye-contact. "Whatever weal or woo or 
neutral state arises, experienced through eye-contact,- — he 
has no conceit of being that, or in that or coming from that, 
thinking: That is mine. 

So also as regards tongue . . . .savours . . . mind . . . 
mind-states and the rest, thinking: That is mine. He has 
no conceit of being the all or in the all or coming from the 
all. He thinks not: The all is mine. 

Thus having no conceits he grasps at nothing in the world. 
Being free from grasping he is not troubled. Being untroubled 

^ Reading Aih/'ia-Bhula,/ witli MS8.. for tnifUia — rf text. 

- iSahba-iiiunnita-. generally given as nine in number, such as ‘ I am, ' 
‘I am not,’ 'this is mine.’ etc. (f. K.,S. lii, 7.5 j(/'. and i)ifr<t. § 1)0. 
Com I/, says tanha-dilflii. The section is repeated at § 00. 

^ Idha=imaaiiiiy anaane. ' in the Buddha-rule.’ Corny. 



12 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 23 

he is by himself set free.^ Thus he realizes, ‘ Rebirth is 
destroyed, lived is the righteous life, done is the task. For 
life in these conditions there is no hereafter.’ 

This, brethren, is the proper approach to the uprooting of 
all conceits. 

§ 31 (9). Helpful^ (i). 

I will show you, brethren, a way that is helpful for uprooting 
all conceits. Do ye listen to it. What is that way ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother has no conceit of the eye . . . 
{as above). . . . He thinks not: That is mine. Whatever 
conceit one has, brethren, and by whatsoever means and in 
whatsoever way. in thinking: It is mine,- — therein is in- 
stability. The world delights in becoming because it is based 
on change, because it is entangled in becoming.® 

So also of tongue . . . savours . . . mind . . . because it 
is entangled in being. 

So far as there is ‘aggregate,’ (or) ‘condition,’ for) 

‘ sphere,’^ a brother has no conceit of being that, or in or 
from that, — no conceit of: That is mine. Thus having no 
conceits he grasps at nothing in the world. Not grasping 
he is not troubled. Not being troubled he himself is by 
himself set free: so that he realizes ... ‘for life in these 
conditions there is no hereafter.’ 

This, brethren, is the way helpful for the uprooting of all 
conceits. 

§ 32 (10). Helpful (ii). 

I will show you a way, brethren, that is helpful for the 
uprooting of all conceits. Do ye listen to it. And what, 
brethren, is that way ? 


'■ Paecattaij yeva parinibbdyali. Cf. K.S. iii, 17. 

- Sappaya. Cf. infra, §§ 146-9. 

^ Blmm-mtto. Corny, explainfs mtto exegetkujhj Wms-. hlmvesu laggo 
higgito palibiiddho ayay loko blmray yem ahhinandnti : ‘hanging, hung 
on to rebirths, this world delights in rebirth (lit. ‘hccnming’). Satio 
means (a) having being, (b) alt.aohed to. 

'* The basis of birth of the jxinra-ldhiuidhn (hvefold personality) is 
the eighteen dMhis (physical elements) and the twelve nyalanas (spheres 
of sense). Read ‘ Ihandla-dkdtu-aialanatj.’ Cf. Ps-s. Si 'ers, ver. 73. 



XXXV, iii, § 32 ] Kitidred Sayings on Sense 13 

Now what think ye, brethren ? Is the eye permanent or 
impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ What is impermanent, is that weal or woe V 
‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent, woeful, by nature changeable, — 
is it fitting to regard that as “ This is mine. This am I. 
This is my self ” ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Objects . . . eye-consciousness, eye-contact, — is that per- 
manent or impermanent V 
‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ That weal or woe or neutral state experienced, that 
arises from eye-contact, — is that permanent or imperma- 
nent ?’ 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ What is impermanent, is that weal or woe V 
‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent, woeful, by nature changeable, — 
is it fitting to regard that as: “ This is mine. This am I. 
This is my self ” V 
‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Is the tongue permanent or impermanent V 
‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ Is savour, tongue-consciousness, tongue-contact ... Is 
that weal or woe or neutral state arising . . . permanent or 
impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ So also of mind, mind-states, mind-consciousness, mind- 
contact, the weal or woe or neutral state arising therefrom.— 
is that permanent or impermanent ?’ 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ What is impermanent, is that weal or woe V 
‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ Then, of what is impermanent, woeful and by nature 
changeable, is it fitting to regard that as: “This is mine. 
This am I. This is my self ” ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 



14 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 26 

‘ So seeing, bretliren, tlie well-taxiglit Ariyan disciple . . . 
(as before) . . . there is no hereafter.” 

This, brethren, is that way that is helpful for the rooting out 
of all conceits.’ 


4. The Chapter on Quality of Rebirth^ 

§ 33 (1). Birth. 

At Savatthi. . . . Then the Exalted One said to the 
brethren : — 

‘ The all, brethren, is subject to rebirth.^ IVhat all ? The 
eye, bretliren, is subject to rebirth: objects . . . mind (as 
before). ... So seeing the well-taught Ariyan disciple is 
repelled by eye ... so that he realizes “ There is no here- 
after.” ’ 

§§ 34-4-2 (2-10). 

(The same is said of age, sickness, death, sorrow, impurity, 
dissolution, growing old, uprising and ceasing to be.) 


5. The Chapter on Impermanence 
§§ 43-53 (1-10). 

(The same is repeated for The all a.s impermanent, woeful, 
void of self, to be fully known, comprehended, abandoned, 
realized, to be comprehended by full knowledge, as oppressed 
and afflicted.) 

1 JCitidhainiiio : — dliainma=]iu\ iiig the quality of, the rule of; hence 
‘subject to,' ■ liable to.’ 

Supra, p. 1 1, n. 3. For the Atniaij-view of the Hindus see Deussen, 
Philosophy of the V^xtnidiads (the Atman and the organs), p. 205. 
Comy.'s comment on ‘the all’ evidently refers to that view. 



IL— THE ‘ SECOND FIFTY ’ SUTTAS 


1. The Chapter on Ignorance 

§ 53 (1). Ignorance. 

Then a certain brother came to the Exalted One, and on 
coming to him saluted him and sat down at one side. So 
seated that brother said this ; 

‘ By how knowing, lord, by how seeing does ignorance 
vanish and knowledge arise V 

‘ In him that knows and sees the eye as impermanent, 
brother, ignorance vanishes and knowledge arises. In him 
that knows and sees objects . . . and the rest, as imper- 
manent, ignorance vanishes and knowledge arises.’ 

§ 54 (2). Fetters (i). 

{The above repeated for The fetters are abandoned.) 

§ 55 (3). Fetters (ii). 

... ‘ By how knowing, lord, by how seeing do the fetters 
come to be uprooted V 

‘ By knowing, by seeing, brother, the eye as void of the 
self.’ 

§§ 56-7 (4-5). The dsavas (i-ii). 

. . . ‘ By how knowing, lord, by how seeing do the asavas 
come to be abandoned . . . and uprooted V 

{The reply is the same as before.) 

§§ 58-59 (6-7). Lurking tendency (i-ii). 

{The same question and answer as before for Abandoning 
and uprooting.) 



16 


The Sal^dyatana Booh 


[TEXT iv, 32 


§ GO (8). Comprehension. 

I will sliow you, bretlireu, a teaching for the comprehension 
of all attachment. Listen to it. What is that teaching ? 

Dependent on the eye and object arises eye-consciousness. 
The union of these three is contact. Dependent on contact 
is feeling. So seeing, the well-taught Ariyan disciple is 
repelled by the eye, by objects, by eye-consciousness, by 
eye-contact, and by feeling. Being repelled by them he lusts 
not for them. Not lusting he is set free. By freedom he 
realizes ‘ Attachment has been comprehended by me.’ 

Dependent on ear and sounds arises ear-consciousness. . . . 
Dependent on nose and scents arises the sense of smell. 
Dependent on tongue and savours arises the sense of 
taste. Dependent on body and tangibles arises the sense 
of touch. Dependent on mind and mind-states arises mind- 
consciousness. The union of these three is contact. De- 
pendent on contact is feeling. 

So seeing, the well-taught Ariyan disciple . . . realizes 
‘ Attachment has been comprehended by me.’ 

This, brethren, is the teaching for the comprehension of all 
attichment. 

§ 61 (9). Exhausting (i). 

(Thx same for The exhausting of all attachment.) 

§ 62 (10). Exhausting (ii). 

{The same as § 32, substituting ‘ exhausting attachment ’for 
' uprooting all conceits ’). 

2 . The Chapter on Migajala 
§ 63 (1). Bg Migajala} (i). 

At Savatthi was the occasion^ (for this discourse). . . . 

Then the venerable Migajala came to the Exalted One. , . . 
Seated at one side he thus addressed the Exalted One : — 

1 Lit. ‘ huntmg-net.’ This brother, or one of the same name, is 
found in Psalms of the Brethren, p. 216 (Theragatha, ccxvii). He was 
a son of the famous patroness of the Order, Visakha. was ordained and 
Ixicame Arahant. 

2 Niblnn. 



17 


XXXV, II, 2, § 63] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

‘ “ Dwelling alone ! Dwelling alone !” lord, is the saying. 
Pray, lord, to what extent is one a dweller alone, and to what 
extent is one a dweller with a mate 

‘ There are, Migajala, objects cognizable by the eye, objects 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. If a brother be enamoured of them,^ if he 
welcome them, if he persist in clinging to them, so enamoured, 
so persisting in clinging to them, there comes a lure upon 
him. Where there is a lure there is infatuation. WTiere there 
is infatuation there is bondage. Bound in the bondage of 
the lure, Migajala, a brother is called “ dweller with a 
mate.” . . . 

There are, Migajala, savours cognizable by the tongue . . . 
there are mind-states cognizable by the mind . . . inciting to 
lust. If a brother be enamoured of them . . . there comes 
a lure upon him. Where there is a lure, there is bondage. . . . 
Bound with the bondage of the lure, Migajala, a brother is 
called “ dweller with a mate.” 

A brother so dwelling, Jligajala, though he frequent jungle 
glades, hermitages and lodgings in the forest, remote from 
sound, remote from uproar, free from the breath of crowds,® 
where one lodges far from human kind, places meet for soli- 
tude, — yet is he called “ dweller with a mate.” 

Why so ? Craving is the mate he has not left behind. 
Therefore is he called “ dweller with a mate.” 

But, Migajala, there are objects cognizable by the eye, 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. If a brother be not enamoured of them, 
welcome them not, persist not in clinging to them, in him not 
so enamoured of them, not welcoming them, not so persisting 
in clinging to them, the lure fades away. MTiere there is no 
lure, there is no infatuation. 'Where there is no infatuation, 


1 Sadutiya, ‘ with a second ’ is often used as here of one's attendant 
craving. Cf. K.S. i, 36-6 n., and below, § 88. 

K.S. iii, 15. This section is partly repeated to Punna at § 88. 

^ Pantdni. Cf. 31. i, 16. Vi-jatta-vdtdni. Cf. Vin. ii, 158; l';6/i.-l. 
251, 366; V.3I. 72. Corny, says saysuratia-janas.sa sanravdtavirahiWini 
(free of the emanations of a crowd). 


IV 



18 The Salayotnna Booh [text iv, 37 

there is no bondage. Freed from the bondage of the lure, 
Migajala, a brother is called “ dweller alone.” 

So also with regard to savours cognizable by the tongue, 
and mind-states cognizable by mind. . . . 

Thus dwelling, Migajala, a brother, though he dwell amid 
a village crowded with brethren and sisters, with lay-brethren 
and lay-sisters, with rajahs and royal ministers, with sec- 
tarians and their followers, — yet is he called “ dweller alone.” 
MTiy so ? Craving is the mate he has left behind. Therefore 
is he called “ dweller alone.” ’ 


§ 64 (2). Migajala (ii). 

. . . Then the venerable Migajala came to the Exalted One. 
. . . Seated at one side the venerable Migajala said to the 
Exalted One: — 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the Exalted One should teach me 
a teaching in brief, hearing which I might dwell solitary, 
secluded, zealous, ardent and aspiring.’ 

‘ There are objects, Migajala, cognizable by the eye, desir- 
able, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, inciting 
to lust. If a brother be enamoured of them, welcome them, 
persist in clinging to them, so enamoured, so welcoming, so 
persisting in clinging, there comes a here upon him. The 
arising of the Uu-e, Migajala, is the arising of 111, so I declare. 

There are, Migajala, savours cognizable by the tongue . . . 
mind-states cognizable by the mind. . . . 

There are objects, Migajala, cognizable by the eye . . . 
savours cognizable by the tongue . . . mind-states cognizable 
by the mind . . . inciting to lust. If a brother be not 
enamoured of them . . . the lure fades away. The fading 
away of the lure, Migajala, is the fading away of 111, so I 
declare.’ 

Thereupon the venerable Migajala welcomed the words of the 
Exalted One, and took delight in them, rose from his seat, 
saluted the Exalted One by the right and went away. 

Thereafter the venerable IMigajala, dwelling solitary, se- 
cluded, zealous, ardent and aspiring, in no long time attained 



19 


XXXV, 11, 2, § 65] Kindred Sayings an Sense 

that goal for which the clansmen rightly leave home for the 
homeless life, even that unrivalled goal of righteous living: 
attained it even in that very life, and knowing it for himself, 
realizing it for himself, abode therein, so that he came to know : 
‘ Destroyed is rebirth, lived is the righteous life, done is the 
task. For life in these conditions there is no hereafter.’ 

And the venerable Migajala was yet another of the Axahants. 

§ 65 (.3). Samiddhi (i). 

Once the Exalted One was .staying near Kajagaha, in 
Bamboo Grove, at the Squirrels’ Feeding-ground. Then the 
venerable Samiddhi^ came to the Exalted One and thus 
addressed him : — 

‘ “ Mara ! Mara !” is the saying, lord. Pray, lord, to what 
extent is there Mara^ or the symptoms® of ilara ? ’ 

‘ 'Where there is eye, Samiddhi, objects, eye-consciousness, 
and things cognizable by the eye, there is Mara and his 
symptoms. 

There is ear-, nose-, tongue- and body-consciousness, there 
is mind, mind-states, mind-consciousne.ss and things cognizable 
by mind-consciousness. There is Mara and the symptoms 
of Mara. 

But where there is no eye, no objects, no eye-consciousness 
or things cognizable by the eye-consciousiiess, there, Samiddhi. 
there is no Mara or symptoms of Mara. 

The same is to be said of the tongue, savours, tongue- 
consciousness and things cognizable by tongue-consciousness 
. . . and so on. 

AVhere there is no mind, no mind-states, no mind-conscious- 
ness, no things cognizable thereby, there is no Mara or symp- 
toms of Mara.’ 

1 Cf. K.S. i, It, ItS; ^ vf the Brethren. ,'>1 ; Jdt. ii. No. 107 (Jut,, 

text ii, pp. 56 sxml ff.). The naiiio moans ' pro.spornns ' or ‘lucky.’ 
Ho was, says Corny., very beautiful, ‘like a flower that has just bloomed.’ 
His temptation by a demtd or nymph is described in the passage of 
■Jdtaha and S. i quoted. 

“ For Mara see K.S. iii, 1.7.5, 160. Mnranag. Corny. 

® Pa/Tiifdh', ‘ The realm of Mara.’ Corny. 



20 


The Salayatana Booh 


[text iv, 40 


§ 66 (4). Samiddhi (ii). 

. . . ‘ “ A being ! A being !” is the saying, lord. Pray, 
lord, to what extent is there a being or the symptoms of a 
being V 

{The same reply is given here and at §§ 61-8 for 111 and The 
world.)i 

§ 69. (7) Upasena. 

Once the venerable Sariputta and the venerable Upasena 
were staying near Rajagaha in Cool Grove, at Snakeshood 
Grotto.^ 

Now at that time a snake had fallen on the venerable 
Upasena’s body. Then the venerable Upasena called to the 
brethren, saying : ‘ Come hither, friends, lift this body of 
mine on to a couch and take it outside before it be scattered 
here and now, just like a handful of chaff.’ 

At these words the venerable Sariputta said to the venerable 
Upasena: ‘ But we see no change in the venerable Upasena’s 
body, no change for the worse in his faculties.’ 

Then the venerable Upasena repeated what he had said, 
adding: ‘ Friend Sariputta, he who should think, “ I am the 
eye,” “ The eye is mine,” or “ I am the tongue, the tongue is 
mine,” or “ I am the mind, the mind is mine,”— in him there 
would be a change in his body, there would be a change for 
the worse in his faculties. But I, friend, have no such ideas. 
How then could there be any change in my body, any change 
for the worse in my faculties V 

Now the venerable Upasena had long since quelled the 
lurking tendencies that make for ‘ I ’ and ‘ mine.’ Therefore 
the venerable Upasena had no such ideas as, ‘ I am the eye, the 

1 Loka. Liijjana 2xdujjanaOhena. Corny. (The usual commentarial 
derivation of the word, as meaning ‘ that which crumbles away.’) 

“ Sappa-sondihi-pabbMra. Cf. Vin. ii, 76; D. ii, 116. Corny, says 
it was shaped like a snake’s hood. Upasena was Sariputta’s younger 
brother. After his meal he was sitting in the shadow of the grotto, 
fanned by the gentle breeze, mending his outer robe. Two young 
snakes were sporting in the tendrils overhanging the cave. One fell 
on the elder’s shoulder. He was bitten and the venom spread rapidly 
through his body. 



XXXV, II, 2 , § 7 o] Kindred Sayings on Sense 21 

eye is mine,’ or ‘ I am the tongue, the tongue is mine,’ or 
‘ I am the mind, the mind is mine.’ 

So those brethren put the venerable Upasena’s body on a 
couch and bore it outside. And the venerable Upasena’s 
body there and then was scattered just like a handful of 
chaff. 

§ 70 (8). Upamm. 

Then the venerable Upavana^ came to see the Exalted 
One. . . . As he sat at one side he said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ “ Of immediate use is the Norm ! Of immediate use is the 
Norm !” is the saying, lord. Pray, lord, to what extent is 
the Norm of immediate use,^ apart from time, bidding one 
come and see, leading on (to the Goal), to be experienced, 
each for himself, by the wise V 

‘ Now here (under my teaching), Upavana, when a brother 
sees an object with the eye, he e.xperiences objects, conceives 
a passion for objects, and of that passion for objects which 
exists for him personally he is aware, “ I have personally a 
passion for objects.” Now, Upavana, in so far as a brother is 
thus aware of his personal passion for objects, I say the Norm 
is of immediate use, apart from time, bidding one come to see, 
leading on, to be experienced, each for himself, by the wise. 

Then again, Upavana ... as regards the sense organs . . . 
when he tastes a savour with the tongue, he experiences 
savours and conceives a passion for savoius and so forth. 
So also as regards mind ... a brother being conscious of a 
mind-state with mind experiences mind-states, conceives a 
passion forThem, and of that passion for mind-states which 
exists for him personally he is aware, “ I have personally a 
passion for mind-states.” Now in so far as he is thus aware 
of his personal passion for mind-states, I say the Norm is of 
immediate use. . . . 

But herein, Upavana, when a brother sees an object with 
the eye, he experiences objects, but he does not conceive a 

^ Cf. K.S. i, 220; S. v, 76. He was the personal attendant of the 
Buddha before Ananda. 

^ The well-known epithets of the Dhamma. Cf. S. i, 0; Dialoij., iii, 
10 II.; V.M. 215. Cf. K.S. i, 16; ‘a thing of the present ’ (sanditthiko). 



22 The SalayaUma Booh [text iv, 43 

passion for objects. As there is no passion for objects existing 
for him personally, he is aware, “ I have personally no passion 
for objects."’ Since this is so, Upavana, . . . I say the Norm 
is of immediate use. 

So also, Upavana, as regards ear and sound, nose and scent, 
tongue and savour, and mind {as above). . . . Since this is 
so I say the Norm is of immediate use, apart from time, 
bidding one come and see, leading onwards, to be experienced 
each for himself by the wise.’ ^ 

§ 71 (9). Concerning the sixfold sphere of contact (i). 

‘ "iMiatsoever brother, brethren, understands not, as they 
really are, the arising and destruction, the satisfaction and 
misery, and the escape from the sixfold sphere of contact, — ■ 
not lived by such an one is the righteous life. Far is he from 
this Norm and Discipline.’ 

At these words a certain brother addressed the Exalted 
One, saying : — 

‘ Herein, lord, I am in despair;- for I, lord, do not under- 
stand these things as they really are.’ 

‘ Now what think you, brother ? Do you regard these 
thus This is mine. This ami. This is my self ” 

‘ No indeed, lord.’ 

‘ Well said, brother. And herein, brother, by right under- 
standing as it really is: “ This eye is not mine. This am I 
not. This is not my self,” the eye will have been rightly 
seen. That is the end of 111. So also as regards mind. . . . 
That is the end of 111.’ 

§ 72 (lU!. Concerning the sixfold sphere of contact (ii). 

{The same as the above with the addition, after ’ rightly seen,’ 
of : ‘ Thus the first sphere of contact will have been abandoned 
by you, so as to become again no more in future time. So 
also as regards tongue and mind.’) 

1 In this snlta, .says < ' 01101 ., the ■'■ekhn (pupil) and lii.s experiences are 
discussed. 

“ Aiuissdstij. ' 1 have no comfort.’ Sronhid amtho ndnia aJian ti. 
Coiny., who e.xplains it as asMsa-nulthu (hopeless). 



XXXV, II, 3 , § 74] Kindred Sayinys on Sense 


23 


§ 73 (11). Concerning the sijcfoM sphere of contact (iii). 

{The same down to .•) 

' Now what think you, brother ? Is the eye permanent or 
impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

{The rest as in § 32 to ' there is no hereafter. ) 

3. Thu (Jhafthr on the Sick i\lAN 
§ 74 (1). Sick (i)2 

At Savatthi was the occasion (for this discoiu'.se). . . . 

Then a certain brother came to see the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side that brother said this to the E.xalted One : — 

‘ Lord, in such and such a lodging there is a brother, a 
novice, of no reputation.- He is sick, afflicted, stricken with 
a sore disease. Well were it, lord, if the Exalted One should 
visit that brother, out of compassion for him.’ 

Then the Exalted One, on he.iring the words ’ novice ’ and 
‘ sick,’ and finding that he was of no reputation, went to 
where that brother was. 

How that brother saw the Exalted One coming, while yet 
he was far off, and seeing him he stirred upon his bed. 

Then the Exalted One (on coming to him) said: ’ Enough, 
brother ! Stir not on your bed. There are these seats made 
ready. I will sit there.’ And he sat on a seat made ready. 

So the Exalted One sat down and said to that brother : — 

‘ Well, brother ! I hope you are bearing up. I hope you 
are enduring. Do your pains abate and not increase ? Are 
there signs of their abating and not increasing 

‘ No, lord. I am not bearing up. I am not enduring. 

^ The substance of this section occurs at A iii, ll'J (K.S. in, 101), 
where see n. and Brethren, pp. 197-200. 

^ Ap prih riata. ‘ Not well known like Kaliula or Suinana, for instance. ’ 
Corny. 

Cf. K.8. iii, 102, 106. The usual formula of greeting to a sick 
man. But we are not to suppose the Master always used these same 
words, or got the same reply. It is a good example of the basis on 
which tile whole Scriptures are compo.sed, for the purpose of learning 
by heart. But here and there we may get ipsisiiimi cerba. 



24 The Salayatatia Book [text iv, 46 

Strong pains come upon me. They do not abate. There is 
no sign of their abating, but of their increasing.’ 

‘ I hope, brother, you have no doubt, no remorse.’ 

‘ Indeed, lord, I have no little doubt. I have no little 
remorse.’ 

‘ But I hope that as to morals you yourself make no 
reproach.’ 

‘ Xo indeed, lord.’ 

‘ Then, brother, if that is so, you must have some doubt, 
you must have some regret.’ 

‘ Lord, I do not imderstand the meaning of the purity of 
life in the Norm taught by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ Well, brother, if you do not understand the meaning of 
the purity of life in the Norm taught by me, in what sense 
do you understand it V 

‘ Passion and the destruction of passion, lord, — that is 
what I understand to be the Norm taught by the Exalted 
One.’ 

‘ Well said, brother ! Well said ! Well indeed do you 
understand the meaning of the Norm taught by me. Indeed 
it means passion and the destruction of passion. 

Now what think you, brother ? Is the eye permanent or 
impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ Is the ear . . . nose . . . tongue . . . body ... is mind 
permanent or impermanent ? ’ 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ And what is impermanent, is that weal or woe V 

‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ And what is impermanent, woeful, by nature changeable, — 
is it proper to regard that as “ This is mine. I am this. 
This is my self ” ?’ 

‘ No indeed, lord.’ 

‘ If he sees thus, the well-taught Ariyan disciple is repelled 
by the eye, the ear, the tongue and the rest ... so that he 
realizes ‘‘ Eor life in these conditions there is no hereafter.” ’ 

Thus spake the Exalted One. And that brother was 
delighted and welcomed the words of the Exalted One. More- 



25 


XXXV, II, 3, § 76] Kindred Sayings an Sense 

over, when this discourse was uttered, in that brother arose 
the pure and flawless eye of the Norm, (so that he saw) ‘ \\Tiat- 
soever is of a nature to arise, all that is of a nature to cease.’ 

§ 75 (2). Sick (ii). 

{Exactly the same as the above down to ‘ in what sense do 
you understand it ?’) 

‘ Final emancipation without grasping,^ lord, I take to be 
the meaning of the Norm taught by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ Well said, brother ! Well said ! Well indeed do you 
understand the meaning of the Norm taught by me. Indeed 
it means final emancipation without grasping. Now what 
think you, brother ? (as above) . . . “ there is no hereafter.” ’ 

Thus spake the Exalted One. And that brother was 
delighted and welcomed the words of the Exalted One. More- 
over, when this discourse was uttered, the heart of that brother 
was released from the asavas without grasping. 

§ 76 (3). Rddha (i). 

Then the venerable Radha- came to the Exalted One. . . 

Seated at one side the venerable Radha said to the Exalted 
One 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the Exalted One would teach me a 
teaching in brief, hearing which I might dwell remote and 
earnest, ardent and aspiring.’ 

‘ What is impermanent, Radha, — for that you must abandon 
desire. And what is impermanent, Radha ? The eye . . . 
objects . . . eye-consciousness . . . eye-contact . . . that 
weal or woe or neutral state experienced, which arises owing 
to eye-contact. What is impermanent, you must abandon 
desire for that. 

Tongue . . . body . . . mind . . . mind-states .... mind 
consciousness . . . mind-contact . . . you must abandon 
desire for all that.’ 


1 Anupddd-piirinibbdna. 

^ For Radha cf. K.S. iii, 66, §§ ldo-63; Brethren, 11.5. 



26 


The SalayutaHa Booh 


[text iv, 49 


§§ 77, 78 (4, 5). Radha (ii, iii). 

{The same is said for ‘ 111 ’ and ‘ Impermaueuce.') 

§ 79 (6). Ignorance (i). 

Then a certain brother came to the Exalted One. . . . 

Seated at one side that brother said to the Exalted One; — 

‘ Is there, lord, any one thing which must be abandoned; 
by abandoning which ignorance is abandoned and knowledge 
.springs up in a brother ?’ 

‘ There is indeed such a thing, brother. . . . And what is 
that thing ? Ignorance, brother, is that one thing by abandon- 
ing which one abandons ignorance and knowledge arises in a 
brother.’ 

‘ But how knowing, lord, how seeing, does a brother abandon 
ignorance so that knowledge arises ?’ 

‘ By knowing, by seeing eye as impermanent, brother, 
ignorance is abandoned and knowledge arises in a brother. 
By knowing, by seeing objects . . . that weal or woe or 
neutral state arising owing to eye-contact, — by knowing, by 
seeing that also as impermanent, ignorance is abandoned and 
knowledge arises in a brother. So also with regard to the 
tongue and mind. 

So seeing, brother, so knowing, ignorance is abandoned and 
knowledge arises in a brother.’ 


§ 80 (7). Ignorance (ii). 

{The same down to .') 

‘ But how knowing, lord, how seeing is ignorance abandoned 
and knowledge arises in a brother V 

‘ Herein, brother, it has been heard by a certain brother: 
“ Things ought not to be adhered to.”^ Then if that brother 
has heard, All things ought not to be adhered to,” he fully 
understands the whole Norm. Fully understanding it, he 

1 Dhiiinind nnhiij nbhinive-Hiya. Conti/. ’ TehhutnulM-dhaiitmd (belong- 
ing to the three w'orltls of e.’ci.steuce) : nn tjiMd uhhiiiicesatthdrj /tnruniusd- 
ijdhean f/nithihiti ' — i.e.. ouglit not to bo taken liold of by way of mental 
bias, with wrongful view. 



27 


XXXV, II, 3 , § 8i] Kindred Sayings an Sense 

comprelieads it. Conipreiiending it, lie regards all plienomena^ 
as changeable. He regards the eye . . . objects . . . and 
the rest as changeable. So knowing, so seeing, a brother 
abandons ignorance and knowledge arises in him.’ 

§ 81 (8). A brothers 

Then a number of brethren came to see the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side those brethren said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ Xow here, lord, the wandering sectarians thus question us : 

What is the object, friend, for which the holy life is lived 
under the rule of Gotama the recluse V’ Thus questioned, 
lord, we thus make answer to those wandering sectarians: 
“ It is for the full knowledge of 111 that the holy life is lived 
under the rule of the Exalted One.” Pray, lord, when, thus 
questioned,® we so make answer, do we state the views of the 
Exalted One, without misrepresenting the Exalted One by 
stating an untruth 1 Do we answer in accordance with his 
teaching, so that no one who agrees with his teaching and 
follows his views could incirr reproach P 

‘ Truly, brethren, when thus questioned you thus make 
answer, ye do state my views ... in stating that it is for 
the full knowledge of 111 that the holy life is lived under my 
rule. 

But if, brethren, the wandering sectarians should thus 
question you: “ But what, friend, is that 111, for the full 
knowledge of which the holy life is lived under the ride of 
Gotama the recluse ? ’• — thus questioned ye should answer 
thus: “The eye, friend, is III. For full knowledge of that 
the holy life is lived. . . . Objects . . . that weal or woe 
or neutral state . . . mind . . . that weal or woe or neutral 
state that arises through mind-contact, — that also is 111. 
Fully to know that, the holy life is lived under the rule of the 
Exalted One.” Thus questioned, brethren, by those wander- 
ing sectarians, thus should ye make answer.’ 

^ Sabbaniinittuni (iiiiiatu, byway of ' otln'im-.'is. 

- Cf. § 1.51. 

^ Cf. K.tS. ii, 28; iii, lOO. 



28 


The Salayatana Book 


[text iv, 52 


§ 82 (9). The world. 

Then a certain brother came to see the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side that brother said to the Exalted One : — 

‘“The world! The world 1”^ is the saying, lord. How 
far, lord, does this saying go V 

‘It crumbles away, brethren. Therefore it is called “the 
world.'"’ What crumbles away? The eye . . . objects . . . 
eye-consciousness . . .(as before). It crumbles away, brethren. 
Therefore it is called “ the world.” ’ 

§ 83 (10). Phagguna. 

Then the venerable Phagguna^ came to see the Exalted One. 

. . . Seated at one side ... he asked : 

‘ Is there, lord, an eye, by which seeing one could recognize 
and proclaim the past Buddhas, those who have passed away, 
who have broken down the hindrances,® cut off the road (of 
craving), ended the round of rebirth, escaped from all 111 ? 
Is there a tongue by which tasting ... is there a mind by 
which cognizing, one could recognize and proclaim the past 
Buddhas . . . who have escaped from all 111 ?’ 

‘ There is no such eye, Phagguna. There is no such tongue 
. . . there is no mind such as to be capable of these things.’ 


4. The Chapter on Channa and Others 
§ 84 (1). Transitory. 

Then the venerable Ananda came to see the Exalted One. 
. . . Seated at one side the venerable Ananda said to the 
Exalted One: — 

The world ! The world !” is the saying, lord. Pray 
how far, lord, does this saying go V 


1 Loko, hijjati. Cf. K.S. iii, 887, ». 4; .supra, § 68; infra, § 116 (for 
.Ananda’s explanation). 

- Cf. K.S. ii, 9 for another of this name. 

^ Chinna-papar'ica. Vatiima=tanlid-catuma. Corny. 



29 


XXXV, II, 4, § 86] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

‘ What is transitory^ by nature, Ananda, is called “ the 
world” in the Axiyan discipline. And what, Ananda, is 
transitory by nature ? The eye, Ananda, is transitory by 
nature . . . objects . . . tongue . . . mind is transitory by 
nature, mind-states, mind-consciousness, mind-contact, what- 
soever weal or woe or neutral state experienced arises owing 
to mind-contact,- — that also is transitory by nature. What 
is thus transitory, Ananda, is called “ the world ” in the 
Ariyan discipline.’ 

§ 85 (2). Void. 

Then the venerable Ananda . . . said thus to the Exalted 
One 

‘ “ Void^ is the world ! Void is the world !” is the saying, 
lord. Pray, lord, how far does this saying go V 

‘ Because the world is void of the self, Ananda, or of what 
belongs to the self,^ therefore is it said “ Void is the world.” 
And what, Ananda, is void of the self or what belongs to the 
self ? 

Eye . . . objects . . . eye-consciousness and the rest are 
void of the self. That is why, Ananda, it is said “ Void is 
the world.” ’ 

§ 86 (3). In brief. 

. . . Seated at one side the venerable Ananda said to the 
Exalted One : — - 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the Exalted One would teach me a 
teaching in brief, hearing which teaching from the Exalted 
One I might dwell solitary, remote, earnest, ardent and 
aspiring.’ 

‘ Now what think you, Ananda ? Is the eye permanent 
or impermanent V {the rest as in § 32 down to ‘ there is no 
hereafter ’). 

^ Paloka-dhamma—bhijjanaka, Corny., and at Par. Jot.. Corny. 606, 
palokinay jaramaranthi palujjana-dhaminay. Cf. 8. iii, 167 {K.S. iii, 
143 «.). 

^ Cf. Pis. of Control'., 58, 62: V.M. ii, 653; Buddhism (Mrs. Rhys 
Davids), 52. 

® Attaniya. Corny, attano santakena jnrikkhdrem — i.e., void of any 
property belonging to the self. 



30 


The Saldyatana Booh 


[text iv, 55 


§ 87 (J:). Channel. 

Once tlie Exalted One was staying near Rajagaha in Bamboo 
Grove, at the Squirrels' Feeding-ground. 

Now at that time the venerable Saripiitta, the venerable 
Cunda,^ the Great and the venerable Channa,“ were staying on 
Vulture’s Peak. 

At that time the venerable Channa was sick, afflicted, 
stricken with a sore disease. 

Then the venerable Sariputta, at eventide rising from his 
solitude, went to visit the venerable Cunda, and on coming 
to him said: 

‘ Let us go, friend Cunda, to visit the venerable Channa 
and ask about hi.s sickness.’ 

And the venerable Cunda the Great assented, saying, ‘ Very 
well, friend.’ 

So they two went to visit the venerable Channa, and on 
reaching him sat down on a seat made ready. On sitting 
down the venerable Sariputta said to the venerable Channa : 

‘ Well, friend, I hope you are bearing ujn I hope you are 
enduring. Do your pains abate and not increase ? Are there 
signs of their abating and not increasing 

‘ No, friend Sariputta. I am not bearing up. I am not 
enduring. Strong pains come upon me. They do not abate. 
There is no sign of their abating, but of their increasing. 

Just as if, friend, a strong maiP with a sharp-pointed sword 
were crashing into my brain, just so, friend, does the strong 
rush of vital air torment my brain. No, friend, I am not 
bearing xqp I am not enduring. 

Just as if, friend, a skilful butcher or butcher’s ’prentice 
with a sharp butcher’.s knife were ripping up my belly, even 

1 Yfiuugci' hi'otlwT of Saiiputta and one of the cliief cldcT.s. d/. 
TlreOtren, 110. 

- ('omi/. .says it is not the Clianna (master of liis hor.se) of the Buddha’s 
■forthgoing ’ {rf. K.S. in, 11 n.) but another, ('f. M. ii, 19:1; iii, 260. 

^ ( f. sui>ra. § 74. 

1 The stock epithet.s for unbearable pain. i'f. M. i, 243 (trans. in 
mj- Suine Smjin'j-i of the Biuhllui., p. 20 f/.). 



XXXV, II, 4 , § 87 ] Kindred Snyin-gs an Sense 31 

so strong, friend, are tlie winds tliat rack my btdly. Ko, 
friend, I am not bearing np, I am not enduring. 

Just as if, friend, two strong men should lay hold of some 
weaker man, seizing him each by an arm. and should scorch 
and burn him in a pit of glowing charcoal, even so scorching, 
friend, is the burning in my body. No, friend, I am not 
bearing up, I am not enduring. Strong pains come upon me. 
They do not abate. There is no sign of their abating, but ' 
of their increasing. I’ll use the kuife,^ friend Sariputta ! I 
wish to live no longer.’ 

‘ Let not the venerable Channa use the knife. Let the 
venerable Channa bear up. We want the venerable Channa 
to bear up. If the venerable Channa has no proper food, I 
will search for proper food for him. If the venerable Channa 
has no proper clothing, I will search for proper clothing for 
him. If he has no fit attendants, I will wait on the 
venerable Channa. Let not the venerable Channa use the 
knife. Let him bear up. We want the venerable Channa 
to bear up.’ 

‘ No, friend Sariputta. I am not without proper food. 

I have it. I am not without proper clothing. I have it. 

I am not without fit attendants. I have them. I myself, 
friend, waited on the Master for many a long day with service 
that was delightful, not tedious. That, friend, is the proper 
thing for a disciple to do. “ In so far as he served the Master 
with a service that was delightful, not tedious, blamele.ss- 
(must be accounted) the brother Channa’s use of the knife ” : 

.so should you uphold, friend Sariputta.’ 

‘ We would ask a question of the venerable Channa on a 


^ e'f. K.S. i, IW H.; iii. lO.") n. 1 have rUsrais.sofl the ethie.'; of .suieide 
at .some length in air article in the Biiihlhi^l Aiiniidl of ('ei/Inii. 1022, 
and with reference to this epi.sode. < 'f. in thi.s Gonne.vion, Edmunds, 
Buddhist and CIhrisliaii Gospels, ii, 58, where I think lie is wrong in 
regarding the deed as a saerihec, for he misses the point of the Master's 
reply. 

^ Aniipavajja-^ . Hero Gom;/. saws anujMvattHrii/ apjmtisandhiliaij 
(not irremediable). See the Jlaster's pronouncement at the end of 
the section. 



32 


The Sdayatana Booh [text iv, 58 

certain point, if tlio venerable Chaiina gives permission for 
questioning and expounding.’ 

‘ Ask, friend Sariputta. Hearing we shall understand.’ 

‘ Now as to eye, friend Channa, eye-consciousness and 
states cognizable by eye-consciousness, — do you regard it 
thus; “ This is mine. This am I. This is my self ” ? As 
to ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, mind-states, — do you so 
regard them, friend Channa V 

‘ As to eye . . . and the rest, friend Sariputta, I regard 
them all thus: “ This is not mine. This is not I. This is 
not my self.” ’ 

‘ Now, friend Channa, as to things cognizable by eye- 
consciousness that is in the eye, — seeing what, comprehending 
what, do you regard those things as not yoms, not you, not 
your self ? So also as regards ear, nose, tongue and the rest 
Also as regards mind-states cognizable by mind-consciousness 
that is in mind, — seeing what, comprehending what do you 
so regard them V 

‘ Seeing ceasing to be, comprehending ceasing to be, friend 
Sariputta, do I so regard them.’ 

At these words the venerable Cunda the Great^ thus ad- 
dressed the venerable Channa : 

‘ 'Wherefore, friend Channa, you ought to ever bear in mind 
the teaching of that Exalted One, to wit;— “In him that 
clingeth,- there is wavering. In him that clingeth not, 
wavering is not. WTiereisno wavering, there is calm. 'V\Tiere 
is calm, there is no bent. "WTiere is no bent, there is no wrong 
practice.^ Where is no wrong practice, there is no vanishing 
and reappearing."* If there be no vanishing and reappearing, 
there is no here nor yonder nor yet midway. That is the end 
of 111.” • 


* Corny, remarks that Sariputta was aware, in spite of this reply, 
of the fact that Channa was still unperfected, hut made no remark 
thereon, while Cunda, with the intention of testing him, gave him this 
sermon. 

“ To tanhd-mdna-ditfhi. Corny. ‘ As you feel your pains you waver, 
t.heivfore you are still unconverted,’ says the elder. 

Aynii-yali. •< CiiV upajMito, in successive rebirths. 



33 


XXXV, II, 4, § 87J Kindred Sayings on Sense 

Thereupon the venerable Sariputta and the venerable 
Cunda the Great, when this discourse was uttered, rose from 
their seats and went away. 

But the venerable Channa, not long after the going of those 
venerable ones, used the knife.^ 

Now the venerable Sariputta came to see the Exalted One, 
saluted him and sat down at one side. So seated the venerable 
Sariputta said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ Lord, the venerable Channa has used the knife. What 
is his rebirth ? “What is his attainment V 

‘ Was it not face to face with you, Sariputta, that the 
brother Channa declared that no blame attached to him V 
‘ Yes, lord. But there is a village of the Vajjis called 
Pubbavijjhanam, and there dwell clansmen of the venerable 
Channa, who are friends and dear comrades to him, clansmen 
who are to be blamed.’^ 

‘ True, Sariputta. There are these clansmen, friends and 
dear comrades of the brother Channa, who are to be blamed. 
Nevertheless, Sariputta, I am not one to reproach him, saying 
“ He is to blame.” For whoso, Sariputta, lays down one 
body and takes up another body, of him I say “ He is to 
blame.” But it is not so with the brother Channa . Without 
reproach was the knife used by the brother Channa. So should 
you maintain, Sariputta.’ 


^ ' Severed his wind-pipe. But that very moment fear overcame 
him and warning of his doom (guli-nimittai/). So, conscious of liis 
unconverted state, lie quickly applied insight, mastered the activities, 
attained Arahantship, and made an end of life and craving (sama- 
slsirj hutva) and was so released.’ The facts could not have been 
known, and it seems a rather desperate effort to work up a satisfac- 
tory reason for this supposed attainment. Cf. Coiiiy. on v. 381 of 
Dlumtnapadu, the case of Vakkhali. 

2 Upavajjana-kulani. Corny, expliins by upamnkamitahba-kuldni, 
they have to be visited, and the constant i itercourse witli laymen was 
forbidden. They are to blame for this, not the elder. 


IV 


3 



34 


The Saldyatana Book 


[text iv, 6o 


§ 88 (5). Punna. 

Then the venerable Punna^ came to see the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side the venerable Puma said to the Exalted 
One: — 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the Exalted One would teach me a 
teaching in brief, hearing which teaching from the Exalted 
One I might dwell solitary, remote, earnest, ardent and 
aspiring.’ 

‘ There are objects,- Punna, cognizable by the eye, objects 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. If a brother be enamoured of such, if he 
welcome them, persist in clinging to them, so enamoured, so 
persisting in clinging to them, there comes a lure upon him. 
The arising of the lure, Punna, is the arising of 111. So I 
declare. 

There are sounds, Punna, cognizable by the ear . . . scents 
cognizable by the nose . . . savours cognizable by the tongue 
. . . things tangible cognizable by the body. Moreover, 
Punna, there are mind-states cognizable by the mind, states 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. If a brother be enamoured of such . . . 
there comes a lure upon him. The arising of the lure, Punna, 
is the arising of III. So I declare. 

But there are objects, Punna. ... If a brother be not 
enamoured of such, if he welcome them not, persist not in 
clinging to them, thus not enamoured, thus not persisting in 
clinging to them, the lure comes to cease. The ceasing of the 
lure, Punna, is the ceasing of 111. So I declare. 

{The same for mind and mind-states.) 

Now, Punna, after being instructed by me with this teaching 
in brief, tell me in what district you will be dwelling.’ 

1 For Punna see M. iii, 267 (J.P.T.S., 1887, p. 23): Brethren, 70-1; 
Poussin, Bouddhisme, p. 215 ff.; Burnouf, Introduction to Bouddhisme 
liidien, p. 235 ff. (Legende de PiirtM)-, Divyavaddna, 37-9. It is possible 
he is the Punna Mantani-putta who was one of the ten great disciples. 
CJ. K.S. iii, 89. 

^ Cf. supra. § 63. 



XXXV, II, 4, § 88] Kindred Sayings on Sense 35 

‘ There is a district, lord, called Sunaparantad That is 
where I shall be dwelling.’ 

‘ Hotheaded, Puiina, are the men of Sunaparanta. Fierce, 
Punna, are the men of Sunaparanta. If the men of Suna- 
paranta abuse and revile you, Punna, how will it be with 
you V'^ 

‘ If the men of Sunaparanta abuse and revile me, lord, I 
shall feel thus of them: “ Kindly indeed are the men of Suna- 
paranta. Very kindly are the men of Sunaparanta in that 
they do not smite me a blow with their hands.” That is 
how it will be with me, then, 0 Exalted One. That is how 
it will be with me then, 0 Happy One.’ 

‘ But if, Punna, those men of Sunaparanta smite you a 
blow with their hands, how will it be with you then, Punna V 

‘ Why in such case, lord, this is how it will be with me: 
“ Kindly indeed, very kindly are these men of Sunaparanta, 
in that they do not throw clods of earth at me.” That is 
how it will be with me, 0 Exalted One. That is how it will 
be with me, 0 Happy One.’ 

‘ But suppose, Punna, that they throw clods at you. What 
then V 

‘ If they do so, lord, I shall think: ‘‘ Kindly indeed, very 
kindly are these men of Sunaparanta, in that they do not 
beat me with a stick. . . ’ 

‘ But if they do beat you with a stick, Punna. What 
then V 

‘ Then, lord, I shall think them kindly for not striking me 
with a sword. . . .’ 

‘ But if they do, Punna, what then V 

‘ I shall think them kindly, lord, for not slaying me with 
a sharp sword. . . .’ 


1 Burnouf, op. cit.. p. 2o2 n. (who translates the whole sntla), dis- 
cusses the situation of this place. Aparantaka is mentioned at 
MaMvarj.m, P.T.S. (Geiger), p. 85. 

2 Tatra te kinti bhavissati. We might translate ‘what will you think ?’ 
Cf. tatra me eimj ahosi, ‘ thus it occurred to me.' 

This graduated scale of ill-treatment follows the stock formula for 
such cases. C f. the Buddlia's advice to Phagguna at M. i, 124. 



36 . The Salayatana Book [text iv, 6o 

‘ But suppose they do so slay you, Pupna.’ 

‘Then, lord, I shall think: “There are disciples of that 
Exalted One who, when tormented by,^ ashamed of, disgusted 
with, body and life, have resort to stabbing themselves/ 
Now I have come by a stabbing that I never sought.” That 
is how it will be with me, 0 Exalted One. That is how it 
will be with me, 0 Happy One.’ 

‘ Well said ! Well said, Punna ! Possessed of such self- 
control as this, you will be well able to dwell in the district 
of the folk of Sunaparanta. So now, Punna, do what you think 
it time for.’^ 

Thereupon the venerable Punna welcomed the words of 
the Exalted One, and took pleasure therein, and rising from 
his seat he saluted the Exalted One by the right. Then he 
set his lodging in order, and taking bowl and robe went off 
on his wanderings to the district of Sunaparanta. And so 
wandering on, reached it, and there the venerable Puppa 
stayed in the district of Simaparanta. 

And during that rainy season the venerable Puppa estab- 
lished in the Norm as many as five hundred devotees. In 
that same rainy season he realized the threefold knowledge. 
In that same rainy season he passed finally away. 

Now a number of brethren came to the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side those brethren said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ Lord, that clansman named Puppa, who was taught with 
a teaching in brief by the Exalted One, is dead. What is his 
rebirth 1 What is his attainment V 

‘ A sage, brethren, was Puppa the clansman. He lived in 
accordance with the Norm. He did not hurt me with 
disputings about the Norm. Puppa, brethren, has passed 
finally away.’"* 

1 AUiyamdna. Text has wrongly 

2 Contrary to the ordinances of Vinaya. The Sanskrit version which 
Burnouf (Story of Piirna) translates has ‘ take poison, hang themselves, 
cast themselves down from precipices but for the next sentence, ‘ I 
shall tliink them kind for delivering me from this “ excrementitious ” 
body.’ 

^ Ya-iso, ddni Icay kahiy The usual formula of dismissal. 

* The same words are said of Suppabuddha, the leper, at Udana, v, 3. 



XXXV, II, 4, § go] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


37 


§ 89 (6). Bdhiya. 

Then the venerable Bahiya^ came to see the Exalted One. 
. . . Seated at one side the venerable Bahiya said to the 
Exalted One: — ■ 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the Exalted One would teach me a 
teaching in brief, hearing which teaching from the Exalted 
One I might dwell solitary, remote, earnest, ardent and 
aspiring.’ 

‘ Now what think you, Bahiya ? Is tlie eye permanent or 
impermanent V 

{Question and answer as before). ... ‘So seeing the well- 
taught Ariyan disciple . . . realizes “ there is no hereafter.” ’ 

Then the venerable Bahiya was delighted with the words 
of the Exalted One . . . rose from his seat and went away. 

Then the venerable Bahiya, dwelling solitary, remote, 
earnest, ardent and aspiring, in no long time attained that 
goal for which the clansmen rightly leave home for the home- 
less life, even that unrivalled goal of righteous living ; attained 
it even in that very life, and knowing it for himself, realizing 
it for himself, abode therein, so that he came to know: 
‘ Destroyed is rebirth, lived is the righteous life, done is the 
task, for life in these conditions there is no hereafter.’ 

And the venerable Bahiya was yet another of the Arahants. 

§ 90 (7). Passion (i). 

Passion,- brethren, is a disease. Passion is an imposthume. 
Passion is a dart. Therefore, brethren, the Tathagata abides 
passionless and unwoimded. 

Wherefore, brethren, if one should so desire, he also might 
abide passionless and unwounded. He should have no con- 
ceit® of being the eye, in the eye, or by way of the eye. He 

1 Cf. Uddna, i, 10, where a brother of this name was called Daru- 
clriya, because he wore a dress of bark. 

^ Here ejd. says Corny., is a name for lanhd in its meaning of ‘ tran- 
sience ’ [caT atthem). i.e. as motion opposed to cairn dispassion. It is 
ganda because of its corruption. It is sallay because it slays. 

^ Na marineytja. The whole as in § 30 supra. 



38 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 64 

should not imagine: ‘I have an eye.’ He should have no 
such conceit of objects ... of eye-consciousness ... of eye- 
contact ... of the weal or woe or neutral state experienced 
owing to eye-contact. He should have no conceit of being 
that, or in that, or by way of that, thinking: ‘ That is mine.’ 

So also of ear, nose, tongue, body, mind-states, mind- 
consciousness, mind-contact, of the weal or woe or neutral 
state experienced owing to mind-contact. He should have 
no conceit of being that, or in that, or by way of that. 

He should have no conceit of being the all or in the all or 
by way of the all. He should not think ‘ The all is mine.’ 

Thus having no such conceits, he grasps not at anything at 
all in the world. Being free from grasping he is not troubled. 
Being untroubled, he is himself by himself set free. Thus 
he realizes: ‘Destroyed is rebirth. Lived is the righteous 
life. Done is the task. For life in these conditions there is 
no hereafter.’ 

§ 91 ( 8 ). Passion (ii).^ 

{The same down to ‘ Thinking “ That is mine.” ’) 

MTiatever conceit, brethren, one has, and by whatsoever 
means and in whatsoever way, in thinking: ‘it is mine,’ 
therein is instability. The world delights in becoming because 
it is based on change, because it is entangled in becoming. 
So also of tongue and the rest . . . and mind. 

Even up to the sphere of the factors of existence and the 
elements one should have no conceit of being that or in or 
by way of that, no conceit of ‘ That is mine.’ Thus having 
no conceits, one grasps at nothing at all in the world. Hot 
grasping, he is not troubled. Not being troubled, he himself 
is by himself set free. So that he realizes . . . ‘ There is no 
hereafter.’ 

§ 92 (9). Duality (i). 

I will show you a dual thing, brethren. Do ye listen to 
it. What is a dual thing, brethren ? 

Eye and object, ear and sound, nose and scent, tongue 


* t/. SM/ira, § 31. 



39 


XXXV, II, 4, § 93] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

and savour, body and tangibles, mind and mind-states, — that, 
brethren, is called a dual. He who should say: ‘ Kejecting 
this dual, I will proclaim another dual,’ — it would be mere 
talk on his part, and when questioned he could not make good 
his boast, and further would come to an ill pass. Why so ? 
Because, brethren, it would be beyond his scope.^ 

§ 93 (10). Duality- (ii). 

Owing to a dual (thing), brethren, consciousness comes into 
being. And what, brethren, is that dual owing to which 
consciousness comes into being ? 

Owing to the eye and objects arises eye-consciousness. The 
eye is impermanent, changing, its state is ‘ becoming other- 
ness.’® So also are objects. Thus this dual, mobile and 
transitory, impermanent, changing, — its state is ‘ becoming 
otherness.’ 

Eye-consciousness is impermanent, changing, its state is 
‘ becoming otherness.’ That condition, that relation of the 
uprising of eye-consciousness, — they also are impermanent, 
changing, their state is ‘ becoming otherness.’ This eye- 
consciousness, arising as it does from an impermanent rela- 
tion, — how could it be permanent ? 

Now the striking together, the falling together, the meeting 
together of these three things, — this, brethren, is called ‘ eye- 
contact.’ Eye-contact is impermanent, changing, its state is 
‘ becoming otherness.’ That condition, that relation of the 
uprising of eye-contact, — they also are impermanent. . . . 
This eye-contact, arising as it does from an impermanent 
relation, — how could it be permanent ? 

Contacted, brethren, one feels. Contacted, one is aware. 
Contacted, one perceives. Thus these states also are mobile 
and transitory, impermanent and changing. Their state is 
‘ becoming otherness.’ 


' Cf. supra, § 23. 

2 Cf. M. i. 111; Buddh. Psych., p. 64. 

^ Ahhathd-bhdvin. I borrow the translation of this term from Mrs. 
Rhys Davids. 



40 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 70 

So also as regards the ear. Owing to ear and sounds arises 
hearing. Owing to nose and scents arises the sense of smell. 
Owing to tongue and savours arises taste. Owing to body 
and tangibles arises body-consciousness (the sense of touch). 
Owing to mind and mental states arises mind-consciousness. 
Mind is impermanent and changing, its state is ‘ becoming 
otherness.’ So also of mind-states. Thus this dual thing, 
mobile and transitory . . . (as above). . . . 

Contacted, brethren, one feels. Contacted one is aware. 
Contacted, one perceives. Thus these states also are mobile 
and transitory, impermanent and changing. Their state is 
‘ becoming otherness.’ 

Thus, brethren, owing to a dual, consciousness comes into 
being. 

5. The Chapter op the Six 
§ 94 (1). Including^ (the sixfold sense-sphere) (i). 

There are these six spheres of contact, brethren, which are 
untamed, unguarded, unwatched, unrestrained, bringers of 111. 
'What six % 

The eye, brethren . . . the tongue . . . the mind, and the 
rest are untamed . . . bringers of 111. 

There are these six spheres of contact, brethren, which are 
well tamed, well guarded, well watched, well restrained, 
bringers of happiness. "What six ? 

The eye . . . the tongue . . . the mind and the rest. . . . 

Thus spake the Exalted One. . . . Then the Master added 
this further : — 

He meets with 111, brethren, who hath not tamed 
The sixfold impact of the sphere of sense. 

They who have learned the mastery of these. 

With faith for comrade, — they dwell free from lust. 

Beholding with the eye delightful things 
Or things unlovely, let him restrain his bent 
To lust for loveliness, and let him not 
Corrupt his heart with thoughts of ‘ 0 ’tis dear.’ 


1 Sar)gCyha. Cf. infra, §§ 135-6. 



41 


XXXV, II, 5, § 94] Kindred Sayings m Sense 

And when, again, sounds sweet or harsh he hears. 
Not led astray by sweetness, let him check 
The error of his senses. Let him not 
Corrupt his heart with thoughts of ‘ 0 ’tis sweet.’ 

If some delightful fragrance meet the nose. 

And then again some foul malodorous stench, 

Let him restrain repugnance for that stench, 

Nor yet be led by lust for what is sweet. 

Should he taste savours that are sweet and choice. 
And then again what’s bitter to the tongue, 

He should not greedily devour the sweet. 

Nor yet show loathing' for the bitter taste. 

By pleasures’ impact not inebriate. 

Nor yet distracted by the touch of pain. 

To pain and pleasure both indifferent 
Let him be free from likings and dislikes. 

Obsessed (by lusts) are others;- so obsessed 
They know and so they fare. But he dispels 
All the world’s vulgar fashionings of mind,® 

And treads the path renunciation-bound."* 

By contact of these six, if mind be trained. 

The heart is never shaken any more. 

O’ercome these two, 0 brethren, — lust and hate. 
Pass ye beyond the bounds of birth and death. 


1 Virodhay asadilm no jxtday saye (? padaysaye, padassaye). I do 
not understand paduy saye. though the meaning of the line is clear. 
Corny, is silent and no variants appear in the text. I read pa-dassaye 
(dayseli). 

2 PajMinca-saiind itarltard nard. I have mistranslated this couplet 
in my book Some Sayings of the Buddha, p. 229, verse 7. Of itarltard 
Corny, says Idmakd satta (mean worldlings) ratthuy upagacchanti. For 
papaiica (idee fixe) see Brethren, pp. 246, 328, 343: Dialog, ii, 312 and n. 

® Sabhay geha-sitay (=geha-nissitay ritakkay. Corny.), ‘connected 
with the household life.’ 

* Nekkhamma-sitay. 



42 


The Salayatana Book 


[text iv, 72 


§ 95 (2). Including (ii). 

Then the venerable Malunkya’s Son^ came to see the 
Exalted One. . . . Seated at one side the venerable 
Malunkya’s Son said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the Exalted One would teach me 
a teaching in brief, bearing which teaching from the Exalted 
One, I might dwell solitary, remote, earnest, ardent and 
aspiring.’ 

‘ Now herein, Malunkya’s Son, what am I to say to the 
younger brethren if (as in your case), when you are a broken- 
down old man, aged, far gone in years, come to life’s end, you 
ask for instruction in brief 

‘ Although, lord, I am a broken-down old man, aged, far 
gone in years, come to life’s end, yet, lord, let the Exalted 
One teach me a teaching in brief. Let the Happy One teach 
me a teaching in brief. Surely I could understand the mean- 
ing of the Exalted One’s words. Surely I should become an 
heir® to the Exalted One’s words.’ 

‘ Now what think you, Malunkya’s Son ? Those objects 
cognizable by the eye, objects not seen, never seen before, 
which you see not now nor wish to see, — have you desire, 
lust and fondness for them V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Those sounds cognizable by the ear . . . scents cognizable 
by the nose . . . savours cognizable by the tongue . . . 
those tangibles cognizable by the body. . . . Those mind- 
states cognizable by the mind, states not cognized, never before 

1 For Mlluiikyats Son (Text has Mdhikya, but Corny. Malimkya) 
see Brethren. 212; J/. i. § till; .J. ii, 248. Again, at Brethren, 307, the 
stanzas sunnning up the teaching of the present section are given in 
full, ili-s. Rhys Davids has given so fine a rendering of them that I 
have ventured to include them here instead of inj' own. 

As in the passage at .4. ii, 248, where he is given a teaching on 
tiinhu. Coniy. says this brother had in his youth neglected the detailed 
teaching and fallen back. Yet now he asks for a comprehensive view 
of it. How can such a practice be advised to the young ? The Master 
speaks thus both to depreciate and encourage him. 

^ DdyCidn. 



XXXV, II, 5 , § 95] Kindred Sayings m Sense 43 

cognized, which you cognize not now nor wish to do so, — 
have you desire, lust and fondness for them V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Herein, then, of those things seen, heard, imagined, 
cognizable, in what is seen you will have only the seen. In 
what is heard you will have only what is heard. In the 
imagined you will have only what is imagined. In the 
cognized you will have only what is cognized. Thus you will 
have no “ thereby.” As you will have no “ thereby,” you 
will have no “ therein.” As you, Malunkya’s Son, will have 
no “ therein,” it follows that you will have no “ here ” or 
“ beyond ” or “ midway between.”^ That is the end of 111.’ 

‘ Indeed, lord, I understand in full the meaning of what the 
Exalted One has spoken in brief : — - 

Sight of fair shape bewildering lucid thought, 

If one but heed the image sweet and dear. 

The heart inflamed in feeling doth o’erflow. 

And clinging stayeth. Thus in him do grow 
Divers emotions rooted in the sight, 

Greed and aversion, and the heart of him 
Doth suffer grievously. Of him we say, — 

Thus heaping store of pain and suffering — 

“ Far from Nibbana,” 

Sound, smell, taste, touch, bewildering lucid thought. 

If one but heed the image sweet and dear, 

The heart inflamed in feeling doth o’erflow. 

And clinging stayeth. Thus in him do grow 
Divers emotions rooted in the sense, 

Greed and aversion; and the heart of him 
Doth suffer grievously. Of him we say, — 

Thus heaping store of pain and suffering — 

“Far from Nibbana.” 


1 Cf. supra. § 87. That i.s, birth in this world, or that beyond, or the 
intermediate state : as you will have no grounds for raga, dosa, moha. 

2 Here Malunkya’s Son sums up the teaching, just given, in verses 
of his own, which the Master repeats with approval. In the last stanza 
of the English version, as in the second, the separate versos of the Pali * 
are combined. 



44 


[text iv, 74 


The Salayatana Booh 

Object, idea, bewildering lucid thought, 

If one but heed the image sweet and dear, 

The heart inflamed in feeling doth o’erflow, 

And clinging stayeth. Thus in him do grow 
Divers emotions rooted in idea, 

Greed and aversion: and the heart of him 
Doth suffer grievously. Of him we say, — 

Thus heaping store of pain and suffering — 

“ Far from Nibbana.” 

He who for things he sees no passion breeds, 

But mindful, clear of head, can suffer sense, 

With uninflamed heart, nor staying clings: 

And, as he sees, so normally he feels: — 

For him no heaping up, but minishing. 

Thus doth he heedfully pursue his way. 

Of him, building no store of ill, we say — 

“ Xear is Nibbana.” 

He who for things he hears, or smells, or tastes. 

Or for things touched and felt no passion breeds. 

But mindful, clear of head, can suffer sense 
With uninflamed heart, nor staying clings: 

.\nd as he hears, or smells, or tastes, is touched. 

Or doth perceive, so normally he feels: — 

For him no heaping up, but minishing: 

Thus doth he heedfully pursue his way. 

Of him, building no store of ill, we say — 

“ Near to Nibbana.” 

Indeed, lord, I understand in full the meaning of what the 
Exalted One has spoken in brief.’ 

‘ Well said ! W''ell said, Malunkya’s Son ! Well indeed do 
you understand in full the meaning of what I have spoken 
in brief: — 

Sight of fair shape bewildering lucid thought ... (as 
above) . . . 

Of him, building no store of ill, we say — 

“ Near to Nibbana.” 



XXXV, II, 5, § 96 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 45 

That is how, Malunkya’s Son, you should regard in full 
the meaning of what I have said in brief.’ 

Thereupon Malunkya’s Son welcomed what was said by the 
Exalted One and took pleasure therein. And he rose from 
his seat, saluted the Exalted One by the right and went a way. 

And the venerable Malunkya’s Son, dwelling solitary, 
remote, earnest, ardent and aspiring, in no long time attained 
that goal for which the clansmen rightly leave home for the 
homeless life, even that unrivalled goal of righteous living, 
attained it in that very life, and knowing it for himself abode 
therein, so that he came to know: ‘Destroyed is rebirth, 
lived is the righteous life, done is the task, for life in these 
conditions there is no hereafter.’ 

And the venerable Malunkya’s Son was yet another of the 
Arahants. 


§ 96 (3). Falling bade} 

I will teach you, brethren, of one whose nature is to fall 
back, and of one whose nature is not to fall back: also the 
six^ stations of the conqueror. 

And how, brethren, is one of a nature to fall back ? 

Herein, brethren, at sight of an object, evil, unprofitable 
states arise in a brother, memories and plans,® akin to the 
fetters that bind. If a brother welcomes that object, rejects 
it not, puts it not away, wipes it not out, does not make it 
go to utter destruction, thus should a brother understand 
of it: ‘ In profitable states I fall back. This was called by 
the Exalted One “ falling back.” ’ 

Then again, brethren, on tasting a savour with the tongue 
... on cognizing a mind-state with the mind, evil unprofit- 
able states arise in a brother, memories and hopes akin to 
the fetters that bind. If a brother welcomes that state, 
rejects it not, puts it not aivay, wipes it not out, does not 
make it go to utter destruction, thus should he understand 


^ Parihdnay. Cf. K.S. ii, 139. 

^ Usually eight. Cf. infra, § 150. 

® Sara-sankappd. Corny. Ettha !vtraiiti ti .“iird dhnmnfi ll attlio. 
Cf. infra, § 203. 



46 The Scdayatana Book [text iv, 77 

of it: ‘I am falling back in profitable states. This was called 
by the Exalted One “ falling back.” ’ Such, brethren, is one 
whose nature is to fall back. 

And how, brethren, is one of a nature not to fall back ? 

Herein, brethren, at sight of an object, evil, unprofitable 
states arise in a brother, memories and hopes akin to the 
fetters that bind. If a brother welcomes not that object, 
rejects it, puts it away, wipes it out, makes it go to utter 
destruction, thus should he understand of it : ‘ In profitable 
states I am not falling back. This was called by the Exalted 
One “ not falling back.” ’ 

So also on tasting a savour with the tongue . . . on cognizing 
a mind-state with the mind. ... If a brother welcomes not 
that state, puts it away . . . thus should he understand of it : 

‘ I am not falling back in profitable states. ...” 

And what, brethren, are the six stations of mastery ? 

Herein, brethren, on seeing an object with the eye evil 
unprofitable states do not arise in a brother, memories and 
hopes akin to the fetters that bind. In such case, brethren, 
thus should a brother understand : ‘ Mastered is this sense- 
sphere. This was called “ a station of mastery ” by the 
Exalted One.’ 

And the same is to be said of the tongue and mind. 

These, brethren, are called ‘ the six stations of mastery.’ 


§ 97 (I). Dwelling heedless. 

At Savatthi was the occasion (of this discourse). . . . 

I will teach you, brethren, of the one who dwells heedless, 
and of the one who dwells earnest. Do ye listen to it. 

And how, brethren, does one dwell heedless 1 

In him, brethren, who dwells with the faculty of sight 
imcontrolled, the heart is corrupted by objects cognizable 
by the eye. In him whose heart is corrupted there is no 
delight. Without delight there is no joy. Where joy is not, 
there is no calm. Without calm one dwells in sorrow. The 
sorrowful man’s heart is not composed. When the heart is 



XXXV, II, 5, § 9®] Khidred Sayings on Sense 47 

not composed, one has not clear ideasd Through not having 
clear ideas he is reckoned as one who dwells heedless. 

And it is the same with regard to the faculties of taste 
and mind. 

And how, brethren, does one dwell in earnest ? 

In him, brethren, who dwells with the faculty of sight 
controlled the heart is not corrupted by objects cognizable 
by the eye. In him whose heart is not corrupted delight is 
born. In one delighted joy is born, ^^dlen one is joyful 
the body is calmed. He whose body is calmed feels at ease. 
Composed is the heart of him who is at ease. ^Mien the 
heart is composed one’s ideas are clear. Through having 
clear ideas one is reckoned as one who dwells earnest. And 
it is the same with regard to the faculty of taste and touch.^ 

Thus, brethren, is one a dweller in earnestness. 

§ 98 (5). Restraint. 

I will teach you, brethren, restraint and lack of restraint. 
Do ye listen to it. And how, brethren, is one unrestrained ? 

There are, brethren, objects cognizable by the eye, objects 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. If a brother be enamoured of them, if he 
welcome them, if he persist in clinging to them, thus should 
he understand: ‘ I am falling back in profitable states. This 
was called “ falling back ” by the Exalted One.’ 

There are, brethren, savours cognizable by the tongue . . . 
mental states cognizable by the mind, states desirable, 
pleasant, delightful and dear . . . {as before). . . . Thus, 
brethren, is one unrestrained. 

And how, brethren, is one restrained ? 

There are objects cognizable by the eye. ... If a brother 
be not enamoured of them, if he welcome them not, . . . thus 
should he understand : ‘ I am not falling back in profitable 
states. This was called “ not falling back ” by the Exalted 
One.’ Thus, brethren, is one restrained. 

1 Dhamma -na patubhaiwiti. ‘Things are not evident.’ Corny. 
Samatha-vipassand dhamiiid na upjKijjaiiti. 

^ Kdyindriya. 



48 


The Salayatana Booh 


[text iv, 8o 


§ 99 (6). Concentration. 

Practise concentration,^ brethren, A brother of concen- 
trated mind knows things as they really are. And how does 
he so know ? 

He knows, as it really is, that the eye is impermanent . . . 
that eye-consciousness . . . eye-contact . . . the weal or 
woe or neutral state experienced, which arises owing to eye- 
contact, — that also he knows, as it really is, to be imper- 
manent. Mind and mind-states, mind-consciousness, mind- 
contact, the weal or woe or neutral state, — that also he knows, 
as it really is, to be impermanent. 

Do ye practise concentration, brethren. A brother of 
concentrated mind knows things as they really are. 

§ 100 (7). Solitude. 

Apply yourselves, brethren, to solitude. A brother who is 
solitary knows things as they really are. And how does he 
so know ? 

(As above.) . . . 

§ 101 (8). Not your^ (i). 

‘ "WTiat is not of you, brethren, put it away. Putting it 
away will be for your profit and welfare. 

And what, brethren, is not of you ? 

The eye, brethren, is not of you. Put it away. Putting it 
away will be for your profit and welfare. 

Objects are not of you . . . eye-consciousness . . . eye- 
contact . . . that weal or woe or neutral state experienced, 
which arises owing to eye-contact. . . . 

Tongue is not yours . . . mind, mind-states, and the rest, 
are not yours. Put them away. Putting them away will be 
for your profit and welfare. 

Just as if, brethren, a man should gather, burn or do what 
he likes with all the grass, all the sticks, branches and stalks 


* Samiidhi = dll' ekaggata . (,'oinij. 
- As at K.S. lii, 31 for the klmndluis. 



XXXV, II, 5, § 103 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 49 

in this Jeta Grove, pray would he say “ This man is gathering, 
is burning us, doing what he pleases with us” V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Why not V 

‘ Because, lord, this is not our self, nor of the nature of 
self.’ 

‘ Even so, brethren, the eye is not of you. Put it away. 
Putting it away will be for your profit and welfare. Objects 
and the rest are not of you. Put them away. Putting them 
away will be for your profit and welfare.’ 

§ 102 (9). No( yours (ii). 

{The same as the above without the simile.) 

§ 103 (10). Uddaka. 

It was Uddaka,^ brethren, the son of Kama, who spoke these 
words : 

Lo ! Versed in lore,^ all-conqueror am I ! 

’Tis I that have dug out the root of 111,® 

Not rooted out before. 

As to that, brethren, Uddaka, son of Rama, though un- 
versed in lore, exclaims; ‘ Versed in lore am I.’ Though he 
was no conqueror of all, he exclaims: ‘ All-conqueror am I.’ 

'■ Cf. M. i, 165. He was the teacher whom Gotama followed on his 
way to enlightenment. Dissatisfied with his doctrine, he left him as 
he had left Alara. 

- Jdtu vedagu. Jdtu is a doubtful word, used as an adverb. Sanskrit 
dictionaries derive it from janiii (man), and it generally means ‘ever,’ 
‘ surely.’ Possibly it is for jdndtii (‘ take notice ’), as I translate here. 
Cf. K.S. i, 178 n. Corny, has eknyseim vedagu, veda-sahkhdtena ridnena 
neyye.su gato, pandit’ asmi. 

Idarj: See here ! Ecce ! I day jdtu, the Oyez of the town-crier. 

3 Oainda-mulay=dukklia-mulaij. Corny. Cf. Dhp. 60, tanhdya nvulag 
khanatha. Oanda means ‘root ’ or ‘stalk ’ as well as ‘ boil,’ in which 
sense the Buddha interprets. Text reads palikhitay, but Corny, has 
apalikhituy, expl. as apalikhatay. We must read palikhatay, as in the 
repetition below, for the sake of the metre, but the Buddha’s quota- 
tion seems to favour apalikhatay in the gdihd, and I have translated 
accordingly. 

IV 




50 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 83 

Though the root of III was not uprooted, yet he exclaims: 

‘ I have dug out the root of 111, not rooted out before.’ 

Now herein, brethren, a brother would be right in saying: 

Lo ! Versed in lore, all-conqueror am I ! 

’Tis I that have dug out the root of 111, 

Not rooted out before. 

And how, brethren, is a brother versed in lore ? 

In so far as he understands, as they really are, the arising, 
the destruction, the satisfaction, the misery, the way of 
escape from the sixfold sphere of sense, — that is how a brother 
is versed in lore. 

And how, brethren, is a brother all-conqueror ? 

In so far as he sees, as they really are, the arising, . . . the 
way of escape from the sixfold sphere of sense, he is freed 
without grasping. That is how a brother is all-conqueror. 

And how, brethren, is a brother one who has dug out the 
root of 111, that imposthume not rooted out before ? 

‘ Imposthume,’ brethren, is a term for this body, of the 
four elements compounded,^ of parents sprung, on rice and 
gruel fed, impermanent, of a nature to be worn away, pounded 
away,^ broken and scattered, ‘ Koot of the imposthume,’ 
brethren, is a term for craving. When a brother has rooted 
out craving, cut it down at the root, made it like a palm-tree 
stump, made it something that has ceased to be, so that it 
cannot grow up again in future time, — that, brethren, is how 
a brother has rooted up the root of the imposthume, never 
rooted out before. 

It was Uddaka, Rama’s son, brethren, who said these 
words. . . . 

But a brother (who has dug out the root of craving) might 
well indeed exclaim : 

‘ Lo ! Versed in lore, all-conqueror am I ! 

’Tis I that have dug out the root of 111, 

Not rooted out before.’ 

1 Cf. Dialog, i, 87 and n.-, infra, xli, 5; S. v, 369. 

“ Corny, describes the shampooing {sambdhana) of the body from 
childhood onwards, which wears it gradually away {tanu-vileyMna). 



§ III.— THE ‘ THIRD FIFTY ’ SUTTAS 

1. The Chaptee on Winning Security 
§ 104 (1). Winner of security.^ 

I will teach you, brethren, the method of winning security 
from the yoke, the method of the Xorm. Do ye listen to it. 

And what, brethren, is the method of winning security 
from the yokes ? 

There are, brethren, objects cognizable by the eye, objects 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. They have been abandoned by the Tathagata, 
cut down at the root, made like a palm-tree stump, made 
something that has ceased to be, so that they cannot grow 
up again in future time. For the abandoning of them he 
has proclaimed the yoke.- Therefore is the Tathagata called 
‘ winner of security from the yokes.’ 

There are, brethren, mind-states cognizable by the mind, 
desirable. . . . These have been abandoned by the Tatha- 
gata, cut down at the root. . . . Therefore is the Tathagata 
called ‘ winner of security from the yokes.’ 

This brethren, is the method of winning security from the 
yokes, the method of the Norm. 

§ 105 (2). Dependent. 

‘ Owing to the existence of what, brethren, dependent on 
what, does this personal weal or woe arise ?’ 


1 Yoga-hhema-pariydya. Cf. K.S. ii, 132 and Appendix. 203. It is 
(not ‘ the security or peace of yoga ’ [as a Hindu would understand the 
word], but) security from the four bonds or yokes of kdma, bJiava, 
ditthi, avijjd. Corny. 

^ Here yoga seems to be used in the sense of application or effort. 
Tasmd, ‘ not because he has proclaimed, but because he has abandoned.’ 
Corny. 



52 The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 85 

‘ For us, lord, things have the Exalted One as their root, 
(their guide and their resort).’^ 

‘ Where you’ have eye, brethren, dependent on eye arises 
one’s personal weal and woe. . . . Where you have mind, 
dependent on mind arises one’s personal weal and woe. Now 
what think ye, brethren ? Is the eye permanent or im- 
permanent ?’ 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent, is that weal or woe V 

‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ But what is woeful, of a nature to change, — could one’s 
personal weal and woe arise without dependence on that ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Is the ear . . . nose . . . tongue . . . body. ... is mind 
permanent or impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent, is that weal or woe V 

‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent, of a nature to change, — could 
one’s personal weal and woe arise without dependence on 
that V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ So seeing, the well-taught Ariyan disciple is averse from 
the eye . . . from the mind. Being averse from it, he lusts 
not for it. Not lusting, he is set free. By being free comes 
the knowledge that one is free. So that he realizes: “De- 
stroyed is rebirth, lived is the righteous life, done is the task. 
For life in these conditions there is no hereafter.” ’ 

§ 106 (3). III. 

I will teach you, brethren, the arising and the destruction 
of 111. Do ye listen to it. And what, brethren, is the arising 
of 111 ? 

Owing to eye and objects arises eye-consciousness. The 

1 Bhagavan-mulaka dhammd. ‘conditioned by, originating in.’ (/. 
K.S. ii, 56. 

2 Vo {frequent as a particle) is really an ethic dative here. 



53 


XXXV, III, I, § 107] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

coming together of the three is contact.^ Conditioned by 
contact is feeling. Conditioned by feeling is craving. This 
is the arising of 111.^ 

Owing to ear and sounds . . . nose and scents . . . tongue 
and savours . . . body and tangibles . . . owing to mind and 
mind-states arises mind-consciousness. The coming together 
of the three is contact. . . . This is the arising of 111. 

And what, brethren, is the destruction of 111 ? 

Owing to eye and objects arises eye-consciousness. The 
coming together of the three is contact. Conditioned by 
contact is feeling. Conditioned by feeling is craving. But 
by the utter passionless ceasing of craving comes ceasing to be. 
By ceasing to be comes the ceasing of birth. By the ceasing 
of birth comes the ceasing of age and death, of sorrow and 
grief, of woe, of lamentation and despair. This is the ceasing 
of the whole mass of 111. This is the destruction of 111. 

So also of the other faculties and mind. . . . This is the 
destruction of 111. 


§ 107 (4). The world. 

I will teach you, brethren, the arising and the destruction 
of the world. And what is that ? 

Owing to eye and objects arises eye-consciousness. The 
coming together of the three is contact. Dependent on con- 
tact is feeling. Dependent on feeling is craving. Dependent 
on craving is grasping. Dependent on grasping is coming to be. 
Dependent on coming to be is rebirth. Dependent on rebirth, 
decay and death, sorrow and grief, woe, lamentation and 
despair come into being. This is the arising of the world. 

Owing to ear and sounds . . . nose and scents . . . tongue 
and savours . . . body and tangibles . . . owing to mind and 
mind-states arises mind-consciousness. The coming together 
of the three is contact. Dependent on contact is feeling. . . . 
This is the arising of the world. 

And what, brethren, is the going to destruction of the 
world ? 

1 31. i, 111; iii, 281. 

2 The greater part of K.S. ii deals with this .subject. 



54 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 88 

Owing to eye and objects . . . dependent on feeling is 
craving. But by the utter passionless cessation of craving 
is the ceasing of grasping. . . . Thus is the ceasing of this 
whole mass of 111. 

This, brethren, is the going to destruction of the world. 

§ 108 (5). Better} 

‘ Owing to the existence of what, brethren, by adherence to 
what comes the notion of “ better am I ” or “ equal am I ” 
or “ inferior am I ” V 

' For us, lord, things are rooted in the Exalted One.’ . . . 

‘ Owing to the existence of the eye, brethren, dependent 
on the eye, by adhering to the eye comes the notion of “ better 
am I ” or “ equal am I ” or “ inferior am I.” . . . Owing to 
the existence of mind, because of mind, by adhering to mind 
comes the notion of “ better am I ” and the rest. 

Now what think ye, brethren ? Is the eye permanent or 
impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ But what is impermanent, — is that weal or woe ?’ 

‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent, woeful, changeable by nature, — 
without dependence on that could there be the notion of 
“ better am I ” or “ equal am I ” or “ inferior am I ” ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ So also of ear, nose, tongue, body and mind . . . are they 
permanent or impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ But what is impermanent . . . without dependence on 
that, could there be the notion of “ better am I ” and the 
rest V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ So seeing, the well-taught Ariyan disciple is averse from 
the eye . . . averse from mind, he lusts not for it. Not 
lusting he is set free ... so that he realizes . . . “ there is 
no hereafter.” ’ 


1 Cf. K.S. i, 17 and n. 3; iii, 48. etc. 



XXXV, III, I, § 113] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


55 


§ 109 (6). Fetter} 

I will teach you, brethren, the things that make for bondage 
and the fetter. Do ye listen to it. 

And what, brethren, are the things that make for bondage 
and what is the fetter 1 

The eye, brethren, is a thing that makes for bondage. The 
desire and lust that are therein, — that is the fetter of the eye. 
The tongue . . . the mind are things that make for bondage. 
The desire and lust that are therein, — they are the fetter. 

These, brethren, are called ‘ the things that make for 
bondage,’ and this is the fetter. 

§ 110 (7). Grasping. 

I will teach you, brethren, the things that make for grasping 
and the fetter. Do ye listen to it. . . . {The same as before.) 

§ 111. (8). Understanding (i)." 

By not comprehending, by not understanding, without 
detaching himself from, without abandoning the eye, one is 
incapable of the destruction of 111. By not comprehending 
. . . the ear . . . nose . . . tongue . . . body . . . mind . . . 
one is incapable of the destruction of 111. 

But by comprehending, by understanding, by detaching 
himself from, by abandoning the eye . . . nose . . . tongue 
and the rest . . . one is capable of the destruction of 111. 

§ 112 (9). U nderstanding (ii). 

By not comprehending, by not understanding . . . objects, 
sounds, scents, savours, tangibles, mind-states, one is in- 
capable . . . but by comprehending . . . them one is capable 
of the destruction of 111. 

§ 113 (10). Overhearing.^ 

Once the Exalted One was staying in Xatika at the Brick 
Hall. 

1 These two sections are similar to §§ 120-1 of K.8. lii, 142. 

2 Cf. supra, 26; Pts. of Conir., 117. 

3 Cf K.S. ii, 51, 107. 



56 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 90 

Then the Exalted One, while meditating in solitude, uttered 
this Norm-teaching: — 

‘ Because of eye and objects arises eye-consciousness. The 
coming together of three things is contact. Dependent on 
contact is feeling. Dependent on feeling is craving. Depen- 
dent on craving is grasping. . . . Thus arises this whole 
mass of 111. 

Because of ear and sounds . . . nose and scents . . . tongue 
and savours . . . body and tangibles . . . because of mind 
and mind-states arises mind-consciousness. . . . Thus is the 
arising of this whole mass of 111.’ 

Now on that occasion a certain brother stood overhearing 
the Exalted One. 

And the Exalted One saw that brother standing and over- 
hearing, and he said to that brother : 

‘ Brother, did you hear this Norm-discourse V 

‘ I did, lord.’ 

‘ Do you commit this Norm-discourse to memory, brother. 
Master it, brother. Bear it in mind, brother. For this Norm- 
discourse bears upon your welfare, brother. It belongs to 
the rudiments of the righteous life.’^ 


2. The Chapter on the AVorldly Sensual Elements- 
§ 114 (1). Mara's noose. 

There are, brethren, objects cognizable by the eye, objects 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. If a brother delights in them, welcomes 
them, persists in clinging to them, this brother is called ‘ One 
gone to Mara’s home, gone imder Mara’s sway.’ JIara’s 
noose encircles him. Bound is he with Mara’s bond, for the 
Evil One to work his will upon. 

There are, brethren, mind-states cognizable by mind, 
objects desirable. . . . 

There are objects cognizable by the eye, brethren. . . . 

1 Adi-brahmacariyako. 

2 {P(mai}loka-kdma-gunci. Cf. xxxvi, § 19, II. 



57 


XXXV, in, 2 , § ii6] Kindred Sayings cm Sense 

If a brother delights not in them, welcomes them not, persists 
not in clinging to them, this brother is called ‘ One not gone 
to Mara’s home, not gone under Mara’s sway.’ Unwound 
for him is Mara’s noose. Freed is he from Mara’s bond. He 
is not one for the Evil One to work his will upon. 

So also with regard to the other sense-spheres and mind. . . . 
If he delights not in them ... he is not one for the Evil One 
to work his will upon. 

§ 115 (2). Mara’s noose (ii). 

{The same as before.) . . . This brother is called ‘ One 
bound by mind-states cognizable by mind, gone to Mara’s 
home, gone under Mara’s sway, one for the Evnl One to work 
his will upon.’ 

(Repeated as above with the negative.) . . . This brother is 
called ‘ One freed from mind-states cognizable by mind, one 
not gone to Mara’s home ... to work his will upon.’ 

§ 116 (3). Worldly sense-pleasures (i). ’ 

‘ I declare, brethren, that the end of the world is not to be 
learned, seen, gone to, by going to world’s end.^ Nor do I 
declare, brethren, that the end of 111 can be made without 
going to world’s end.’ 

So saying the Exalted One rose from his seat and entered 
the residence.^ 

Now not long after the Exalted One bad gone, it occurred 
thus to those brethren : ‘ The Exalted One, having given us 
this pronouncement in brief, without expounding its meaning 
in detail, rose from his seat and entered the residence, saying 
this: “ I declare, brethren, that the end of the world is not 
to be learned, seen, gone to, by going to world’s end. I 
declare not, brethren, that an end of 111 can be made wdthout 
going to world’s end.” Pray who could expound to us in 
detail the meaning of this pronouncement made in brief by 
the Exalted One V 

1 Cf. K.S. i, 85/.; A. ii, tS. 

^ Corny, thinks he went away so that the brethren might hear his 
praises from Ananda and so have renewed confidence in their Master. 



58 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 93 

Then it occurred to those brethren d ‘ There is this venerable 
Ananda, one praised by the Master and honoured by intelligent 
co-mates of the righteous life. The venerable Ananda is 
capable of expounding in detail the meaning of this pronounce- 
ment made in brief by the Exalted One. Suppose we go 
to visit the venerable Ananda, suppose we come before the 
venerable Ananda and question him as to the meaning of 
this thing.’ 

So those brethren went to visit the venerable Ananda, 
came into his presence and greeted him courteously, and after 
the exchange of mutual courtesies, sat down at one side. 
So seated those brethren said to the venerable Ananda :• — 

‘ Friend Ananda, the Exalted One, after giving us this 
pronouncement in brief, without expounding its meaning in 
detail, rose from his seat and entered the residence. He 
said: “ I declare, brethren, that the end of the world is not 
to be learned, seen, gone to, by going to world’s end. But 
I declare not, brethren, that an end of 111 can be made without 
going to world’s end.”- Now, not long after the Exalted One 
had gone, it occurred thus to us {and they repeated what they 
had thought and said). ... Do you expound, venerable 
Ananda.’ 

‘ Friends, suppose a man in need of sound timber,® in quest 
of sound timber, going about searching for sound timber, 
should come upon a tree, upstanding, all sound timber: but, 
leaving the root, leaving the trunk, should think that sound 
timber was to be looked for in leaves and branches. This is 
just what has happened' to you venerable ones. Though 
you had the Master face to face you passed over that Exalted 
One, and think that I am the one to be questioned on this 
matter. Friends, that Exalted One is one who, knowing, 
knoweth: who, seeing, seeth: who hath become the seer, 
who hath become the knower, who hath become the Norm, 
who hath become the highest. Proclaimer and expounder 
is he. Dispenser of good, giver of the immortal. Lord of the 

1 Cf. K.S. iii. 112; Dial. ii. 159; Further Dial, i, 155, etc. 

2 K.S. i, 85 f.; A. ii, 47/. » Cf. M. i. 111, 194, 233; K.S. iii, 119. 

■* Ei'ihj samjutdaij i(l(tij,=.iamjxtttikatj. Corny. 



59 


XXXV, III, 2 , § ii6] Kitidred Sayings on Sense 

Norm, Tathagata is he.^ Surely that was the time for you 
to ask the Exalted One this question. WTiat the Exalted 
One should reply to you, that should ye bear in mind.’ 

‘ True it is, friend Ananda, that the Exalted One is one 
who, knowing, knoweth; who, seeing, seeth ... (as you 
say)^ . . . and that we should bear in mind what the Exalted 
One might reply to us. Still we thought: “Here is this 
venerable Ananda, one praised by the Master, and honoured 
by the intelligent co-mates of the righteous life. ...” Let 
the venerable Ananda expound the meaning, and not put us 
to further trouble.’® 

‘ Well, listen, friends. Apply your minds. I will speak.’ 

‘ Very good, friend,’ replied those brethren to the venerable 
Ananda, who said: — 

‘ As to that pronouncement uttered in brief by the Exalted 
One, but without expounding its meaning in detail. . . . 
Thus do I understand it: — 

That by which one is conscious of the world, by which one 
has conceit of the world, ^ — that is called “ world ” in the 
Ariyan discipline. And through what is one conscious of the 
world ? Through what has one conceit of the world ? 
Through the eye, friends, through the ear, the nose, tongue, 
body, through the mind one is conscious of the world, has 
conceit of the world. That is called “ world ” in the Ariyan 
discipline. 

As to that pronouncement {as before) . . . thus do I under- 
stand in detail the meaning of what was not explained in 
detail. But, if ye wish it, ye venerable ones should approach 
the Exalted One and question him on this matter, and accord- 
ing as the Exalted One explains it to you so do ye bear it 
in mind.’ 

‘ Very good, friend,’ replied those brethren to the venerable 

^ The word ‘ Tathagata ’ is thus c.xplained bj' Corny. 

^ Cakhhu-, ndtm-, dhainina-, hrahma-hhula. Cf. K.S. ii, 170 {S. 
ii, 255). 

^ Agarur) karitvd generally means ‘ doing a discourtest’.’ Corny, says 
‘ by makmg us ask again and again.’ 

* Loka-sannl, loka-mdm. 



60 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 97 

Ananda. Then rising up they went to the Exalted One, 
saluted him and sat down at one side. So seated, they thus 
addressed the Exalted One: — 

‘ As to that pronouncement, lord ... {as before) . . . 
“ who could expound to us.” Then it occurred to us, lord: 
“ There is this venerable Ananda . . . suppose we question 
him as to the meaning of this thing.” So, lord, we went to 
the venerable Ananda and put this question to him. Then 
the meaning was explained to us by the venerable Ananda, 
with these reasons, in these words, in these particulars.’^ 

‘ A sage, brethren, is Ananda ; of great wisdom, brethren, 
is Ananda. If you w'ere to put me this question, I should 
explain it even as Ananda explained it to you. This is the 
meaning of that thing, and so do ye bear it in mind.’ 

§ 117 (4). Worldly sensual elements (ii). 

‘ Before I was enlightened, brethren, with higher en- 
lightenment, when I was yet a Bodhisat, I thought thus: 
Those worldly sensual elements, formerly experienced by 
my thought, are past, perished and altered. Therein my 
thought might run riot- when they are present, or shrink 
away when they are not yet arisen. Then, brethren, I 
thought thus : As to those worldly sensual elements, therein 
I ought, for my own .sake,'’ to practise watchfulness and 
concentration of mind. 

Wherefore, brethren, as to those worldly sensual elements 
experienced by thought, which are passed, perished and 
altered, therein your thoughts may rim riot when they are 
present, or shrink away when they are not yet arisen. Where- 
fore, brethren, in your case also, as to these worldly sensual 
elements, ye ought, for your own sakes, to practise watchful- 
ness and concentration of mind. 

1 Imehi akCirelii, padeht, vyanjauehi. Corny. ' karamhi, akkhara- 
sampindakehi, pdtiyekka-akkharehi.’ 

2 Bahnlaij . . . apparj gaccheyya. Corny, says ‘ in the future, when 
Metteyya Buddha shall arise, the.se passions wall be of diminished force.’ 

^ Atta-rupena. Cf. A. ii, 120, the Corny, on which has atlano anurii- 
pena, a iiucchnvike /la, hiiakdmendii: ‘by (what is) suitable, befitting for 
the self, by desire for (one’s) good.’ 



61 


XXXV, in, 2, § 117] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

AYherefore, brethren, as to [those worldly sensual elements] 
in what is to be regarded as a sense-sphere: — wherein eye 
and perception of objects fade away, — wherein tongue and 
perception of savours, — wherein mind and perception of mind- 
states fade away,^ — [ye ought for your own sakes to practise 
watchfulness and concentration of mind] . . 

So saying the Exalted One rose from his seat and entered 
the residence. 

Now not long after the Exalted One had gone {as in the 
section above they repeat the teaching and decide to ask Ananda, 
who replies in the same tcords as before in praise of the 
Master). . . . 

The venerable Ananda said: — 

‘ As to that pronoimcement uttered in brief by the Exalted 
One, but without expounding its meaning in detail . . . thus 
do I understand it, friends. It was uttered, friends, by the 
Exalted One concerning the sixfold sphere of sense, thus: 
“ Wherefore, brethren, as to those worldly sensual elements in 
what . . .” and so forth, — so do I understand the meaning. 
But if ye wish it, ye venerable ones should approach the 
Exalted One and question him about the matter, and, 
according as the Exalted One explains it, so do ye bear it 
in mind.’ 

‘ Very good, friend,’ replied those brethren to the venerable 
Ananda (as before) . . . and went to the Exalted One . . 
and questioned him on that matter. And the Exalted One 
replied : — 

‘ A sage, brethren, is Ananda. Of great wisdom, brethren, 
is Ananda. If ye were to put me this question, I should 
explain it even as Ananda explained it to you. This is the 
meaning of that thing, and so do ye bear it in mind.’ 

§ 118 (5). Sakka.^ 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Eajagaha on 
the hill Vultime’s Peak. Then Sakka, lord of the devas, 

1 Corny. Sa/ayatam-nirodho cuccati nihbdnai), in wliicli state all 
sinks to rest. C/. D. i, 222; 8. ill, 188; Vddna, chap. viii. 

2 Cf. Dialog. n,2Uff. 



62 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, loi 

came to the Exalted One, saluted him and stood at one side. 
So standing, Sakka, lord of the devas, thus addressed the 
Exalted One: 

‘ What is the condition, lord, what is the cause whereby in 
this world some beings are fully set free^ in this very life, 
while some beings are not so set free ?’ 

‘ There are, lord of the devas, objects cognizable by the 
eye, objects desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion- 
fraught, inciting to lust. If a brother be enamoured of them, 
if he welcome them, if he persist in clinging to them, thus 
enamoured of them, thus welcoming them, thus persisting in 
clinging to them, — dependent on that- comes consciousness 
based on that grasping. If he be full of grasping,® lord of the 
devas, a brother is not wholly set free. 

There are, lord of the devas, sounds cognizable by the ear 
. . . scents . . . savours, tangibles cognizable by the body 
, . . mind-states cognizable by the mind, states desirable . . . 
if he persist in clinging to them . . . dependent on that 
comes consciousness based on grasping of them. If he be 
full of grasping, lord of the devas, a brother is not wholly 
set free. This is the condition, this is the cause why in the 
world some beings are not in this very life wholly set free. 

Again, lord of the devas, there are objects cognizable by 
the eye . . . {the ivhole of the above in the negative). . . . 
This is the condition, this is the cause why in this very life 
some beings are wholly set free.’ 

§ 119 (6). Five-crest. 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Eajagaha, on the 
mountain Vulture’s Peak. Then Five-crest,'* son of a Gan- 
dharva, came to the Exalted One, saluted him, and stood at 
one side. So standing. Five-crest, son of a Gandharva, thus 
addressed the Exalted One: — 

{He asks the same question and gets the same reply.) 


1 Parinibbayanti. 

2 Tamiissitajj vinndnay. Corny. ^ tanhd-nissitay Jcamma-vinnanay.’’ 

3 Sa-iipaddno. Cf. infra, §124. At p. 399 of text it is applied to fuel. 
* See Dialog, ii, 288, where he accompanies Sakka. 



XXXV, III, 2, § i2o] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


63 


§ 120 (7). Saripittta. 

Once the venerable Saripntta was staying near Savatthi 
at Jeta Grove, in Anathapindika’s Park. 

Then a certain brother came to visit the venerable Saripntta. 
After the exchange of greetings and friendly courtesies he sat 
down at one side. So seated that brother thus addressed the 
venerable Saripntta : — 

‘ Friend Saripntta, my fellow-lodger has renounced the 
training and gone back to the lower life.’^ 

‘ So it happens, friend, with one the door of whose faculties 
is unguarded,^ who is immoderate in eating, and not given 
to watchfulness. That brother, friend, is of such a nature. 
So long as he lives it will be impossible for him to apply him- 
self® to the righteous life in all its fulness, in all its purity. 

Indeed, friend, a brother,'* the door of whose faculties is 
guarded, who is moderate in eating and given to watchful- 
ness, — for such an one, so long as he lives, it is possible to 
apply himself to the righteous life in all its fulness, in all its 
purity. 

And how, friend, has one the door of his faculties guarded ? 

Herein a brother, seeing an object with the eye, is not misled 
by its outer view,® nor by its lesser details. Since coveting 
and dejection, evil, unprofitable states, might overwhelm one 
who dwells with the faculty of eye uncontrolled, he applies 
himself to such control, sets a guard over the faculty of eye, 
attains control thereof. 

When he hears a sound with the ear or with the nose smells 
a scent, or with the tongue tastes a savour, or with body 
contacts tangibles, when with mind he cognizes mental states, 
he is not misled by their outer view nor by their lesser details. 

1 Cf. K.S. ii, 38. 

2 Cf. Bnddh. Psych. Ethics, pp. 350 ff. and vn.; Dialog, i, 80; Vis. 
Magg., 16 and refs. (Corny, does not comment }icre, having done so 
elsewhere). For the passage following see § 198 (2). 

® Santdnessati=ghalessati. Corny. 

* Text has so, which would refer to this particular brother. I read 
!/owith MSS. S. 1-3. 

' yimilki-gdhin. 



64 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 103 

But, since coveting and dejection, evil, unprofitable states, 
might overwhelm one ... he sets a guard over the faculty 
of the mind, attains control thereof. Thus, friend, one has 
the door of his faculties guarded. 

And how, friend, is one moderate in eating ? 

Herein, friend, a brother takes his food thoughtfully^ and 
prudently, not for sport,^ not for indulgence, not for personal 
charm or adornment, but just enough for the support and 
upkeep of the body, to allay its pains,® to help the practice 
of the righteous life, with the thought: My former feeling 
I check, and set going no new feeling. So shall I keep going,'* 
be blameless, and live at ease. Thus, friend, is one moderate 
in eating. 

And how, friend, is one given to watchfulness ? 

Herein, friend, by day a brother walks up and down and 
then sits, and thus cleanses his heart from states that may 
hinder. By night, for the first watch he does likewise. In 
the middle watch of the night, lying on his right side he takes 
up the lion-posture,® resting one foot on the other, and thus 
collected and composed fixes his thought on rising up again. 
In the last watch of the night, at early dawn, he walks up 
and down, and then sits, and so cleanses his heart from states 
that may hinder. Thus, friend, is one given to watchfulness. 

Wherefore, friend, thus should you train yourselves: We 
will be watchful over our faculties, moderate in eating and 
given to watchfulness. 

Thus, friend, must you train yourself.’ 

§ 121 (8). RdhiilaP 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Savatthi at Jeta 
Grove in Anathapindika’s Park. 

Then as the Exalted One was meditating in solitude this 

1 Cf. K. 8. ii, Expositor, 511. ^ Not for athletic prowess. 

^ Vihiijsa-nparatiya. Cf. Asf. 403. 

'' Ydtrd me bhavissati. 

^ Slha-seyyaij. (f. .1. ii, 244 (trans. in Xianeriral Sayings by A. D. 
Jayasundere), where the four postures are given, here quoted by Corny 

« C/. A.Aii, 165; iii, 114-5. 



65 


XXXV, III, 2, § i2i] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

thought occiuTed to him : Ripe now in Rahula are . those 
states that bring release to perfection^ Suppose now I 
give Rahula the last teachings for the destruction of the 
asavas. 

So the Exalted One, robing himself at early dawn, and 
taking bowl and robe set out for Savatthi on his begging-round, 
and after completing his round and eating his meal, said to 
the venerable Rahula : — 

‘ Rahula, take a mat. Let us go to Dark AVood- for the 
noonday rest.’ 

‘ Very good, lord,’ replied the venerable Rahula to the 
Exalted One, and taking a mat followed behind in the foot- 
steps of the Exalted One. 

Now at that time countless thousands of devas were follow- 
ing the E.xalted One, thinking: To-day the Exalted One will 
give the venerable Rahula the last teachings for the destruction 
of the asavas. 

So the Exalted One plunged into the depths of Dark Wood 
and sat down at the foot of a certain tree on the seat prepared 
for him. And the venerable Rahula, saluting the Exalted 
One, sat down also at one side. As he thus sat the E.xalted 
One said to the venerable Rahula ;■ — 

‘ Now what think you, Rahula ? Is the eye permanent or 
impermanent V 

{Here follows the usual dialogue as e.g. at § 73 down to ‘ this 
is mine,’ etc.) 

‘ Are mind-states permanent or impermanc:;t ?’ 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ Are mind-consciousness, mind-contact, . . . that experi- 
ence of feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness, 
which arises owing to mind-contact, — is that permanent or 
impermanent V 


^ V iinutti-paripdmniyd illuimtnd, i.e. saddhutdriya, etc. (faith, energy, 
mindfulness, concentration, insight), which lead to Path-concentration. 
Cf. .4. ii, 145. Corny, quotes Pafisambhidd, ii, 1, in full, and Uddna, iv. 

^ CJ. K.S. i, 160 n. About two miles from Savatthi. It is really 
‘ Blind Wood," owing to its having been the haunt of bandits who 
blinded their victims ! So Corny., ad loc. cit. 


IV 


5 



66 


The Salciyatana Book [text iv, 107 

‘ Impermaneut, lord.’ 

(As before (Iijd'it to ' tluTo is no iiereafter.’) 

Thus spake the Exalted One. And the venerable Ealiula 
was delighted with the words of the Exalted One and welcomed 
them. And when this imstruction was given, the venerable 
Eahula’s heart was freed from the asavas without grasping. 
And in those countless thousands of devas arose the pure and 
spotless eye of the Xorm,^ so that they knew: WTiatsoever 
is of a nature to arise, all that is of a nature to cease. 


§ 122 (9). Fetter. 

I will teach you, brethren, the things that make for bondage 
and the fetter. Do ye listen to it. 

And what, brethren, are the things that make for bondage, 
and what the fetter 1 

There are, brethren, objects cognizable by the eye (as 
above). . . . These, brethren, are called ‘ the things that 
make for bondage.’ The desire and lust therein, — that is the 
fetter that is in them. 

There are sounds . . . scents . . . savoius . . . tangibles 
. . . mind-states. . . . The desire and lust that are therein, 
— that is the fetter. 


§ T23 (10). Grasping. 

I will teach you, brethren, both the things that make for 
grasping and grasping. Do ye listen to it. And what are 
the things that make for grasping ? (The same as before.) 


3. The Chapter on the Housefathers 
§ 121 (1). Vesali. 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Vesali, in Great 
Wood, at the Hall of the Peaked Gable. 

1 lJhamina-cnkhhu= the four paths and path-fiuits.’ Corny. 



XXXV, III, 3, § 126] Kindred Sayings on Sense 67 

Then Ugga,^ the houaefather, of Vesali came to the Exalted 

One. . . . 

Seated at one side tigga, the housefather, of Vesall said 
this to the Exalted One. : — 

‘ Pray, lord, what is the condition, what is the cause whereby 
in this world some beings are not wholly set free in this very 
life, while other beings are wholly set free V- 

‘ There are, housefather, objects cognizable by the eye. . . . 
If he have grasping for them, housefather, a brother is not 
wholly set free. That, housefather, is the condition, that is 
the cause whereby . . . 

Likewise, housefather, there are objects cognizable by the 
eye. ... If he have not grasping for them a brother is 
wholly set free. That, housefather, is the condition, that is 
the cause whereby in this very life some beings are not wholly 
set free, while other beings are wholly set free.’ 


§ 125 (2). Vajjians. 

Once the Exalted One was staying among the Vajjians at 
Elephant To\vn.3 

Then Ugga, the housefather, of Elephant Town came to see 
the Exalted One. 

{The same as the -previous section.) 


§ 12G (3). Nrdandd.* 

Once the Exalted One was staying at Nalanda, in Pavarika^ 
Mango Grove. 

Then Upali,® the housefather, came to see the Exalted One. 
(As above.) 

In the list at d. i, 26 he is declared by the Master to be ' the most 
charming (manapa) of all lay supporters.’ Corny, misquotes his title 
as pa-nita-ddyakdnarj agija. Cf. A.A. i. 394; A. iii, 49. 

^ As above, § 118. 

“ Hatthigd-ma. 

^ In Magadha, once the seat of the famous university. 

^ Pdvdr-ika means ‘cloak-seller.’ 

“ This may be the Jain who became an adherent. M. i, 380 /. 



68 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, no 


§ 127 (4). Bhdradvaja. 

Once the venerable Pindola/ of Bharadvaja, was staying at 
Kosanibi in Ghosita Park. 

Then the rajah Udena went to see the venerable Pindola, 
and on coming to him greeted him in friendly wise, and after 
the exchange of courtesies and greetings sat down at one 
side. So seated the rajah Udena said to him : — 

■ "WTiat is the condition. Master Bharadvaja,^ what is the 
cause whereby the young brethren, who are mere lads with 
jet-black hair, blessed with happy youth, who in the flower 
of their life have had no dalliance^ with the passions, yet 
practise the righteous life in its fulness and perfection and 
live out their span of life to the full V'^ 

‘ It has been said, maharajah, by that Exalted One who 
knoweth, who seeth, by that Arahant who is a Fully En- 
lightened One: “Come ye, brethren; in the case of those 
who are just mothers,® sisters and daughters, do ye call 
up the mother -mind, the sister -mind, the daughter -mind.” 
That is the condition, maharajah, that is the cause whereby 
these young brethren, who are mere lads with jet-black hair 
, . . live out their span of life to the full.’ 

‘ The heart is wanton, Bharadvaja. It may well be that 
at times mind-states that are wanton arise in the case of those 


1 Formerly a brahmin of Bharadvaja. See n. to Brethren, p. 110; 
VdCina, iv, 6; Vin. Cidlavagga, iii; Vinaya Texts, iii, 78; and K.S. i, 204 
(■ congey-maii ’) and n. ad luc. Corny., followed by Dhammapala on 
L'dana, describes him at length as a scrap-hunter with a huge bowl. 
The Master would not allow him a strap to carry it (thavika), so it got 
knocked about and gradually reduced in size to a mere shred. Thus he 
learned continence and later became Arahant. For Pindola (‘scrap- 
gatherer ’) sec also Itivutlaka, § 91 ; K.S. iii, 9li; Jut. iv, 375. At A. i, 23 
{A.A. 196) he is proclaimed by the Master as ‘ best ?.t the lion’s roar ’. 

Bharadvaja is on the river Jumna, the capital of the Vagsas, about 
230 miles from Benares. See Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, p. 36. 

2 Giving him his clan-name. ^ Anikllitdvin. Cf. K.S. i, 15. 

* Addftd/iag dpdcZenfi, or ‘keep it going.’ Corny. ' Paveniy pafipadenti.’ 

® ‘ Matu-samanasu.’ Corny, i.e. regard all women- 

folk as you would your own mother, sister, daughter. I caimot find 
the passage quoted. It does not occur in the Canon, as far as I know. 



69 


XXXV, III, 3, § 127] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

who are mother, sister and daughter. Pray, Bharadvaja, is 
there any other condition, any other cause whereby these 
young brethren . . . live out their span of life to the full 

‘ It has been said, maharajah, by the Exalted One, who 
knoweth, who seeth, by that Arahant who is a Fully En- 
lightened Oned “Come ye, brethren, look upon this same 
body, upwards from the soles of the feet, downwards from the 
top of the head, enclosed by skin, full of manifold impurities. 
There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, 
nails, skin, teeth, flesh, nerves, bones, marrow, kidneys, 
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, 
stomach, faeces, bile, phlegm, matter, blood, sweat, lymph, 
fat, tears, lubricant, saliva, mucus, oil, urine.” That, 
maharajah, is the condition, that is the cause whereby these 
young brethren . . . live out their span of life to the full.’ 

‘ Well, master Bharadvaja, that is easy for those brethren 
who train the body, morals, mind and insight, but a hard 
thing for those who do not so. Maybe at times, master 
Bharadvaja, when one is thinking: I will regard it as unlovely, 
he comes to regard it as lovely.^ Pray, master Bharadvaja, 
is there any other condition, is there any other cause, whereby 
these young brethren . . . live out their span of life to the 
full V 

‘ It has been said, maharajah, by the Exalted One . . . 
“ Come ye, brethren, do ye abide watchful over the doors 
of the faculties. Seeing an object with the eye,® be not misled 
by its outer view, nor by its lesser details. But since coveting 
and dejection, evil, unprofitable states, might overwhelm 
one who dwells with the faculty of the eye uncontrolled, do 
ye apply yourselves to such control, set a guard over the 
faculty of the eye and attain control of it. Hearing a sound 
with the ear . . . with the nose smelling a scent . . . with 
the tongue tasting a savour . . . with body contacting 
tangibles . . . with the mind cognizing mind-states ... be 
ye not misled by their outer view nor by their lesser details. 


Cf. J/. i, 57, 420. 
® Supra, § 120. 


- Quoted at Pts. of Control-., p. 288 n. 



70 The Saldyatam Book [text iv, 112 

But since coveting and dejection . . . attain control 
thereof.” 

This, maharajah, is the condition, thi.s is the cause whereby 
these young brethren, who are mere lads with jet-black hair, 
blessed with happy youth, who in the flower of their life have 
had no dalliance with the passions, yet practise the righteous 
life in its fulness and perfection, and live out their span of 
life to the full.’ 

‘ Wonderful, master Bharadvaja ! Marvellous it is, master 
Bharadvaja, how well spoken arc these words of that Exalted 
One, who knoweth, who seeth, that Arahant who is a Fully 
Enlightened One. Surely that is the condition, that is the 
cause, master Bharadvaja, whereby these young brethren . . . 
live out their span of life to the full. 

I myself, master Bharadvaja, whenever I enter my palace 
with body, speech and mind unguarded, with thought lui- 
settled, with my faculties uncontrolled, — at such times lustful 
states overwhelm me. But whenever, master Bharadvaja, 
I do so with body, speech and mind guarded, with thought 
settled, with my faculties controlled, at such times lustflil 
states do not overwhelm me. 

Excellent, master Bharadvaja ! Excellent it is, master 
Bharadvaja ! Even as one raises what is overthrown, or 
shows forth what is hidden, or points out the way to him 
that wanders astray, or holds up a light in the darkness, so 
that they who have eyes may see objects, — even so in divers 
ways has the Norm been set forth by the worthy Bharadvaja. 
I myself, master Bharadvaja, do go for refuge to that Exalted 
One, to the Norm and to the Order of Brethren. May the 
worthy Bharadvaja accept me as a follower from this day 
forth, so long as life doth last, as one who has so taken refuge.’ 

§ 128 (5). Som. 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Eajagaha in Bamboo 
Grove at the Sqirirrels’ Feeding-ground. 

Then Sona, the housefather’s son,i came to see the Exalted 


1 Cf. A'.6'. ill, 42 jj. 



XXXV, III, 3, § 129] Kindred Sayings on Sense 7 1 

One. . . . Seated at one side he said this to the Exalted 
One : — 

‘ Pray, lord, what is the condition, what is the cause whereby 
in this very life some beings are wholly set free, while other 
beings in this very life are not wholly set free V 

(As in § 124.) 

§ 129 (6). Ghosita. 

Once the venerable Aiianda was staying at KosambI in 
Ghosita Park. 

Then the housefather Ghosita came to see the venerable 
Ananda. Seated at one side he said this to the venerable 
Ananda : — - 

‘ “ Diversity in elements ! Diversity in elements !”^ is the 
saying, my lord Ananda. Pray, sir, how far has diversity in 
elements been spoken of by the Exalted One V 

‘ When the elements of eye and objects that are pleasing 
and eye-consciousness occur together, housefather, owing to 
the pleasurable contact there arises pleasurable feeling. AMien 
the elements of eye, objects that are displeasing and eye- 
consciousness occur together, owing to the unpleasant contact 
resulting there arises painful feeling. When the elements of 
eye, objects that are of indifferent effect- and eye-conscious- 
ness occur together, owing to neutral contact resulting, there 
arises feeling that is neutral. 

So when the elements of ear . . . nose . . . tongue . . . 
body . . . when the elements of mind and objects that are 
pleasurable and mind-consciousness occur together. 

When mind and objects that are displeasing ... or mind 
and objects that are of indifferent effect occur together, owing 
to the contact resulting, whether it be pleasing, displeasing 
or neutral, there arises feeling that is pleasing, displeasing or 
neutral. 

Thu.s far, housefather, diversity in elements has been spoken 
of by the Exalted One.’ 

^ Dhatu-nCinnttdij. See K.S. ii. lol j'f. aiul «/i.; Dmldlt. P-sijrh. Elh., 
72 n. 

- Upekkhd-Uh'lniiid. 



72 


The Salayatana Booh [textIv, 115 


§ 130 (7). Hdliddaka} 

Once the venerable Kaccana the Great was staying among 
the folk of Avanti, at Osprey’s Haunt, on a sheer mountain 
crag. 

Then the housefather Haliddakani came to the venerable 
Kaccana the Great. Seated at one side he said this: — 

‘ It has been said by the Exalted One, sir, “ Owing to 
diversity in elements arises diversity of contact. Owing to 
diversity of contact arises diversity of feeling.”^ Pray, sir, 
how far is this so V 

‘ Herein, housefather, seeing a pleasant object with the eye, 
a brother, at the thought “ This is such and such,”® comes 
to know of eye-consciousness that is pleasant to experience. 
Owing to contact that is pleasant to experience arises pleasant 
feeling. 

"W’hen with the eye he sees an object that is displeasing, 
a brother, at the thought “ This is such and such,” comes 
to know of eye-consciousness that is unpleasant to experience. 
Owing to contact that is unpleasant to experience arises 
unpleasant feeling. 

When with the eye he sees an object that is of indifferent 
effect, a brother, at the thought “ This is such and such,” 
comes to know of eye-consciousness that is neutral. Owing 
to contact that is neutral to experience arises feeling that is 
neutral. 

So also, housefather, hearing a sound with the ear, smelling 
a scent with the nose, tasting a savour with the tongue, con- 
tacting a tangible with body, cognizing a pleasing mind-state 
with the mind, at the thought, “ This is such and such,” a 
brother comes to know of mind-consciousness that is pleasant 

1 A turmeric dyer (Mliddti). At K.S. iii, 10 a housefather of this 
name questions Mahakaceana at the same place. The name is variously 
spelt. Tor Avanti, which is N.E. of Bombay in the Vindhya Mts., 
see Erflhre)!. p. 107 ?i., and ih/w, 2.SS. For kaccana, Vimn/a i. 104; 
J/. ii. 84; iii. 104: Brethren. CCTX, etc. 

2 S. ii. 141. 

2 Itihelaii {inhiij^ila). Burmese MSS. read iUh'elay (ciipilum hoc). 
Voirnj. ‘ evarn elaij, mnndjxim ela,j.’ 



73 


XXXV, in, 3, § 132] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

to experience. Owing to contact that is pleasant to experience 
arises pleasant feeling. But if with mind contacting a mind- 
state that is displeasing, at the thought, “ This is such and 
such,” he comes to know of a mind-consciousness that is 
unpleasant to experience, owing to contact that is unpleasant 
to experience arises unpleasant feeling. If again with mind 
cognizing a mind-state that is indifferent in efiect, at the 
thought, “ This is such and such,” he comes to know of a 
mind-consciousness that is neutral, owing to contact that is 
neutral arises feeling that is neutral. 

Thus, housefather, owing to diversity in elements arises 
diversity of contact. Owing to diversity of contact arises 
diversity of feeling.’ 

§ 131 (8). NaTculapitar. 

Once the Exalted One was staying among the Bhaggi, at 
Crocodile Haunt, in Bhesakala Grove in the Antelope Park. 

Then the housefather Nakulapitar^ came to see the Exalted 
One. . . . Seated at one side he said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ WTiat, lord, is the condition, what is the cause why in this 
very life some beings are wholly set free, while other beings 
are not so set free ? ’ 

(The same as at § 124.) 

§ 132 (9). Lohicca. 

Once the venerable Kaccana the Great was staying among 
the folk of Avanti at Makkarakata in a forest hut. 

Then a number of resident pupils of the brahmin Lohicca, 
mere lads who were gathering .sticks,- came up to the forest 
hut of the venerable Kaccana the Great. On reaching it they 
began to roam and wander up and down on all sides of the 
hut, uproarious and noisy, playing all sorts of mad pranks.^ 
And they said : ‘ These shavelings, sham recluses, menials, 

1 Of. K.S. iii, 1. - ( /. o', i, 108 (A'.O'. i, 228). 

^ Kanici kunici xelissiil-atii hiionli. Co.ni/. explains ‘ atirtamanno)) 
npanissaya gnlietva langhilrd' which would seem to mean 

‘ playing leap-frog,’ but does not explain the word selissaka (‘ noisy ’). 
Corny. MSS. read selis‘<dni. It does not occur elsewhere. 



74 The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 117 

black fellows, the offspring of our kinsman’s foot,^ are honoured, 
revered, made much of, worshipped, and given offerings by 
these sons of coolies.’- 

Thereupon the venerable Kaccana the Great came out of his 
dwelling and thus addressed those lads; ‘ Hush ! my lads. I 
will teach you the Norm.’ 

At these words the yomig fellows were silent. Then the 
venerable Kaccana the Great addressed them with these 
verses : — 

Foremost in virtue were the men of old, 

Those brahmins who remembered ancient rules. 

In them well guarded were the doors of sense. 

They had achieved the mastery of wrath. 

In meditation and the Norm they took delight, 

Those brahmins who remembered ancient rules. 

But these backsliders® with their ‘ Let us recite, 

Drunk with the pride of birth, walk wrongfully.® 
O’ercome by wrath, exceeding violent,® 

They come to loss ’mongst weak and strong alike.'' 
Vain is the penance of the uncontrolled,® 

Empty as treasure gotten in a dream. 

^ <-'f. J). i, 103 {Dialog, i, 112 and a.. 128); J/. i, 334. lhhlia = guha- 
jxitika ; kinhd—kanha. Coiag. Ba»dhu-i>d(V n^X! mi, referring to the 
belief that non-brahniins (.sudras), who were of darker complexion, 
were born of Brahma's foot. (/. D.A. i, 2.54. 

- Bhdratakd. Corny. katKtnhikd, ‘ cottagers who carry loads,’ a term 
of contempt for the village folk wlio support the w'andering recluses. 

" (v)okkajiima, ‘ deserting the ancient rules.’ Coaiy. 

'* J<ip(}>)nmase. reflex, inipcrat, plur. of japnti, may refer to the ‘ vain 
repetitions ’ of the brahniin.s. For a passage of the same tenor cj. K.iS. 
1 . 178. Coiiig. say.s, ' niagnij jnppdma kathiyatnd’ ti eltaken’ era 
hidhinaii amlid ti mannamCina. 

“ ViMinny carnnii, ‘ walk in the uneven.’ Cf. K.kl. i, 0 n. 

'j Biilhu-alla-datidd ('.stick-taken '). t'f. Dlvp. 4()G; A'.<S'. i. 303, where 
-Mrs. Rhys Davids translates: ' .self-armeil.' Piiihii \\orc—hahu. Cotny. 
takes it to mean iid/iridtindd. 

■ Tasa-thdrare.-,a. t'f. K.S. i, 411. a general term for ‘all sorts and 
comlitions.’ Coiiiy. .'mlanhii-tiillaiihc.'iii ('sinners and saints ’). 

® Co)iiy. ' .-iabbe pi nitn-'-aMdddnd iiioghd bharanli.’ 



75 


XXXV, III, 3, § 132] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

Such ways^ as fastings, couching on the ground. 
Bathing^ at dawn, recitings of the Three, 

Wearing rough hides, and matted hair and filth, 
Chantings and empty rites and penances. 

Hypocrisy and cheating and the rod, 

Washings, ablutions, rinsings of the mouth,® — 

These are the caste-marks^ of the brahmin folk. 
Things done and practised for some trifling gain.® 

A heart well tamed, made pure and undefiled, 
Considerate® for every living thing, — 

That is the Way the highest to attain. 

Thereupon the young fellows were angered and displeased, 
and went away to the brahmin Lohicca. On coming to him 
they said: — 

‘ May it please your reverence to know"' that the recluse, 
Kaccana the Great, is attacking and abusing the sacred 
things® of the brahmins.’ 

At these words the brahmin Lohicca was angered and 
displeased. 

Then it occurred to the brahmin Lohicca : ‘ It is not proper 
for me to attack and abuse the recluse, Kaccana the Great, 
merely on hearsay of young fellows. Suppose now 1 visit 
and question him.’ 

So the brahmin Lohicca went along with those yomig 
fellows to visit the venerable Kaccana the Great, and on 
coming to him greeted him courteously and, after the exchange 

^ Cf. Dialog, i, 2'iO for the habits of the naked ascetics. Dhp. v, 141. 

- Text 2 >atJio (recital) with v.U. ... I follow which reads 

plto-sindnan ca. 

^ So Corny. 

* Vannd. Cowj/. ‘ furniture, utensils, marks.’ 

^ Reading hhavana for text’s hdvana. Corny, nyam eva ru pdtho 
drnisn-kincikklm-'isa rfulcjhntr aUlidyn katari 1i atiho. 

® Akhiliti). Corny, ‘soft and not stubborn.’ Cf. S. i. 27; K.S. 
id. 113 n. 

’’ Yagghe (see Dirt. s.r. Uigglin) hhimrj jdneyyn. t 'f. K.S. i. 228. 
Ill next section Corny, says of tagghi. ‘ codan' alike nipdta.' 

® Marite, charms, texts, ritual, etc., as above. 



76 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 119 

of greetings and compliments, sat down at one side. So 
seated he said to the venerable Kaccana the Great: — 

‘ Worthy Kaccana, is it true that a munber of our resident 
pupils, mere lads, gathering sticks, have been here V 

‘ It is true, brahmin. They did come here.’ 

‘ And did the worthy Kaccana have any converse with 
those lads V 

‘ I did, brahmin.’ 

‘ Pray what was the topic of the converse V 

' I spoke to them to this effect, brahmin (and he repeated 
the verses). 

“ Foremost in virtue were the men of old . . .” 

. . . Such, brahmin, wasthe talk I had w'ith the youngfeUow^s.’ 

‘ You said “ unguarded in the doors of sense,” worthy 
Kaccana. Kow how far is one unguarded in the doors of 
sense V 

‘ Herein, brahmin, a certain one, seeing an object with the 
eye,^ is attached to objects that charm, is repelled by objects 
that displease. He dwells with mind distracted and his heart 
is mean. He realizes not in its true nature that emancipation 
of heart, that emancipation of wisdom. So that those evil 
unprofitable states that arise do not come to cease without 
remainder. 

Hearing a sound with the ear . . . scenting a scent with 
the nose . . . tasting a savour with the tongue . . . con- 
tacting tangibles with the body . . . cognizing with the mind 
a mind-state, he is attached to mind-states that charm, is 
repelled by mind-states that displease, and dwells with mind 
disturbed ... (as before) . . . without remainder. To that 
extent, brahmin, one is unguarded in the doors of sense.’ 

‘ Wonderful, w'orthy Kaccana ! Marvellous, worthy Kac- 
cana, is the way in w’hich the w’orthy Kaccana has defined 
the words “ unguarded in the doors of sense.” 

Xow as to the words “ guarded in the doors of sense, guarded 
in the doors of sense,” — pray, worthy Kacchna, how far is 
one so guarded V 

' Infra, § 2o2. 



77 


XXXV, III, 3, § 133 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

‘ Herein, brahmin, a brother, seeing an object with the eye, 
is not attached to objects that charm, or repelled by objects 
that displease. He dwells with attention fixed, and his heart 
is boundless.^ Thus he realizes in its true nature that 
emancipation of heart, that emancipation of wisdom. So 
that those evil, unprofitable states that arise come to cease 
without remainder. 

So also with regard to hearing a soimd with the ear, smelling 
a scent with the nose, tasting a savour with the tongue, 
contacting tangibles with the body, cognizing a mind-state 
with the mind, — he is not attached. ... So that those evil, 
unprofitable states that arise do cease without remainder. 

Thus, brahmin, one is guarded in the doors of sense.’ 

‘ Excellent, worthy Kaccana ! Excellent, worthy Kaccana ! 
Even as one raises what is overthrown . . . (as above in 
§ 127) ... so long as life shall last. 

Now as the worthy Kaccana visits the families of his sup- 
porters at Makkarakata, even so let him visit the family of 
Lohicca. Then all the lads and maidens there will greet 
the worthy Kaccana, set a seat for him and give him water, 
and that shall be a blessing and a profit for them for many 
a long day.’ 

§ 133 (10). Verahaccdni. 

Once the venerable Udayin^ was staying at Kamandaya, 
in the mango grove of the brahmin Todeyya. 

Then a young fellow, a resident pupil of the brahmin lady 
of the Verahaccani clan, came to visit the venerable Udayin, 
and on coming to him greeted him courteously, and after the 
exchange of greetings and compliments sat dowm at one side. 
As he thus sat, the venerable Udayin taught, established, 
roused, and made that lad happy with a pious talk. 

Then he, being thus taught, established, roused and made 
happy by the pious talk of the venerable Udayin, went to the 

Appatnd7_ui-cetaso, as opposed to paritla. Corny. 

- C/. infra, §§ 166, 223. Three of this name are mentioned. Cf. 
Brethren, 288 n.; Dialog, iii, 109; M. i, 396, 447. For Todeyya see 
M. ii, 202. 



78 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 121 

bralimin lady of the Yerahaccaui clan, and on coming to her 
said thus; 

‘ I would have my lady know that Udayin, the recluse, is 
teaching a doctrine that is lovely in its beginning, lovely in 
its middle, and lovely in its ending. He sets forth the 
righteous life, fully perfected and purified, both in its spirit 
and in its form.’ 

‘ Then, my lad, in my name do you invite Udayin, the 
recluse, for to-morrow’s meal.’ 

‘ So be it, lady,’ replied the lad, and in obedience to the 
lady’s bidding went back to the venerable Udayin and said: 
‘ Let the worthy Udayin accept a teacher’s fee from us, 
to-morrow’s food from the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani 
clan.’ 

And the venerable Udayin accepted by his silence. 

Then the venerable Udayin, when that night was past, 
robed himself at early dawn, and taking bowl and robe went 
to the dwelling of the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan, 
and sat down on a seat made ready. 

Then the brahmin lady served the venerable Udayin with 
choice food, both hard and soft, with her own hands, until he 
had eaten his fill. 

Now when she saw^ that the venerable Udayin had finished 
and withdrawn his hand from the bowl, she put on her sandals, 
sat down on a high seat, veiling her head,- and thus addressed 
the venerable Udayin: ‘ Preach me doctrine, 0 recluse.’ 

‘ A time will come for that, sister,’ said he, rose from his 
seat and went away. 

Then a second time that young fellow visited the venerable 
Udayin, and ... as he thus sat, the venerable Udayin 
taught, established, roused and made the lad happy with a 
pious talk. And a second time also that young fellow . . . 
went to the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan (and re- 


^ Supplying viditvd, or ia it acc. absol. according to Trenckner (Pali 
Miscellany, p. 67) '! 

- See Vinaya rules (Pdtimokkha, tSekhiya) about listening to the 
Dhamma, here broken by the lady, in three respects. 



XXXV, in, 3, § 133] Ki'tidred Sayings on Sense 79 

peated what he had said before) . . . ‘ both in its spirit and 
in its form.’ 

‘ You are speaking thus, my lad, in praise of the recluse 
Udayin. But (on the former occasion) when I said: ” Preach 
me doctrine, O recluse,” he replied: "A time will come for 
that, sister,” rose from his seat and went to his lodging.’ 

‘ But, my lady, you put on your sandals, sat down on a 
high seat, veiled your head and spoke thus: “ Preach me 
doctrine, 0 recluse.” Xow they honour the doctrine, those 
worthy ones. They re.spect the doctrine.’ 

‘ Very well then, my lad. Do you invite Udayin, the 
recluse, in my name for to-morrow’s meal.’ 

‘ So be it, my lady,’ replied the lad (and went as before 
to the venerable Udayin, who was entertained by the lady 
‘ until he had had his fill ’). 

Then the brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan, when she 
saw that the venerable Udayin had finished and removed his 
hand from the bowl, put off her sandals, sat down on a low 
seat, unveiled her head and thus addressed the venerable 
Udayin: — 

‘ Pray, sir, owing to the existence of what do the Aiahants 
point out weal and woe ? Owing to the existence of what 
do they not do so V 

‘ When there is eye, sister, the Arahants point out weal and 
woe. When eye exists not, sister, the Arahants do not point 
out weal and woe. So also with regard to tongue and mind. 
Where mind exists not they do not point out weal and woe.’ 

At these words the Brahmin lady of the Verahaccani clan 
said to the venerable Udayin: — 

‘ Excellent, sir ! Excellent, sir ! Even as one raises what 
is overthrown, or shows forth what is hidden, or points out 
the way to him that wanders astray, or holds up a light in 
the darkness so that he who has eyes may see objects, — even 
so in divers ways has the Norm been set forth by the worthy 
Udayin. I myself, master Udayin, do go for refuge to that 
Exalted One, to the Norm and to the Order of Brethren. Let 
the worthy Udayin regard me as a lay-disciple who, from this 
day forth so long as life shall last, has so taken refuge.’ 



80 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 124 


4. The Chapter on Devadaha 
§ 134 (1). The nmnent at Devadaha} 

Once the Exalted One was staying among the Sakkas at 
Devadaha,- a township of the Sakkas. Then the Exalted 
One addressed the brethren, saying: 

‘ I do not declare, brethren, that for all brothers there is 
need to strive earne.stly in respect of the sixfold sphere of 
sense. Yet do I not declare that for all brothers there is no 
need so to strive in respect of the sixfold sphere of sense. 
Those brethren who are Arahants, destroyers of the asavas, 
who have lived the life, done the task, removed the burden, 
who have won their own highest good, utterly destroyed the 
fetters of becoming, who by right insight have become free, — 
for such, brethren, I declare that in respect of the sixfold 
sphere of sense there is no need to strive earnestly. Why 
so ? Because they have WTOught so earnestly as to be in- 
capable of carelessness. But those brothers who are yet 
earnest-minded pupils,® who dwell aspiring for the security 
that is unsurpassed, — by those brothers I declare that in 
respect of the sixfold sphere of sense there is need to strive 
earnestly. Why so ? Because, brethren, there are objects 
cognizable by the eye, objects delightful or repulsive. Though 
they touch the heart again and again,'* yet they cannot 
altogether lay hold of it and so persist. By their failure to 
lay hold of the heart comes .strenuous energy imquailing. 
Mindfulness is set up imtroubled. The body is calmed, not 
perturbed. The heart is collected, one-pointed. Seeing this 
fruit of earnestness, brethren, I declare that such brothers do 
need to strive earnestly in respect of the sixfold sphere of 
sense. 

{The same is repeated far the other factors of sense.) 

'■ Devaddha-kkhano. The ‘ inomeiit ’ is referred to in § 135. 

' ff. A'. (S', lii, 6 ?t. 

^ iSekhd. 

* Phussa-phiissa. Cf. L>. i, 45 for the double, and for the figure of 
speech cf. /S', ii, 235; K.S. iii, 17 n. (cithiy /.« pariyaddya t.fthanti). 



XXXV, III, 4, § 135] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


81 


§ 135 (2). Including {the si.rfuM sense-sphere)} 

’TLs well for you, brethren, ’tis well gotten bv you, brethren ! 
Ye have won the moment for the righteous life. 

Brethren, I have seen the hells so called,^ belonging to the 
sixfold sense-sphere. Therein whatever object one sees with 
the eye, one sees it as uninviting, not as inviting. One sees 
it as repulsive, not as charming. One sees it as ugly, not 
lovely. ’Whatever sound one hears with the ear . . . what- 
ever scent one smells with the nose . . . whatever savour 
one tastes with the tongue . . . whatever tangible one con- 
tacts with the body . . . whatever mind-state one cognizes 
with the mind, he cognizes it as uninviting, not as inviting; 
as repulsive, not charming: as ugly, not lovely. 

’Tis well for you, brethren ! ’Tis well gotten by you, 
brethren ! Ye have won the moment for the righteous life. 

Brethren, I have seen the heavens so called of the sixfold 
sense-sphere. Therein whatsoever object one sees with the 
eye, one sees it as inviting, not as uniniviting. One sees it 
as charming, not as repulsive, as lovely, not ugly. 

Whatever sound one hears with the ear . . . whatever 
scent one smells with the nose . . . whatever savour one 
tastes with the tongue . . . whatever tangible one contacts 
with the body . . . whatever mind-state one cognizes with 
the mind, he cognizes it as inviting, not uninviting. 

’Tis well for you, brethren ! ’Tis well gotten by you, 
brethren ! Ye have won the moment for the righteous life. 


§ 13G (3). Not including {the sixfold sense-sphere). 

Devas and mankind, brethren, delight in objects, they are 
excited by objects. It is owing to the instability, the coming 
to an end, the ceasing of objects, brethren, that devas and 

^ Cf. supra, § 94. 

^ Cmny. says Avici is referred to here, while by sagya is meant ‘ the 
world of the Thirty-three.’ ‘Hell’ is utter misery. ‘Heaven’ is 
utter bliss. The world of men is a mixture of both. You are liu ky 
to be born as men, for thus you can enter the Path that set.s you free. 

0 


IV 



82 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 127 

mankind live woeMlyd They delight in sounds, scents, 
savours, in touch, they delight in mind-states, and are excited 
by them. It is owing to the instability, the coming to an 
end, the ceasing of mind-states, brethren, that devas and 
mankind live woefully. 

But the Tathagata, brethren, who is Arahant, a Fully- 
enlightened One, seeing, as they really are, both the arising and 
the destruction, the satisfaction, the misery and the way of 
escape from objects, — he delights not in objects, takes not 
pleasure in them, is not excited by them. It is owing to the 
instability, the coming to an end, the ceasing of objects that 
the Tathagata dwells at ease. 

>So also of sounds and the rest . . . the Tathagata, brethren, 
dwells at ease. 

Thus spake the Exalted One. So saying the Happy One 
added this fiuther as Teacher: — - 

Things seen and heard, tastes, odours, what we touch, 
Perceive, — all, everything desirable. 

Pleasant and sweet, while one can say ‘ it is,’ 

These are deemed ‘ suJch'l ’ by both gods and men. 

And when they cease to be they hold it woe. 

The dissolution of the body-self '* 

To Ariyans seems ‘ siikha.’ Everything 
The world holds good, sages see otherwise.'* 

^\^lat other men call ‘ sitkha,’ that the saints 
Call ‘ duhkha ’ : what the rest so name. 

That do the Ariyans know as happiness. 

Behold a Xorm® that’s hard to apprehend. 

’ I'ihfWdiitL Duk'klitttj here is au adverb. For a discussion 

of the word see K.S. iii. 21 «. 

bee Snttii ^ ipntti, v, T.jO-Co, and ('oinij. ml loc. {Par. Jot. ii, 2, 509). 
Our text ditfers from Sn. in the third couplet, but our Corny, agrees 
with the Sn. reading, whicli I follow, &ikkd yassa should be sakkdy- 
a^sa. For (kissamtyj read pasyyatfty. [Lines 1-t, 7-0 are well turned by 
Mr.-^. Rhys Davids, Buddh. Psych,., 86. I give them here, and have 
added the other lines myself.] 

'* Reading with Hn. sakkdynss' uparodhanny. 

^ Reading sabbay loketrn passatay ( = pasiuntanay = p^,ditdmy). 

Text misprints plvin-in-dhammiiy forpas.sn dhaiiimaij. 



XXXV, III, 4, § 137] Kindred Sayings on Sense 83 

Hereby are baffled they that are not wise. 

Darkness is theirs, enmeshed by ignorance: 

Blindness is theirs, who cannot see the light. 

But by the wise,” whose eyes are opened wide, 

The light is seen : and, near to it, they know it, 

Skilled in the knowledge of the mighty Horm.^ 

By those whom longing for rebirth destroys, 

By those who float adown becoming’s stream. 

By those who subjects are to Mara’s sway, 

Hot fully comprehended is this Norm. 

Who but the worthy ones are worthy of 
The a 11- enlightened Path, by knowing which 
Fully, the drug-immune ones are set free ? 

Devas and mankind, brethren, delight in objects . . . devas 
and mankind live woefully. 

But the Tathagata, brethren, . . . dwells at ease. 

§ 137 (4). Leaves^ (i). 

‘ What is not of you, brethren, put it away. Putting it 
away will be for your profit and welfare. And what, brethren, 
is not of you ? 

The eye, brethren, is not of you . . . the tongue . . . the 
mind is not of you. Do ye put it away. Putting it away 
will be for your profit and welfare. 

Just as if, brethren, a man should gather, burn, or do what 
he like with all the grass, all the sticks, branches and stalks 
in this Jeta G-rove, — pray would ye say: “ This man is gather- 
ing, burning us, doing what he likes with us ?” ’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Why not V 

Samimi/h’ ettha aviddasu {=bdld. Corny.). 

- Satar) (= sappurisdmiy. Corny.). 

^ R3ading with text santikenn vijdnunti nmhddhnmoiassa koi'idd. But 
Sn. and Corny, read santike mi vijdminti niayd (fools) dhammass’ akovidd, 
i.e., ‘though near it, fools unskilled in the Z). do not know it.’ 

^ Parinibbanti andsavd. Corny, kilem- or kluindha-parinibbaneino. 

“ CJ. S. iii, 33, where the title is ‘Not yours.’ See above, p. 48. 



84 The Sakiyatana Booh [text iv, 129 

‘ Eeciinse, lurd, tlii.s is not our self, nor of the nature of 
our self.’ 

‘ Even so, brethren, the eye is not of you . . . the tongue 
. . . the mind is not of you. Do ye put it away. Putting 
it away will be for your profit and welfare.’ 

§ 138 (5). Leaves (ii). 

{The same, with ‘ objects, soimds, scents, savours, tangibles 
and mind-states.) 

§ 139 (0). The personal, by way of condition (i).^ 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent. Whatever condition, 
whatever cause there be for the appearance of the eye, that 
also is impermanent. Owing to impermanence the eye has 
come into being, brethren. How could the eye be per- 
manent ? And it is the same with the other organs of sense. 

. . . How could mind be permanent ? 

So seeing, the well-taught Ariyan disciple is repelled by the 
eye . . . tongue . . . mind. Being repelled he lusts not for 
it ... so that he realizes, ‘ for life in these conditions there 
is no hereafter.’ 

§ 140-1 (7-8). The personal, by way of condition (ii, iii). 

The eye, brethren, is suffering . . . the tongue . . . the 
mind is suffering. . . . 

The eye, brethren, is without the self . . . the tongue . . . 
the mind is without the self ... {as above) . . . ‘ there is 
no hereafter.’ 

§§ 142-4 (9-11). The external, by way of condition (i, ii, iii). 

{The same for objects, etc., as impermanent, suffering, and 
without the self.) 


See above, p. 52. 



XXXV, III, 5, § 145] Kiiulred tiaymgs on Sense 


85 


5. The Chapter on ‘ New and Old ’ 

§ 145 (1). Action .^ 

I will teach you, brethren, action both new and old, the 
ceasing of action and the way leading to the ceasing of action. 
Do ye listen to it. Apply your minds and I will speak. 

And what, brethren, is action that is old ? 

The eye, brethren, is to be viewed as action that is old,- 
brought about and intentionally done,® as a base for feeling.'* 
And so with the tongue and mind. This, brethren, is called 
‘ action that is old.’ 

And what is action that is new ? 

The action one performs now, brethren, by body, speech 
and mind, — that is called ’ action that is new.’ 

And what, brethren, is the ceasing of action 1 That ceasing 
of action by body, speech and mind, by which one contacts 
freedom, — that is called ' the ceasing of action.’ 

And what, brethren, is the way leading to the ceasing of 
action 1 

It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path, to wit; Right View, Right 
Intention, Right Speech, Right Doing, Right Living, Right 
Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration. This, 
brethren, is called ‘ the way leading to the ceasing of action.’ 

Thus, brethren, have I taught you action that is old and 
action that is new. I have taught you the ceasing of action 
and the way leading to the ceasing of action. 

Whatever, brethren, should be done by a teacher out of 
compassion, for the profit of his disciples, that have I done, 
taking pity on you. Here are the roots of trees, brethren. 
Here are lonely places to dwell in. Be not remiss, brethren. 
Be not regretful hereafter. This is our instruction to you.** 

^ Kamma. 

^ Corny. ‘ Eye in itself is not old, but it has come about by former 
actions.’ 

•’ Abhisanr.ekiyitutj (= cetandya pakappitatj. Corny.). 

* Vedunlyay (=: cedaiiaya cattliu. Corny.). 

® ~M. i, tO; iii, 302. 



86 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 133 


§ 146 (2). Helpful (i). 

I will teach you, brethren, a way that is helpful for Nibbana. 
Do ye listen to it. And what, brethren, is that way ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother regards the eye as impermanent. 
He regards objects, eye-consciousness, eye-contact, as im- 
permanent. That weal or woe or neutral state experienced, 
which arises by eye-contact, — that also he regards as 
impermanent. 

He regards the ear, the nose, the tongue, savours, tongue- 
consciousness, tongue-contact as impermanent. He regards 
mind, mind-states, mind-consciousness, mind-contact as im- 
permanent. The weal or woe or neutral state . . . arising 
therefrom, — he regards that also as impermanent. 

This, brethren, is the way that is helpful for Hibbana. 

§§ 147, 148 (3, 4). Helpful (ii, iii). 

{The same for Suffering and "Without the self.) 

§ 149 (5). Helpful (iv). 

I will teach you, brethren, a way . . . {as before). . . . 

Now what think ye, brethren ? Is the eye permanent or 
impermanent ? 

(Hi’ in § 32.) 

§ 150 (6). Resident pupil. 

"Withocit a resident pupil, brethren, and without a teacher^ 
this righteous life is lived. 

A brother who dwells with a resident pupil or dwells with 
a teacher dwells woefvdly, dwells not at ease. And how, 
brethren, does a brother who has a resident pupil, who has 
a teacher, not dwell at ease ? 

Herein, brethren, in a brother who sees an object with the 
eye there arise evil, unprofitable states, memories and hopes 
akin to states that bind.- Evil, unprofitable states are 
resident, reside in him. Hence he is called ‘ co-resident.’ 
They beset him, those evil, unprohtable states beset him. 
Therefore is he called ‘ dwelling with a teacher.’ 

* Quoted at J/. ^ aid. o02, Ttit). Cuiity. aido-cuMina-kiltia . . . 
umriLnaka-Llletiu-virakituy. - C/. §§ liO, i'JO. 



87 


XXXV, III, 5, § 15 1] Kindred Stvyinys un Sense 

So also with the ear . . . the tongue . . . the mind. . . 
Thus, brethren, a brother who has a resident pupil, who has 
a teacher, dwells not at ease. 

And how, brethren, does one without them dwell at 
ease ? 

(The same repeated negatively.) . . . Even so, brethren, a 
brother . . . dwells at ease. 

Without a resident pupil, brethren, and without a teacher 
is this righteous life lived. 

But with a resident pupil, brethren, and with a teacher, 
a brother lives woefully and not at ease. Without a resident 
pupil, brethren, and without a teacher, a brother lives happily 
and at ease. 

§ 151 (7). To what purpose ? 

Brethren, if the Wanderers who hold other views should 
thus question you, ‘ What is it, friend, for which the righteous 
life is lived luider Gotama the recluse V thus questioned, 
brethren, thus should ye explain it to those Wanderers who 
hold other views : — 

‘ It is for the full understanding of 111, friend, that the 
righteous life is lived under Gotama the recluse.’ 

And if, brethren, those Wanderers question you fiuther: 
‘ ^^^lat is that 111, friend, fully to understand which the 
righteous life is lived under Gotama the recluse V thus ques- 
tioned, thus should ye explain it to them ; — 

‘ The eye, friend, is 111. For fully understanding that, the 
righteous life is lived. . . . Objects . . . eye-contact . . . 
the weal or woe or neutral states experienced that arise owing 
to mind-contact, — those also are 111. Fully to understand that, 
is the righteous life lived under Gotama the recluse. That, 
friend, is the 111. . . .’ 

Thus questioned, brethren, thus should ye explain it to 
those Wanderers who hold other views. 


1 Sdcarbjako. ' Tliey are his master, encompa.ss him, work him, 
saying, Apply siieli and such medical treatment, do such and such 
menial duties,” and so arc his ma.ster.’ ( 'omij. 



88 


The Saldyataiia Book [text iv, 138 


§ 152 (8). Is there a method ?'■ 

‘ Is there, brethren, any method, by following which a 
brother, apart from belief, apart from inclination, apart from 
hearsay, apart from argument as to method, apart from 
reflection on reasons, apart from delight in speculation, could 
afSrm insight, thus: “ Ended is birth, lived is the righteous 
life, done is the task, for life in these conditions there is no 
hereafter ”1’ 

‘ For us, lord, things have their root in the Exalted One, 
their guide, their resort.^ Well indeed were it if the mean- 
ing of this that has been spoken were to manifest itself in 
the Exalted One. Hearing it from him the brethren will 
remember it.’ 

‘ There is indeed a method, brethren, by following which 
a brother . . . could affirm insight.^ . . . And what is that 
method ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother, beholding an object with the 
eye, either recognizes within him the existence of lust, malice 
and illusion, thus: “I have lust, malice and illusion,” or 
recognizes the non-existence of these quahties within him, 
thus: “ I have not lust, malice and illusion.” Now as to 
that recognition of their existence or non-existence within 
him, are these conditions, I ask, to be understood by belief, 
or inclination, or hearsay, or argument as to method, or 
reflection on reasons, or delight in speculation V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Are not these states to be understood by seeing them with 
the eye of wisdom ?’ 

‘ Surely, lord.’ 

‘ Then, brethren, this is the method hy following which, 
apart from belief ... a brother could affirm insight thus: 

Ended is birth . . . for life in these conditions there is no 
hereafter.” 

1 Cf. K.S. ii, 82. 

Text abbreviates this formula iii reply, which I give here in full. 
( f. A'., S’, ii, 19, .56, etc. 

3 Aiim^ vijilhirey/ja (=arnhultii,i. ('nnuj.). 



89 


XXXV, HI, 5, § 154] Kindred Sayings mi Sense 

Again, as to hearing a sound with the ear . . . smelling 
a scent with the nose, tasting a savour with the tongue . . . 
contacting a tangible with the body . . . cognizing a mind- 
state with the mind, ... is that recognition to be under- 
stood by belief or inclination, by hearsay, by argument as to 
method, by reflection on reasons, by delight in speculation 
Are not these states to be understood by seeing them with 
the eye of reason V 

‘ Surely, lord.’ 

‘ Then, brethren, that is the method by following which a 
brother, apart from belief . . . could a fiirm insight.’ 

§ 153 (9). Faculty} 

Then a certain brother came to see the Exalted One. Seated 
at one side he said to the Exalted One : — 

Perfect in faculty ! Perfect in faculty is the saying, 
lord. How f .ir, lord, is one perfect in faculty V 

‘ If a brother, who dwells observing the rise and fall in the 
eye as faculty, is repelled by the eye as facidty ... by the 
ear ... by the nose . . . tongue . . . body, if he be repelled 
by the mind as faculty, — thus repelled he lusts not for it. 
Then the knowledge arises in him: ” Freed am I by freedom,” 
so that he realizes, “ Rooted out is birth, lived is the righteous 
life, done is the task, for life in these conditions there is no 
hereafter.” Thus far a brother is perfect in faculty.’ 

§ 154 (10). Preacher} 

Then a certain brother came to see the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side that brother said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ “ Norm-preacher ! Norm-preacher !” is the saying, lord. 
Pray, lord, how far is one a Norm-preacher V 

‘ If a brother preach a doctrine of reprignance for the eye, 
for its fading out, for its cessation, he may well be called"* 

^ For iudriya (as power or controlling principle) see Cmnpendiiim, 
Appendix. 

^ Indriya-sampdiino {= puripiinnindriiju. Comy.). 

3 Cf.K.S. ii, U;iii, 140. 

* Alfhj mcam'tya, lit. ‘ this is enough for him to be termed. . . .’ 



90 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 140 

“ a brother who is a Norm-preacher.” If a brother be 
practised iu repugziance for the eye, so that it fades out and 
ceases, well may he be called one who is practised in what 
conforms to the Norm.” If a brother be set free from grasping 
by such repugnance, fading out and ceasing of the eye, well 
may he be called ‘Svinner of Nibbana in this very life.” 

So also with regard to the ear, the nose, tongue, body and 
mind, — if he so preach a doctrine, if he be so practised, if he 
be thus freed, well may he be called by these three names 
(as I have said).’ 



§ lY.— THE ‘ FOURTH FIFTY ’ ttUTTAS 

1. The Chapter ox the Destructiox of the Lure 

§ 155 (1). The destruction of the lure^ (i). 

Brethren, when a brother sees that the eye is impermanent, 
he, rightly perceiving ‘ this is the right view,’ is repelled 
thereby. By the destruction of the lure of lust comes the 
destruction of lust. By the destruction of lust comes the 
destruction of the lure. By this destruction of the lure 
the heart is set free, and it is called ’ well-freed. And so for 
the other sense-organs. 

§ 156 (2). The destruction of the lure (ii). 

{The same for objects, sounds and the rest.) 

§ 157 (3). The destruction of the lure (iii). 

Do ye apply your minds thoroughly,^ brethren, to the eye, 
and regard its true nature as impermanent. He who so 
applies his mind thoroughly to the eye, and so regards it, 
feels repelled by the eye. By the destruction of the lure of 
the eye comes the destruction of the lure . . . and so for the 
other sense-organs. 

§ 158 (4). The destruction of the lure (iv). 

(The same for objects, sounds and the rest.) 

§ 159 (5). In Jivaha’s Mango Grove (i). 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Rajagaha in Jivaka’s"* 
Mango Grove. Then the Exalted One thus addressed the 
brethren: — 

^ t/. A'.jS'. iii. 44, 4.'). - This is called Corny. 

^ YonUo titamisi-Lurutha. 

^ CJ. SlUers, 148 u. Jivaka was phjsiciau tu Hiiubisilra, rajah of 
Alagadha. 

yi 



92 The Salayataiia Book [text iv, 143 

‘ Do ye practiae concentration, brethren. To a brother 
who is composed there is a manifestation of a thing’s reality.^ 
And what, brethren, is manifested as it really is ? 

The impermanence of the eye, brethren, is manifested as 
it really is. Objects, eye-consciousness, eye-contact, the 
weal or woe or neutral state experienced that arises owing to 
eye-contact, — the impermanence of that also is manifested 
as it really is. So also of the other sense-organs. 

Do ye practise concentration, brethren. To a brother who 
is composed there is a manifestation of a thing’s reality.’ 

§ 160 (6). Jlvaka’s Mango Grove (ii). 

{The same for ‘ do ye practise application to solitude.’)" 

§ 161 (7). KoUhika (i). 

Then the venerable Kotthika® the Great came to see the 
Exalted One. . . . Seated at one side he thus addressed the 
Exalted One; — 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the E.xalted One would teach me the 
Norm in brief, hearing which teaching from the Exalted One 
I might dwell solitary, remote, earnest, ardent and aspiring.’ 

■ What is impermanent, Kotthika, — you should put away 
desire for that. And what is impermanent ? The eye, 
Kotthika, is impermanent. You should put away desire for 
that. Objects . . . eye-consciousness and the rest . . . are 
impermanent. Mind is impermanent . . . the weal or woe 
. . . that also is impermanent. You should put away desire 
for that. 

What is impermanent, Kotthika, — you should put away 
desire for that.’ 

1 Yathdbhatatj okkhCiyati. I follow Corny., who says paiindyati, 
pdkataij hoti, the meaning of ukkhdyati. But Pali Diet. s.v. (the only 
instance of the word) takes it as meaning ‘to lie low, be restrained.’ 
Three Sinhalese MSS. of te.xt read pakkhdyati. Text and my MSS. of 
Corny, read okkhdyati. 

- Patimlldne yogaij iiixijjatiui. Cf. p. 51, it. 2. 

’ And Kotthita. Cf. Brethren, (5 and ; M. i, 292 /; K.S. ii, 79. 
He was famous for his prolieieney in jhdiui. Infra, § 191. 



XXXV, IV, 2, § 167] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


93 


§§ 162, 163 (8, 9). KMhiha (ii, iii). 

{The same repeated for 111 and ‘ without the self.') 

§ 164 (10). Wrong view. 

Then a certain brother came to see the Exalted One . . . 
and asked : — 

‘ Pray, lord, how knowing, how seeing, does one abandon 
wrong view ? ’ 

‘ By knowing, by seeing the eye as impermanent, brother. 
By knowing, by seeing objects and the rest as impermanent 
. . . wrong view is abandoned.’ 

§ 165 (11), The person-paeJe} 

{The same as the above, ivith ‘ person-pack view ’/or ‘ wrong 
view.') 

§ 166 (12) About the self? 

{The same as the above, with ‘ speculation about the self ’ 
for ‘ wrong view.’) 


2. The Sixty Susimaries 

§ 167 (1). By way of desire (eighteen sections) (i). 
What is impermanent, brethren, — desire for that must be 
abandoned. And what is impermanent ? The eye and the 
rest {as before). . . . 


(2). By way of desire (ii). 

Wh.at is impermanent, brethren. — lust for that must be 
abandoned. . . . 


(3). By way of desire (iii). 

. . . desire and lust for that must be abandoned. 

1 Sahkdya. Cf. K.S. iii, 134 n.; for sakkaya-ditthi, ib. 86 n. The 
first fetter to be abandoned on the Path is the view that this individual- 
group of five factors, the personality {panca-kkhandha). is permanent, 
has, was or is, the self. 

^ CJ. K.S. iii, 153, aUdnuditthi. 



94 


The Salayatana Boole [text iv, 151 


§ 168 (4-6). By way of desire (iv-vi). 

'Wiat is 111, brethren, — desire for that must be abandoned, 
lust, desire and lust for that must be abandoned. . . . 

§ 169 (7-9). By icay of desire (vii-ix). 

What is without the self, brethren, — desire for that, lust, 
desire and lust for that must be abandoned. . . . 

§ 170 (10-12). By ivay of desire (x-xii). 

What is impermanent, brethren, — desire . . . lust . . . 
desire and lust for that must be abandoned (for objects, 
sounds and the rest.) 

§ 171 (13-15). By way of desire (xiii-xv). 

What is 111 . . . {for the same) . . . . 

§ 172 (16-18). By way of desire (xvi-xviii). 

What is without self . . . {for the same). . . . 

§ 173 (19). By way of the jMst (nine sections) (i). 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent, of the past. The ear 
and the rest . . . mind is impermanent, of the past. So 
seeing, brethren, the well-taught Ariyan disciple {as before) 
. . . ‘ no hereafter.’ 

(20) By tvay of the j^st (ii). 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent, not yet come.^ The 
ear and the rest . . . mind. 

(21) By way of the fast (iii). 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent, a thing of the present. 
The ear and the rest. So seeing, the well-taught Ariyan 
disciple ... ‘ no hereafter.’ 


1 The action it has done in the past has yet to be worked out. 



XXXV, IV, 2, § 179] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


95 


§ 174 (22-24). By way of the past (iv-vi). 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent. 111, not yet come; a 
thing of the present. The ear and the rest. ... So seeing 
... ‘ no hereafter.’ 

§ 17.5 (25-27). By way of the past (vii-ix). 

The eye, brethren, is without the self, of the past; not yet 
come; a thing of the present. . . . The ear ... ‘ no here- 
after.’ 

§ 176 (28-30). By vxnj of the j)(tst (nine sections) (x-xii). 

Objects, brethren, are impermanent, of the past; not yet 
come; things of the present. . . . Sounds . . . scents and 
the rest. So seeing ... ‘ no hereafter.’ 

§ 177 (31-33). By tcay of the past (xiii-xv). 

Objects, brethren, are 111, of the past; not yet come; things 
of the present. Sounds and the rest. ... So seeing . . . 

‘ no hereafter.’ 

§ 178 (34-36). By xvay of the past (xvi-xviii). 

Objects, brethren, are without the self, of the past; not yet 
come; things of the present. Sounds and the rest. ... So 
seeing ... ‘ no hereafter.’ 

§ 179 (37). What is impermanent (eighteen sections) (i). 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent, of the past. What is 
impermanent, that i.s 111. What is 111, that is without the 
self. Of what is without the self (one can say) ‘ That is not 
mine. That am I not. That is not my self.’ So should it 
be viewed, as it really is, by right unelerstanding. 

The ear and the rest are impermanent. . . . So seeing, the 
well-taught Ariyan disciple . . . ‘ no hereafter.’ 

(38) What is impermanent (ii). 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent, not yet come. What 
is impermanent, that is 111 . . . {as before). . . . 



96 The Sahri/atana Book [text iv, 153 

(39). What is iinperDuatent (iii). 

Tlie eye, brethren, is impermanent, a thing of the present. 
^Yllat is impermanent . . . (as before). . . . 

§ 180 (40-42). What is impermanent (iv-vi). 

The eye, brethren, is 111, of the past ; not yet come ; a thing 
of the present. AlTiat is 111 . . . (as before). . . . 

§ 181 (43-4.9). What is impermanent (vii-ix). 

The eye, brethren, is without the self, of the past; not yet 
come; a thing of the present. Of what is without the self 
(one can say) ‘ That is not mine. That am I not. That is 
not my self ’ . . . (as before). . . . 

§ 182 (46-48). What is impermanent (x-xii). 

Objects, brethren, are impermanent, of the past; not yet 
come; things of the present. What is impermanent, that is 
111. . . . Sounds and the rest are impermanent. . . . 

§ 183 (49-51). What is impermanent (xiii-xv). 

Objects, brethren, are 111, of the pa;jt. . . . 

§ 184 (52-54). What is impermanent (xvi-xviii). 

Objects, brethren, are without the self, of the past. . . . 

§ 185 (-55). The personal (three sections) (i). 

The eye, brethren, is impermanent . . . the ear . . . the 
mind. So seeing. . . . 

(56) . The personal (ii). 

The eye, brethren, is 111. . . . 

(57) . The personal (iii). 

The eye, brethren, is without the self. . . . 

§ 186 (58). The external (three sections) (i). 

Objects, brethren, are impermanent. . . . 



XXXV. IV, 3, § 187] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


97 


(59) . The external (ii). 

Objects, brethren, are 111. . . . 

(60) . The external (iii). 

Objects, brethren, are without the self. Sounds . . . 
scents . . . savours . . . tangibles . . . mind-states are im- 
permanent. 

So seeing ... he realizes . . . ‘ there is no hereafter.’ 


3. The Chapter on the Ocean 
§ 187 (1). Ocean} (i). 

‘ The ocean ! The ocean !’ brethren, says the ignorant 
worldling. But that, brethren, is not the ocean in the disci- 
pline of the Ariyan. That ocean (of the worldling), brethren, 
is a heap of water, a great flood of water. 

The eye of a man, brethren, is the ocean. Its impulse is 
made of objects. WTioso endureth that object-made im- 
pulse, — of him, brethren, it is said, ‘ he hath crossed over. 
That ocean of the eye, with its waves and whirlpools,^ its 
sharks and demons, the brahmin hath crossed^ and gone 
beyond. He standeth on dry ground.’ 

The tongue of a man, brethren, is the ocean. Its impulse 
is made of savours. Whoso endureth that impulse made of 
savours, — of him it is said ‘ he hath crossed over. That 
ocean of tongue, with its waves and whirlpools, its sharks 
and demons, the brahmin hath crossed, gone beyond. He 
standeth on dry ground.’ 

The mind of a man, brethren, is the ocean. Its impulse 

1 Cf. Udana v, 6, and Corny. ‘ Here the eye is likened to the ocean 
because it can never be filled, never satisfied, however much is poured 
in.’ Corny, (duppuran’ atthenaru samitddan’ atthenava). Cf.SriA. 275. 
Cf. also Dhamma-sangani (B. Psych. Eth.), §§ 597, etc. 

2 At Itiv. 114, sa-rakkhasa, sa-gaha is explained as mdtugama. Sa- 
ummi is kodh'iip, Updydsa. Sdcalta is pahca-kdma-gund. Cf. A. ii, 123 
{Numerical Sayings, Jayasundero, p. 156 ff.), and infra, § 200. 

® Atari. A. ii, 46 (aor. of tarati). 

IV 


7 



98 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 157 

is made of mind-states. WTioso endureth that impulse made 
of mind-states, — of him it is said, ‘ he hath crossed over. That 
ocean of mind, with its waves and whirlpools, its sharks and 
demons, the brahmin hath crossed, gone beyond. He standeth 
on dry ground.’ 

Thus spake the Teacher : — 

'WTioso hath crossed this monster-teeming sea. 

With its devils and fearsome waves impassable, 

‘ Versed in the lore,’ ‘ living the holy life,’ 

‘ Gone to world’s end,’^ and ‘ gone beyond ’ he’s called. 

§ 188 (2). Ocean (ii). 

‘ The ocean ! The ocean !’^ brethren, says the ignorant 
worldling. That, brethren, is not the ocean in the discipline 
of the Ariyan. That is a heap of water, a great flood of 
water. 

There are, brethren, objects cognizable by the eye, objects 
desirable, pleasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, 
inciting to lust. These are called ‘ ocean,’ brethren, in the 
discipline of the Ariyan. The world, with its devas, its 
JIaras, its Brahmas, its hosts of recluses and brahmins, its 
devas and mankind, is for the most part® plunged'* herein, 
tangled like a ball of thread, covered with blight, become like 
a woven rope of grass, “ unable to cross over the downfall, 
the way of woe, the ruin, and the round of birth. 

There are, brethren, savours cognizable by the tongue . . . 
mind-states cognizable by the mind. . . . These are called 
‘ ocean,’ brethren, in the discipline of the Ariyan. The world 
with its devas ... is for the most part plunged herein, 
unable to cross over . . . the roxmd of birth. 


1 Lokantagii. ^ Cmny.’s interpr. here implies ‘wetness’ (iida-), 
kledan' atthena. ^ Yehhuyyena. ‘ Except Arahants.’ Corny. 

* Samuimd {=kilinnd,tintd, nimugga. Corny.). Cf. A. ii, 211. 

^ Reading tantdkida-jdtd, guld-giinthika-jdtd for kidakajdtd, gima- 
gunikajdtd of text and Corny, (gundika-). Cf. D. ii, 55; S. ii, 92 {K.S. 
ii, 64:); .4. ii, 211 and J.P.T.S., 1919, p. 49. 



99 


XXXV, IV, 3, § iQo] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

§ 189 (3). The fisherman. 

He in whom lust, malice and ignorance are cast off, — he 
hath passed over this ocean, with its sharks and demons, with 
its fearsome waves impassable. 

Bond-free, escaped from Death and without base, 
Transcending sorrow, to become no more, 

Evanished, incomparable one — 

He hath befooled the King of Death, I say.^ 

Just as a fisherman, brethren, casts a baited hook in some 
deep pool of water, and some fish, greedy for the bait,- gulps 
it down, and thus, brethren, that fish that gulps dowTi the 
fisherman’s hook comes by misfortune, comes to destruction, 
becomes subject to the pleasure of the fisherman, — even so, 
brethren, there are these six hooks in the world, to the sorrow 
of beings, to the harm of living things. WTiat six ? 

There are, brethren, objects cognizable by the eye . . . 
inciting to lust. If a brother delight therein, welcomes them, 
persists in clinging to them, such an one is called ‘ hook- 
swallower,’ ‘ come by misfortune from Mara,’ ‘ come to destruc- 
tion,’ ‘ become subject to the pleasure of the Evil One.’ And 
so also for the other external sense-spheres. 

There are mind-states, brethren, cognizable by the mind. 
... If a brother delight not therein, welcomes them not, 
persists not in clinging to them, such an one is called ‘ one 
that has not taken Mara’s hook,’ ‘hook-breaker,’ ‘ hook- 
shatterer,’ ‘ one that is scatheless,’ ‘ not subject to the pleasure 
of the Evil One.’ 


§ 190 (4). The sap-tree.^ 

‘ If in any brother or sister, brethren, that lust, that malice, 
that infatuation which is in objects cognizable by the eye 
exists, be not abandoned, then, when even trifling objects, 

1 C/. K.S. i, 152. 

2 Amisa-ca1ckhu=Mle.sa-lola (Corny, on Jat. v, 91). Lit. ‘ w-ith an 
eye for flesh.’ Cf. K.S. ii, 1.93. 

“ Cf. M. i, 429. Caloptrls gigantea (Pali Did.). Here it means any 
sappy tree. 



100 


The Scdayatana Book [text iv, i6o 

not to speak of considerable objects, cognizable by the eye, 
come into the range of the eye,^ they overspread the heart. ^ 
Why so ? Because, brethren, that lust, that malice, that 
infatuation exists, is not yet abandoned. 

If in any brother or sister, brethren, that lust . . . that is 
in mind-states cognizable by the mind exists, be not abandoned 
. . . they overspread the heart. Why so ? Because of that 
lust . . . that is not yet abandoned. 

Suppose, brethren, a sap-tree, either a ho-tree or a banyan 
or fig-tree or bunched fig-tree or any tender young tree. 
Then if a man cuts into it with a sharp axe, whenever he does 
so the sap flows out, does it not V 

‘ Yes, lord.’ 

‘my so?’ 

‘ Because sap is in it, lord.’ 

‘ Just so, brethren, if in any brother or sister that lust, that 
malice, that infatuation which is in objects cognizable by the 
eye ... in the tongue ... in mind-states cognizable by 
the mind exists, be not abandoned, then, when even trifling 
objects, not to speak of considerable objects, cognizable by 
the eye come into the range of the eye, they overspread the 
heart. WTiy so ? Because that lust ... is not yet aban- 
doned. But if they be abandoned they do not overspread 
the heart. 

Suppose, brethren, a sap-tree, either a bo-tree or banyan 
or fig-tree or bunched fig-tree that is dried up, sapless, past 
its season,^ and a man with a sharp axe cut into it. Would 
sap come out ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ 'Why not ?’ 

‘ Because no sap is in it, lord.’ 

‘ Just so, brethren, as I have said ... if in any brother 
or sister that lust, that malice, that infatuation which is in 

^ CakUtusm dpaliuuj uyticchtinti. (/. Vin. i, 184; JI. i, 190; A. iii, 37; 
Biiddh. Psych. Eth., 199 a. 

^ Cittay jxiriyadiyanti. See supra, § 134 n. 

^ Sukhho, koldpo, tero(lira)-inssika (for text’s thero). ‘More than a 
year old.’ Infra, § 2o2. 



101 


XXXV, IV, 3, § igi] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

objects cognizable by tbe eye exist not, if they be abandoned, — 
then, when even trifling objects, not to speak of considerable 
objects, come into tbe range of the eye, they do not overspread 
tbe heart. Why so 1 Because that lust, that malice, that 
infatuation exist not, because they are abandoned. 

So also of tbe tongue and mind-states cognizable by tbe 
eye . . . they do not overspread the heart because they 
exist not, because they are abandoned.’ 


§ 191 (5). Kotthilia} 

Once the venerable Sariputta and the venerable Kotthika 
the Great were staying near Benares, at Isipatana in the 
Antelope Park. 

Then the venerable Kotthika the Great, rising from his 
solitude at eventide, went to visit the venerable Sariputta, and 
on coming to him greeted him courteously, and after the 
exchange of greetings and courtesies sat down at one side. 
So seated he said to the venerable Sariputta : — 

‘ How now, friend ? Is the eye the bond of objects, or are 
objects the bond of the eye ? Is the tongue the bond of 
savours, or are savours the bond of the tongue ? Is mind 
the bond of mind-states, or are mind-states the bond of the 
mind V 

‘ Not so, friend Kotthika. The eye is not the bond of 
objects, nor are objects the bond of eye, but that desire and 
lust that arise owing to these two. That is the bond. And 
so with tongue and mind ... it is the desire and lust that 
arise owing to savours and tongue, mind-states and mind. 

Suppose, friend, two oxen, one white and one black, tied by 
one rope or one yoke-tie. Would one be right in saying that 
the black ox is the bond for the white one, or that the white 
ox is the bond for the black one V 

‘ Siu-ely not, friend.’ 

‘ No, friend. It is not so. But the rope or the yoke-tie 


^ Supra, § 161. This may be another case of Kotthika s arrangiij 
with Sariputta to ‘ play ’ at teacher and pupil, so as to aid the 
to win proficiency as a teacher. Cf. Corny, on M. i, 293. 

Sui., ii, 335. (The suggestion is that of Mrs. Rhys Davids 





102 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 163 

which binds the two, — ^that is the bond that unites them. 
So it is with the eye and objects, with tongue and savours, 
with mind and mind-states. It is the desire and lust which 
are in them that form the bond that unites them. 

If the eye, friend, were the bond of objects, or if objects 
were the bond of the eye, then this righteous life for the utter 
destruction of 111 could not be proclaimed. But since it is 
not so, but the desire and lust which are in them is the bond, 
therefore is the righteous life for the utter destruction of 111 
proclaimed. 

If the tongue, friend, were the bond of savours ... if the 
mind were the bond of mind-states, or if mind-states were 
the bond of mind, this righteous life . . . could not be pro- 
claimed. But since it is not so . . . therefore is it proclaimed. 

Now by this method it is to be understood, as I have stated, 
that it is the desire and lust which are in the eye and objects, 
in the tongue and savour, in mind and mind-states, — it is 
they that are the bond. 

There is in the Exalted One an eye, friend. The Exalted 
One sees an object with the eye. But in the Exalted One 
is no desire and lust. Wholly heart-free is the Exalted One. 
There is in the Exalted One a tongue ... a mind. But in the 
Exalted One is no desire and lust. ^Vholly heart-free is the 
Exalted One. 

By this method, friend, you are to understand, as I said 
before, that the bond is the desire and lust which are in things.’ 

§ 192 (6). Kamahhu. 

{The brother Kamahhu comes to Ananda and asks the same 
question and gets exactly the same reply.) 

§ 193 (7). Uddyin.^ 

Once the venerable Ananda and the venerable Udayin were 
staying at Kosambi in Ghosita Park. Then the venerable 
Udayin, rising at eventide from his solitude, went to visit the 
venerable Ananda, and on coming to him . . . after the 

1 Supra, § 123 . 



XXXV, IV, 3, § 193] Kindred Sayings on Sense 103 

exchange of courtesies, sat down at one side. So seated the 
venerable Udayin said to the venerable Ananda : — 

‘ Is it possible, friend Ananda, just as this body has in 
divers ways been defined, explained, set forth by the Exalted 
One, as being without the self, — is it possible in the same 
way to describe the consciousness, to show it, make it plain, 
set it forth, make it clear, analyze and expound it as being 
also without the self V 

‘ Just as this body has been defined in divers ways . . . 
by the Exalted One, friend Edayin, so also is it possible to 
describe this consciousness, to show it . . . expound it as 
being also without the self. 

Owing to the eye and object arises eye-consciousness, does 
it not, friend V 

‘ Yes, friend.’ 

‘ Well, if the condition, if the cause of the arising of eye- 
consciousness should altogether, in every way, utterly come 
to cease without remainder, would any eye-consciousness be 
evident V 

‘ Surely not, friend.’ 

‘ Well, friend, it is by this method that the Exalted One 
has explained, opened up, and shown that this consciousness 
also is without the self. 

Again, owing to tongue and savours, friend, arises tongue- 
consciousness, does it not ?’ 

‘ It does, friend.’ 

‘ Well, if the condition, if the cause of the arising of tongue- 
consciousness should cease altogether, in every way, utterly, 
without remainder, would any tongue-consciousness be 
evident V 

‘ Surely not, friend.’ 

‘ Well, it is by this method that the Exalted One has ex- 
plained . . . that this consciousness also is without the 
self. 

Again, owing to mind and mind-states arises mind-con- 
sciousness, does it not ?’ 

‘ Yes, friend.’ 

‘ Well, if the condition, if the cause for the arising of mind- 



104 The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 167 

consciousness should cease . . . utterly, without remainder, 
would any mind-consciousness he evident V 

‘ Surely not, friend.’ 

‘ Well, it is by this method that the Exalted One has ex- 
plained, opened up, and shown that this consciousness also 
is without the self. 

Suppose, friend, that a man should roam about in need of 
heart of wood,’^ searching for heart of wood, looking for heart 
of wood, and, taking a sharp axe, should enter a forest. 
There he sees a mighty plantain-trunk, straight up, new- 
grown, of towering height. He cuts it down at the root. 
Having cut it down at the root he chops it off at the top. 
Having done so he peels off the outer skin. But he would 
find no pith inside. Much less would he find heart of wood. 

Even so, friend, a brother beholds no trace of the self nor 
of what pertains to the self in the sixfold sense-sphere. So 
beholding, he is attached to nothing in the world. Un- 
attached, he is not troubled. Untroubled, he is of himself 
utterly set free.^ So that he realizes, “ Destroyed is rebirth. 
Lived is the righteous life. Done is the task. For life in 
these conditions there is no hereafter.” ’ 

§ 194 ( 8 ). On fire.^ 

I will teach you, brethren, a discourse (illustrated) by fire, 
a Norm-discourse. Do ye listen to it. And what, brethren, 
is that discourse ? 

It were a good thing, brethren, if the organ of sight were 
seared with a red-hot iron pin,"* on fire, all ablaze, a glowing 
mass of flame. Then would there be no grasping of the marks 

1 C/. AT-jS. iii, 119. 2 Parinibbdyati. 

® Supra, § 28; Vin. i. 21; K.S. iii, 62. 

* Quoted at VM. i, 36. where the translator has : ‘ better an iron wire 
heated . . . than the faculty of sight grasping details. . . .’ At J. 
(F) iii, .532, trans. in vol. iii. p. 316 (Francis and Noil), there is a similar 
passage showing that a brother under the influence of personal beauty 
should not set his affections on mental or physical attributes, ‘for 
should he die at such a moment, he is reborn in hell and the like evil 
states. . . . Therefore it is good that the eye of the senses should be 
touched with a red-hot iron pin.’ 



105 


XXXV, IV, 3 , § 194] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

or details of objects cognizable by the eye. The conscious- 
ness might stand fast, being firmly bound^ by the satisfaction 
either of the marks or the details (of the objects). Should 
one die at such a time, there is the possibility of his winning 
one of two destinies, either Purgatory or rebirth in the womb 
of an animal. Seeing this danger, brethren, do I so declare. 

It were a good thing, brethren, if the organ of hearing were 
pierced with an iron spike, on fire, all ablaze, a glowing mass 
of flame. So would there be no grasping of the marks or 
details of sounds cognizable by the ear. The consciousness 
might stand fast. . . . Should one die at this time . . . 
Seeing this danger, brethren, do I so declare. 

It were a good thing, brethren, if the organ of smell were 
pierced with a sharp claw,^ on fire, all ablaze, a glowing mass 
of flame. Then would there be no grasping of the marks or 
details of scents cognizable by the nose. The consciousness 
might stand fast. . . . Should one die at such a time . . . 
Seeing this danger, brethren, do I so declare. 

It were a good thing, brethren, if the organ of taste were 
seared with a sharp razor, on fire, all ablaze, a glowing mass 
of flame. Then would there be no grasping of the marks 
or details of savours cognizable by the tongue. The conscious- 
ness might stand fast. . . . Should one die at such a time 
. . . Seeing this danger, brethren, do I so declare. 

It were a good thing, brethren, if the organ of touch^ were 
seared with a sword, on fire, all ablaze, a glowing mass of 
flame. So would there be no grasping of the marks or details 
of tangibles cognizable by body. The consciousness might 
stand fast. ... If one were to die at such a time . . . 
Seeing this danger, brethren, do I so declare. 

It were a good thing, brethren, to be asleep. For sleep, 
I declare, is barren for living things. It is fruitless for living 
things, I declare. It is dull^ for living things, I declare. For 
(if asleep) one would not be applying his mind to such imagin- 
ings as would enslave him, so that (for instance) he would 

' Gadhitay. Coiiii/. revls ‘ g>ilhitay=gan1hitay.haddharj.’ Cf.UdA.1‘20. 

^ Nalcha-cchedana. lit. ‘nail-split.’ 

^ (generally applied to the skin). ^ Moniuliay. 



106 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 170 

break irp the Order.’^ Seeing this^ danger (of being awake), 
brethren, do I so declare. 

As to that, brethren, the well-taught Ariyan disciple thus 
reflects : — 

‘ Let alone searing the organ of sight with an iron pin, on 
fire, all ablaze, a glowing mass of flame, what if I thus ponder : 
Impermanent is the eye, impermanent are objects, imper- 
manent is eye-consciousness, eye-contact, the weal or woe 
or neutral state experienced which arises owing to eye-con- 
tact, — that also is impermanent. 

Let alone splitting the organ of hearing with an iron spike 
. . . what if I thus ponder: Impermanent is the ear, sounds, 
ear-consciousness, ear-contact, that weal or woe or neutral 
state . . . that also is impermanent. 

Let alone piercing the organ of smell with a sharp claw . . . 
what if I thus ponder: Impermanent is the nose, scents, nose- 
consciousness, nose-contact, that weal or woe or neutral 
state . . . that also is impermanent. 

Letalonesplittingtheorganoftaste with a sharp razor . . . 
what if I thus ponder: Impermanent is the tongue, savours, 
tongue-consciousness, tongue-contact, that weal or woe or 
neutral state . . . that also is impermanent. 

Let alone sleeping, let me thus ponder; Impermanent is 
mind, mind-states, mind-consciousness, mind-contact, that 
weal or woe or neutral state experienced that arises from 
mind-contact, that also is impermanent.’ 

So seeing, the well-taught Ariyan disciple is repelled by 
the eye, by objects, by eye-consciousness, by eye-contact. 
He is repelled by that weal or woe or neutral state experienced 
that arises owing to eye-contact. Being repelled he is dis- 
passionate. Dispassionate, he is set free. By freedom 
comes the knowledge, ‘I am freed,’ so that he realizes: 

‘ Destroyed is rebirth. Lived is the righteous life. Done is 
the task. For life in these conditions there is no hereafter.’ 

Such, brethren, is the Norm discourse (illustrated) by fire. 

1 H(>rc' doubtless Devadatta is thought of. 

- Text lias ainjJutr) jidldmty, possibly inserted by error, for only 
one MS. has it. Usually pnnjhn, ‘barren,’ is as.sociated with its 
oppo.site, saphalu, fruitful. 



XXXV, IV, 5, § 197 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 


107 


§ 195 (9). The simile of hand and foof (i). 

Where there is a hand, brethren, there are seen taking up 
and putting down.^ AVhere there is a foot, there are seen 
coming and going. Where is a limb, there are seen bending 
in and stretching out. Where there is belly, there hunger 
and thirst are seen. 

Just so, brethren, where is eye, there arises owing to eye- 
contact one’s personal weal and woe. . . . Where is tongue, 
there arises owing to tongue-contact one’s personal weal and 
woe. AVhere is mind, there arises owing to mind-contact 
one’s personal weal and woe. 

AVhere the hand is not, no taking up or laying down is seen. 
AA’here the foot is not, no coming or going is seen. AA’here 
a limb is not, no bending in or stretching out is seen. AA'here 
belly is not, there no hunger or thirst is seen. 

Just so, brethren, where eye is not, no personal weal or 
woe arises owing to eye-contact. . . . AATiere tongue is not 
. . . where mind is not, no personal weal or woe arises owing 
to mind-contact. 

AATiere is a hand, brethren, there is taking up and laying 
down. AATiere is a foot . . . (repealed as above) . . . where 
mind is not, no personal weal or woe arises owing to mind- 
contact. (The following § 196 is the same.) 

5. The Chapter on the Snake 
§ 197 (1). The snake.^ 

Thus have I heard; Once the Exalted One was dwelling 
at Savatthi . . . and thus addressed the brethren ; — 

Suppose, brethren, four snakes, of fierce heat and fearful 

1 Buddh. Psych., p. 84. = Halthe-sii. etc. Not dat. plur. but 

hdtthe, sing, with expletive su. Corny, takes it as hatthesii vijjamdnesu. 

^ Asli'isa. This sermon was preached, acc. to J/a/mraysn. xii (Geiger, 
p. 84), by the thera Majjhantika to the dwellers of Kasnilra and 
Gandhara. Cf. d. ii, 110. Corny, treats us to a long discourse on 
snakes and their ways. These four he calls kittthn-. pidi-, satfha- 

mukha. These are reared by rajahs and are used, among other pur- 
poses, ‘ to bite robbers.’ Cf Expositor, ii, 39.5 ; PnA. 458 ; Pugg. 48. 



108 The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 173 

venom. Theti a man comes by, fond of his life, not loving 
death, fond of happiness and loathing pain.^ Suppose men 
say to him : ‘ Here, good fellow, are four snakes, of fierce heat 
and fearful venom. ^ From time to time they must be roused 
up, bathed and fed, from time to time they must be put to 
bed.^ Now, good fellow, whenever one of these four snakes, 
of fierce heat and fearful venom, gets angry, then you will 
come by your death or mortal pain."* So do as you think fit, 
my man.’ 

Then suppose, brethren, that man in mortal terror of those 
four snakes, of fierce heat and fearful venom, wanders here 
and there, and they tell him: ‘ See here, good fellow. Five 
murderous foes are following close upon yoirr tracks, saying, 
“ AMienever we see him, we will slay him.” So do as you 
think fit, my man.’ 

But, brethren, that man, in terror of the four snakes, of 
fierce heat and fearful venom, in terror of the five murderous 
foes, might wander here and there, and men might say to 
him: ‘ Here, good fellow, is a sixth, a murderous housebreaker,® 
who with uplifted sword follows close upon your tracks, 
saying, “ As soon as I see him. I’ll cut his head off.” So do 
as you think fit, my man.’ 

Then, brethren, that man, in terror of the four snakes, of 
the five murderous foes, in terror of the sixth, the murderous 
housebreaker with drawn sword, might wander here and 
there. Then he sees an empty village. "WTiatever house he 
may enter he finds it empty, deserted and void. Therein, 
whatever crock he may handle, he finds it empty and void. 
Then they might .say to him, ‘ Now, good fellow, robbers who 
plunder villages are going to plunder this deserted one. So 
do as you think fit, my man.’ 


1 CJ. K.S. ii, 6:j. - Ohora-visd— dunniiiimadnna-vha. Suggested 

derivs. of dsivisa are dsitta-visa, asita-cisa, asi-sndisa-v. Corny. 

^ I read with Cony. sayL’esetabbd {S. l-:i), who so explains, giving 
rein to his imagination to the extent of several pages. 

* 3Iarana-7nallay duhkliny (pain ‘ as bad as death ’ or ‘ just death ’) 

® AntarMrn, lit. ‘one who gees inside’ as opposed to com, a high- 
wayman or footpad. 



109 


XXXV, IV, 5, § 197 ] Kindred Sayings an Sense 

Then, brethren, that man, in terror of the snakes . . . the 
foes . . . the sixth . . . the villa ge-plunderers, might roam 
here and there. Then suppose he sees a great broad water, 
the hither side beset with fears and dangers, but the further 
side secure and free from fears, but no boat wherein to cross, 
nor any bridge for going forth and back. 

Then, brethren, it might occur to that man ; ‘ Here is a 
great, broad water, the hither side beset with fears and dangers 
. . . but no boat wherein to cross nor any bridge for going 
forth and back. How now if I gather grass, sticks, branche.s 
and leaves, bind together a raft,^ and mounting thereon and 
striving with hands and feet cross safely to the further shore V 

And suppose he does so. Crossed over, gone beyond, the 
brahmin^ stands on dry land. 

Now, brethren, this simile have I made to illustrate my 
meaning. And the interpretation of it is this : — 

‘ The four snakes of fierce heat and fearful venom,’ brethren, 
— that is a name for the four great essentials,^ the elements 
of earth, water, fire and air. 

‘ The five murderous foes,’ brethren, — that is a name for the 
fivefold factors of grasping, to wit: the grasping factor of 
body, that of feeling, perception, the activities and con- 
sciousness. 

‘ The sixth, the murderous housebreaker with uplifted 
sword,’ — that is a name for passionate desire. 

‘ The empty village,’ brethren, — that is a name for the 
personal sixfold sense-sphere. For if a man, however wise, 
clever, intelligent he be, searches it through by way of the 
eye, he finds it empty, finds it void, unoccupied. If he 
searches it through by way of the tongue ... by way of 
the mind, he finds it empty, finds it void, unoccupied.* 

‘ The village-plunderers,’ brethren, — ^that is a name for the 
external sixfold sense-sphere. For the eye, brethren, destroys 
with entrancing shapes, the ear destroys with entrancing 
sounds, the nose . . . the tongue with entrancing savours 

* C/ J/. i, 134 ; {7rf. viii, 6. ^ Cf. K.S.i,6~ n. 

^ Mahdbhutd. C’f. Dh^A. '600 {Expos. 395) •, S>iA.i58. 

* ‘By anything of the nature of “I” or “mine.” ’ Coniy. Cf. 
B. Psy. Eth., §§ 597, etc. 



110 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 175 

. . . the body . . . the mind destroys with entrancing 
mind-states. 

‘ The great, broad water,’ brethren, — that is a name for 
the fourfold flood^ of desire, becoming, view and ignorance. 

‘ The hither shore,’ brethren, beset with fears and dangers, — 
that is a name for the person-pack.^ 

‘ The further shore,’ brethren, secure and safe from fears, — 
that is a name for Nibbana. 

‘ The raft,’ brethren, — that is a name for the Ariyan Eight- 
fold Path, to wit: right view, and the rest. 

‘ Striving with hands and feet,’ brethren, — that is a name 
for energy and effort.^ 

‘ Crossed over, gone beyond, the brahmin stands on dry 
land,’ brethren, — that is a name for the Arahant. 

§ 198 (2). Delighting in. 

Proficient in three ways, brethren, a brother dwells to the 
full with ease and pleasure in this very life, and he has strong 
grounds^ for the destruction of the asavas. In what three 
things 1 He keeps guard on the door of the faculties, he is 
moderate in eating, he is given to watchfulness. 

And how, brethren, does a brother keep guard on the door 
of the faculties ? 

Herein a brother, seeing an object with the eye,® is not 
misled by its oirter view nor by its lesser details. Since covet- 
ing and dejection, those evil, unprofitable states, might over- 
whelm one who dwells with the faculty of eye uncontrolled, 
he applies himself to such control, sets a guard over the 
faculty of eye, attains control thereof. 

When he hears a sound with the ear, or with the nose smells 
a scent, or with the tongue tastes a savoiu, or with body 
contacts tangibles, when with mind he cognizes a mind-state, 

^ Oijtia. 2 Sakkdya. Cf. K.S. iii, 80 n. 

^ ViriyaranMutssa. Corny, and MSS. read vtriyassa. 

■* Yoni, as source or origin. Cf. A. ii, 76, where yoni draidhd is 
explained by Corny, as ‘pannd. In the present passage Corny, says 
kdratmtj c’ assa paripmpiag yeva hoti. The passage occurs at i, 113. 

® Cf. § 130. 



Ill 


XXXV, IV, 5, § 198] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

he is not misled by their outer view nor by their lesser details. 
But since coveting and dejection ... he sets a guard over 
the faculty of mind, attains control thereof. 

Suppose, brethren, on level ground at the crossing of the 
fomr highways’^ a car be drawn by thoroughbreds, with a 
goad set in rest therein,^ and a clever trainer, a driver who 
tames steeds. He mounts thereon, with his left hand holding 
the reins, and in his right he takes the goad, and drives the 
car forward and backward, whither and how he wills. Just 
so, brethren, a brother practises the guard over the six faculties, 
he practises for their restraint, for their taming, for their 
calming. That, brethren, is how a brother keeps a guard 
over the faculties. 

And how, brethren, is a brother moderate in eating ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother takes his food thoughtfully 
and prudently, not for sport, not for indulgence, not for per- 
sonal charm and adornment, but sufficient for the support 
and upkeep of body, to allay its pains, to help the practice 
of the righteous life, with the thought: My former feeling I 
check and set on foot no new feeling. So shall I keep going, 
be blameless and live at ease. 

Just as a man, brethren, anoints a wound just for the healing 
of it, or just as he oils an axle enough for carrying the load, 
even so thoughtfully and prudently does a brother take his 
food, not for sport . . . with the thought: So shall I live 
at ease. That, brethren, is how a brother is moderate in 
eating. 

And how, brethren, is a brother given to watchfulness ? 

Herein, brethren, by day a brother walks up and down 
and sits, and so cleanses his heart from states that may hinder. 
By night, for the first watch, he does likewise. In the middle 
watch of the night, lying on his right side, he takes up the 
posture of a lion, resting one foot on the other, and thus 
collected and composed fixes his thought on rising up again. 
In the last watch of the night, at early dawn, he walks up and 

1 CJ. 31. i, 124 = J. iii, 28. - Odhasta-jxitodu. (Corny. odhasM 

=ratha-majjhe thaynta.) At 31. Lord Chalmers trans. ‘Ij-iiig ready to 
hand’: AA. ad loc. cit., ‘resting on the rail.’ 



112 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 177 

down and sits, and so cleanses his heart from states that 
may hinder. Thus, brethren, is a brother given to watchful- 
ness. 

So, brethren, possessed of these three things, a brother dwells 
to the full with ease and pleasure in this very life, and so has 
strong grounds for the destruction of the asavas. 

§ 199 (3). The tortoise. 

Formerly, brethren, a tortoise, a shell-back, was questing 
for its prey at eventide along a river bank. A jackal also, 
brethren, was so doing. 

Now, brethren, that tortoise, that shell-back saw from afar 
that jackal questing for its prey. So drawing its neck and 
four limbs^ into its shell it crouched down at leisure and kept 
still. Then the jackal, seeing that tortoise, the shell-back, 
from afar, came up to it, and on reaching it kept watching it 
with the thought:^ As soon as the tortoise, the shell-back, 
puts out one or other of its five limbs. I’ll seize it, crack and 
eat it. But, brethren, as the tortoise, the shell-back, did not 
put out one or other of its five limbs, the jackal was disgusted 
with the tortoise and went away, not having got a chance. 

Even so, brethren, Mara, the Evil One, is for ever on the 
watch unceasingly, with the thought: Maybe I shall get a 
chance to catch one of these, by way of eye or tongue or mind. 
IVherefore, brethren, do ye abide keeping watch over the 
doors of the faculties. 

Seeing an object with the eye, be not misled by its outer 
view nor by its lesser details. Since coveting and dejection, 
those evil, unprofitable states might overwhelm one who 
dwells with the faculty of the eye uncontrolled, do ye apply 
yourselves to such control, set a guard over the faculty of 
the eye, attain control thereof. So long, brethren, as ye abide 
keeping watch over the doors of the faculties, Mara, the Evil 
One, will go away in disgust, not getting a chance, as the 
jackal did not get a chance from the tortoise. 


‘ Sondi-piincimani. 

2 Cf. S. ii, 270 for the simile of the cat and mouse. 



113 


XXXV, IV, 5 , § 200] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

E’en as tlie tortoise in its own shell’s shelter^ 
Withdraws its limbs, so may the brother holding. 
Composed, intent, thoughts in his mind arisen,^ 
Leaning on naught,® injuring ne’er his neighbour, 
From evil freed wholly, ■* speak ill of no man. 

§ 200 (4). The log of wood (i).* 

Once the Exalted One was staying at Kosambi, on the bank 
of the river Ganges. 

Now the Exalted One saw a great log being carried down 
Ganges’ stream, and on seeing it he called to the brethren, 
saying, ‘ Brethren, do ye see yonder great log being carried 
down Ganges’ stream V 

‘ Yes, lord.’ 

‘ Now, brethren, if the log does not ground on this bank or 
the further bank, does not sink in mid-stream, does not stick 
fast on a shoal, does not fall into human or non-human hands,® 
is not caught in a whirlpool,® does not rot inwardly, — that 
log, brethren, will float down to ocean, will slide down to 
ocean, will tend towards ocean. And why ? Because, 
brethren, Ganges’ stream floats down to ocean, slides down 
to ocean, tends towards ocean. 

In like manner, brethren, if ye do not ground on this shore 
or that shore, if ye sink not in mid-stream, if ye stick not fast 
on a shoal, if ye fall not into hands human or non-human, if 
ye be not caught in a whirlpool, if ye rot not inwardly. — then, 
brethren, ye shall float down to Nibbana. Ye shall slide 

1 give Mrs. Rhys Davids’ version of the same stanza, occurring 
at K.S. i. 12, which well preserves the rh\'ttuu of the Pali here. 

^ Attano mano-vitakke. Corny. 

^ Anissifo, ‘ not on craving or view.’ Corny. 

* Parinibhuto, ‘ freed from A’iTf-sas utterly.’ Corny. * For Kosambi 
see Appendix. 

® Corny, suggests that a man seeing the log would row out and land it, 
to make a roof-beam of it, or, if it were of sandal wood, he would .set it up 
to make the door of a shrine. Thus ‘ non-humans ’ would have it. 

® Ai'atta, ‘whirlpool.’ not dmttn,, ‘bend’ (according to which I 
translated the word at p. Poff. of my book. So'iie Snyingt of the Buddha). 
It is pahea katmgiina. Corny. 

IV 


8 



114 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, i8o 

down to Nibbana, ye shall tend towards Nibbana. And why ? 
Because, brethren, perfect view floats, slides, tends towards 
Nibbana.’ 

At these words a certain brother said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ What, lord, is “this bank” ? WTiat is “ the other bank ” ? 
What is “ sinking in mid-stream ” ? What is “ sticking fast 
on a shoal ” ? What is “ falling into hands human or non- 
human ” ? AVhat is “ being caught in a whirlpool ” ? What 
is “ rotting inwardly ” V 

‘ “ This bank,” brother, is a name for the sixfold personal 
sense-sphere. “ That bank,” brother, is a name for the 
external sixfold sense-sphere. “ Sinking in mid-stream,” 
brother, is a name for the lure and lust.^ 

And what, brother, is “ being caught by humans ” ? 

In this matter, brother, a householder lives in society, 
rejoices with them that rejoice, sorrows with them that sorrow, 
takes pleasure with them that take pleasure, suffers with them 
that suffer, makes a link with^ all manner of business that 
befalls. This, brother, is “ being caught by humans.” 

And what, brother, is “ being caught by non-humans ” 1 

In this matter, brother, such and such an one lives the 
righteous life with the wish to be reborn in the company of 
some class of devas,® with the thought: May I, by virtue or 
practice or by some austerity or by righteous living, become 
a deva or one of the devas. This, brother, is “ being caught 
by non-humans.” 

“ Being caught in a whirlpool,” brother, is a name for the 
pleasure of the five senses. 

And what, brother, is “ rotting inwardly ” ? 

Herein, brother, a certain one is immoral, an evil-doer, 
impure, of suspicious behaviour,^ of covert deeds. He is no 
recluse, though a recluse in vows: no liver of the righteous 
life, though vowed thereto: rotten within and full of lusts, 
a rubbish-heap of filth® is he. That is “ rotting inwardly.” ’ 

1 Nancli-rdga. 2 yojfam ‘ applies himself to.’ 

^ Cf. K.S. iii, Bk. x. * t^ankassara-sarndcdro. Cf. S. i. 66; 

UdA. 297, ‘ thinking others are talking of my faults.’ 

5 Kasambu-jdto. See Uddna v, 0 . 



115 


XXXV, IV, 5, § 2 oi] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

Now on that occasion Nanda the cowherd was standing 
not far from the Exalted One. Then Nanda the cowherd 
exclaimed to the Exalted One : — 

‘ I, lord, am one who is not grounded^ on this bank. I am not 
stranded on the further bank. I shall not sink in mid-stream. 
I shall not run aground on a shallow. I shall not be caught 
by humans or non-humans. No whirlpool shall catch me. 
I shall not rot inwardly. Lord, may I get ordination at the 
Exalted One’s hands ? May I get full ordination V 

‘ Then, Nanda, do you restore the kine to their owners.’ 

‘ Lord, the kine will go back. They are longing for their 
calves.’ 

‘ Do you just restore the kine to their owners, Nanda.’ 

Thereupon Nanda the cowherd, having restored the kine 
to their owners, came to the Exalted One and said: ‘Lord, 
the kine are restored to their owners. Lord, may I get ordina- 
tion at the Exalted One’s hands ? May I get full ordina- 
tion V 

So Nanda the cowherd gained ordination, gained full 
ordination at the Exalted One’s hands. And not long after, 
the venerable Nanda, living solitary and remote, ardent and 
intent . . . won the Goal. 

And the venerable Nanda was yet another of the Arahants. 


§ 201 (5). The log of wood (ii). 

Thus have I heard: Once the Exalted One was staying at 
Kimbila,^ on the bank of the river Ganges. 

Then the Exalted One saw a great log being carried down 
Ganges’ stream, and on seeing it he called to the brethren, 
saying:— 

‘ Brethren, do ye see yonder great log being carried down 
Ganges’ stream ?’ 

‘ Yes, lord.’ 

{The same as the above down to ‘ tend towards Nibbana.’) 

1 Upagacchdmi. [VM. 600 , up^gamanalJ= upuddnar).] 

^ Cf. S. V, 322, where the brother Kirabila {Brethren, 105, 125) lives 
in the village of this name, in the Bamboo Grove. 



116 Tl}e Salayatana Booh [text iv, 182 

At these words the venerable Kimbila said to the Exalted 
One : — ■ 

‘ Pray, lord, what is “ this bank (as before). 

‘ And what, Kimbila, is “ rotting inwardly ” ? 

Herein, Kimbila, a brother is guilty of some foul offence, 
of such a nature that no pardon thereof is declaredd This, 
Kimbila, is rotting inwardly.” ’ 

§ 202 (6). Lustful." 

Once the Exalted One was staying among the Sakyans,^ 
near Kapilavatthu, in the Banyan Park. 

Now at that time there was a newly built mote-halP of the 
Sakyans of Kapilavatthu, not long made, never yet dwelt 
in by recluse of brahmin or any other human being. 

Then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu came to visit the Exalted 
One, and on coming to him they saluted him and sat down 
at one side. So seated they said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ Here, lord, is a newly built mote-hall of the Sakyans of 
Kapilavatthu, not long made, never yet dwelt in by recluse 
or brahmin or any other human being. Let our lord, the 
Exalted One, be the first to make use of it. AVhen the Exalted 
One has first made use of it, afterwards the Sakyans of Kapi- 
lavatthu will use it. That shall be for the profit and welfare 
of the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu for many a long day.’ 

Tlie E.xalted One assented by silence. 

Then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu. seeing the consent of the 
E.xalted One, saluted him by the right and went away to the 

^ Viifth'innt) (rehabilitation after unfrocking). Hero text omits nu, 
which is clearly needed and is read by two MSS. ( f. ft n. ii, 7; Asl. 399. 

2 Ams.vi/a, bt. ‘leaky.’ 

^ The Buddha’s own clan. f/. K.S'. i. :t6: iii, 77. 

* Sanllmydniy. This introductory part occur.s at JI. i, 3.53. Cf. 
BaiUh'n^t India, 20. The word is detined here and at D.A. i, 256 as 
‘royal muster-hall’ {eray .sanlhiy bironli, tnariijCidCinarj bandhanti : 
r.ijiino tattha -samhlmvanti ti). The de.scription of this hall is given at 
great length by Comij.. and is to be found in substance at Ud.A. 409. 
The same words are used at D. iii. 209 (Dialog, iii. 201) to describe the 
mote-hall of the Pava Mallas. 



117 


XXXV, IV, 5, § 202] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

new mote-hall. Having got it ready in every way, having 
appointed seats, set a waterpot and hung up an oil-lamp,^ 
they went to the Exalted One, and on coming to him they 
said: — 

‘ All ready, lord, is the mote-hall. Seats are appointed. A 
waterpot is set. An oil-lamp is hung. Let the Exalted One 
now do what seems good to him.’ 

Then the Exalted One robed himself, and taking outer robe 
and bowl went along with a great company of brethren to the 
new mote-hall. On reaching it he had his feet washed," 
entered the mote-hall and sat down against the middle pillar, 
facing the east. The Order of Brethren also had their feet 
washed, entered the mote-hall and .sat down against the 
western wall, also facing east, with the Exalted One in front 
of them. Then the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu akso, having had 
their feet washed, entered the mote-hall and sat down asainst 
the eastern wall, having the E.xalted One in front of them. 

Then the Exalted One taught the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu 
with a pious talk^ till far into the night, e.stablished them, 
roused and made them happy. Then he dismissed them with 
these words: ‘ The night is far spent, Gotamas.'* Do ye now 
what seems good to you.’ 

‘ It is well, lord,’ said the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu in obedi- 
ence to the Exalted One. And they rose up, saluted the 
Exalted One by the right and went away. 

Now not long after the departure of the Sakyans of Kapi- 
lavatthu the Exalted One said to the venerable Moggallana 
the Great : — 

‘ Moggallana, the Order of Brethren is now freed of sloth 

1 ‘ Seat.s,’ of course, are mats, c.xcej)! for the teaelicr, who sits in 
a chair ou a dais. The waterpot is at tlie door for foot-washing. The 
oil-lamp is for the night's 6(t««-prcaching. The.se cu.stonis are still 
strictly followed in ( 'eylon. 

- The method of rinsing the feet on entering a house is describetl at 
Ti/i. ii, 8. Nowadays in t'eylon this is done for each bJiiklhu by a 
ddi/aka, or supporter, while another wipes the feet with a cloth. 

Corny, calls this pakitinnkii (miscellaneous). 

Speaking to his brother elausmeii he thus addresses them by the 
name of their clan. Two watches of the night had passed. Coiny. 



118 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 184 

and torpord Bethink thee, Moggallana, of a pious talk 
to the Order of Brethren. My back is aching. I will 
stretch it.’ 

‘ Very well, lord,’ replied the venerable Moggallana the 
Great to the Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One had his robe folded into four and 
lay down on his right side in the lion-posture, putting one 
foot on the other, collected and composed, with his mind set 
on rising up again. 

Thereupon the venerable Moggallana the Great addressed 
the brethren, saying: ‘ Friends.’ 

‘ Yes, friend,’ replied those brethren to the venerable 
Moggallana the Great. 

The venerable Moggallana the Great then said; — 

‘ Friends, I will teach you the way^ of lusting and also of 
not lusting. Do ye apply your minds carefully and I will 
speak.’ 

‘ Very good, friend,’ replied those brethren to the vener- 
able Moggallana the Great, who then said : — 

‘ And how, friends, is one lustful ? 

Herein, friends, a brother, seeing an object with the eye, 
feels attachment for objects that charm, feels aversion from 
objects that displease, abides with attention to body dis- 
tracted,^ and his thoughts are mean.'* He realizes not, in its 
true nature, that emancipation of heart, that emancipation 
of wisdom, wherein those evil, unprofitable states that have 
arisen cease without remainder. 

This brother, friends, is called “ lustful after objects cog- 
nizable by the eye, nose, tongue . . . objects cognizable by 
mind.” VTien a brother so abides, friends, if Mara® come 
upon him by way of the eye, Mara gets an opportxmity. If 


1 Thina-iiiiddlm, usually one of the hindrances to progress. Hero, 
says Corny., after sitting for two watches they were in a condition to 
listen more attentively. 

2 Purlydya, ‘ method,’ also ‘ teaching.’ Corny, kdranay. 

■* Supra. § i;52. Here kdya is omitted. 

^ Paritki-ceta-so, a.s opposed to apjtamdna-c. below. 

^ Mara. Corny. kilesa-Mdro pi devapuUa-Mdro pi. 



XXXV, IV, 5 , § 202] Kindred Sayings on Sense 119 

Mara come upon him by way of the tongue ... by way of 
the mind, Mara gets access, gets opportunity.^ 

Suppose, friends, a shed thatched with reeds or grass, dry 
and sapless, more than a season old. Then if a man comes 
upon it from the eastern quarter with a bundle of blazing 
grass, the fire would get access, the lire would get opportunity. 
Or if a man comes upon it from the western quarter with a 
bundle of blazing grass, or from the northern or southern 
quarter, or from below or above, — from whatever side the 
man comes upon it with a bundle of blazing grass, the fire 
would get access, the fire would get opportunity. 

Even so, friends, when a brother so abides, if Mara come 
upon him by way of the eye, or the tongue ... or mind, 
Mara gets access, Mara gets opportunity. 

So dwelling, friends, objects overcome a brother, a brother 
overcomes not objects. Sounds overcome a brother, a brother 
overcomes not sounds. Scents, savours, tangibles and mind- 
states overcome a brother, a brother overcomes not sounds, 
scents, savours, tangibles and mind-states. This brother, 
friends, is called “ conquered by objects, sounds, scents, 
savours, tangibles and mind-states, not conqueror of them.” 
Evil, unprofitable states, passion-fraught, leading to rebirth 
overcome him, states unhappy, whose fruit is pain, whose 
future is rebirth, decay and death. Thus, friends, one is 
lustful. 

And how, friends, is one free from lust ? 

Herein, friends, a brother, seeing an object with the eye, 
is not attached to objects that charm, nor averse from objects 
that displease. He abides with attention to body settled, and 
his thought is boundless. He realizes in its true nature that 
emancipation of heart, that emancipation of wisdom, wherein 
those evil, unprofitable states that have arisen come to cease 
without remainder. 

Tasting a savour with the tongue . . . with mind cog- 
nizing a mind-state, he is not attached to mind-states that 
charm, nor is he averse from mind-states that displease, but 

1 Otaray, dramimtuiij. t'f. S. ii, 268, etc. Corny, vivaray, paccayay. 



120 The Scilayatana Booh [text iv, i86 

dwells ^Yith attention to body fixed, his thought is boundless. 
So that he realizes in its true nature that emancipation of 
heart, that emancipation of wisdom, wherein those evil, 
unprofitable states that have arisen come to cease without 
remainder. 

This brother, friends, is called “ not lustful after objects 
cognizable by eye . . . not lustful after mind-states cognizable 
by mind.” Thus dwelling, friends, if Mara come upon him 
by way of the eye, of the tongue, of the mind . . . Mara 
gets no access, gets no opportunity. 

Suppose, friends, a house or hall with peaked gable, built 
of thick clay, newly plastered,^ and a man should come upon 
it from the eastern quarter with a bundle of blazing grass, 
the fire would get no access, get no opportunity. And like- 
wise, if he come from the western quarter, from the northern, 
or from below or above, — from whatever quarter that man 
comes upon it with a bundle of blazing grass, the fire would 
get no access, would get no opportunity. Even so, friends, 
when a brother dwells thus, if Mara come upon him by way 
of the eye, tongue or mind, Mara gets no access, Mara gets 
no opportunity. 

Moreover, friends, so dwelling a brother conquers objects, 
objects do not conquer him. He conquers sounds, scents, 
savours, tangibles, mind-states. They do not conquer him. 
Such a brother, friends, is called “ conqueror of objects, sounds, 
scents, savours, tangibles and mind-states.” He is conqueror, 
not conquered. He conquers those evil, unprofitable states, 
passion-fraught, inciting to lust, leading to rebirth, states 
unhappy, whose fruit is pain, rebirth, decay and death. Thus, 
friends, is one free from lust.’ 

Thereupon the Exalted One rose up and said to the venerable 
Moggallana the Great: — 

‘ AVell said ! AVell said, Moggallana ! Well indeed have 
you spoken to the brethren of the way of lustfulness and the 
way of not lusting.’ 

Thus spake the venerable Moggallana the Great and the 


' AdddvalejMna. C'f. J/. i, 86. 



121 


XXXV, IV, 5 , § 203] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

Master was approving of his words, and those brethren were 
delighted and took pleasure in what was said by the venerable 
Moggallana the Great. 

§ 203 (7). States of III. 

‘ Brethren, when a brother knows, as they really are, the 
arising and the destruction of all states of 111, then indeed 
sensual pleasures are seen by him. When he sees sensual 
pleasures, that desire for sensual pleasures, that love of sensual 
pleasures, that infatuation,^ that feverish longing- for sensual 
pleasures, which is therein, does not fasten on him. His path 
abroad and his lodging at home are so practised® that, in such 
a way of life, coveting and dejection, those evil, unprofitable 
states, do not fasten on him. 

And how, brethren, does a brother know, as they really are, 
both the arising and the destruction of all states of 111 ? He 
knows " such is body, such the arising of ))ody, such is the 
destruction of body. Huch is feeling, such is perception, such 
are the activities, such is consciousness, such the arising and 
destruction of consciousness.” That, brethren, is how he 
knows, as they really are, both the arising and the destruction 
of all states of 111. 

And how, brethren, are sensual pleasures seen by a brother, 
in such a way that, so seeing sensual pleasures, that love of 
sensual pleasures that is therein does not fasten on him ? 

Suppose, brethren, there were a pit of charcoal,'^ deeper 
than a man’s height, full of charcoal, without flame® and 
smokeless. And suppose a man should come, fond of life, not 
loving death, but loathing pain. Then two strong men lay 
hold of him, one by each arm, and drag him to the pit of 
charcoal. He would writhe his body to and fro. MTiy so ? 

1 2Iiiccha, 'swooning or fainting for.’ 

- Parildlm. 

® Text anuhuddha? but v.l. aiuilntiidlm (Burmcso MS.). Coinij. 
probably had the reading uuuhaddhu, ‘followed’ (acc. to which I 
translate). B. says ymi dhlreim nranna-vih'lmii aniibandhitud. 

* Cf. 21. i, 74; K.S. ii, 69. 

5 VitaccMka of text should be vltaccika (eila-accika). 



122 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, i8g 

That man, brethren, would know: I shall fall into this pit 
of charcoal. Owing to that I shall come by death or mortal 
pain. 

Even so, brethren, a brother sees sensual pleasures in the 
likeness of a pit of charcoal, and, so seeing, that love of sensual 
pleasures, that infatuation, that feverish longing for sensual 
pleasures that is therein does not fasten on him. 

And how, brethren, does a brother so practise his path 
abroad and his lodging at home that, so practising, so dwelling, 
covetousness and dejection, those evil, improfitable states, 
do not fasten on him ? 

Suppose, brethren, a man should enter a forest full of 
thorns. To east and west of him are thorns. To north and 
south, below and above him are thorns. "Wherever he ad- 
vances or retreats, he has the thought : May no thorns pierce 
me. Just so, brethren, whatsoever object in the world is 
dear and delightful, — ^that in the Ariyan discipline is called 
“ the thorn.” 

By so understanding, restraint and non-restraint are to be 
understood. 

And how, brethren, comes non-restraint ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother, seeing an object with the eye, 
is attached to objects that are dear, is averse from objects 
that displease. He dwells with attention to body distracted, 
and his thought is mean. He knows not that emancipation of 
heart, that emancipation of wisdom, as they really are, whereby 
those evil, improfitable states that have arisen come to 
cease. 

Tasting a savour with the tongue . . . with mind cognizing 
a mind-state, he is attached to mind-states that are dear, he 
is averse from mind-states that displease. He dwells with 
attention to body distracted, his thought is mean, and he 
knows not that emancipation of heart . . . come to cease. 
Even so, brethren, comes non-restraint. 

And how, brethren, comes restraint ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother, seeing an object ... is not 
attached ... is not averse . . . dwells with attention fixed 
on body, and his thought is boundless ... he knows that 



XXXV, IV, 5, § 203 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 123 

emancipation of heart . . . come to cease. Even so, brethren, 
comes restraint. 

In that brother, brethren, so practising, so dwelling, some- 
times and full seldom, through loss of self-control,^ there do 
arise evil, unprofitable states, memories and hopes^ that are 
akin to the fetters that bind. Weak, brethren, is the arising 
of his mindfulness,® but quickly he abandons (such a state), 
puts it away, wipes it out, makes it go to utter destruction. 
Just as if, brethren, a man should let fall two or three drops 
of water into an iron pot, heated all day long,^ — that mere 
trickle of water-drops is soon wiped out, soon used up, brethren. 
Even so in that brother, so dwelling, sometimes and full 
seldom, through loss of self-control, there do arise evil, un- 
profitable states, memories and hopes that are akin to the 
fetters that bind. The arising of mindfulness in him is weak, 
but quickly he abandons it, puts it away, wipes it out, makes 
it go to utter destruction. 

Thus if a brother practise his path abroad and his lodging 
at home in such a way of life, that coveting and dejection, 
those evil, unprofitable states, do not overwhelm him.® 
Suppose the rajah’s royal ministers or friends or boon com- 
panions or kinsmen or blood-relations should bring and offer® 
wealth to a brother so practising and living, and say: “ Come, 
good man ! Why should these yellow robes torment you ? 
Why do you parade about with shaven crown and bowl ? 
Come ! Retiun to the lower life, enjoy possessions and do 
deeds of merit.” But, brethren, for that brother so practising, 
so living, to reject the training and return to the lower life is 
an impossible thing. 


1 SiUi-sainmoxt {cf. DA. i, 113. Sati pamussati. Corny.). 

Sara-sahkappa. Supra, § 96; M., vol. i, 463. 

^ ‘ At the third attempt he succeeds for certain.’ Corny. Cf. A. ii, 186. 

« Divasa-santaMa. Cf. M. i, 453 (for the simile); S. i, 169. 

® Here text has the usual nanussavanti for nanusati of the previous 
passage. 

« Abhihafthuy pavCireyyuy. Corny, suggests as an example rtUamui 
abhiharitm ixivareyyuy. adding ‘as in the case of the elder Sudiima 
andtheclansmanRatthapala.’ Cf. Via. iii, 11; JI. ii, 54;Hd. on J. i, ‘24. 



124 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 191 

Suppose, brethren, the river Ganges, that slopes, inclines 
and leads tov’ards the east, and a great crowd of folk should 
come, armed with pick and basket saying: “We will make 
this river Ganges slope, incline and lead towards the west,”- — 
what think ye, brethren ? Would that great crowd of folk 
make the river Ganges so slope, incline and lead towards the 
west V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ And why not ? ’ 

‘ Because, lord, as the river Ganges slopes, inclines and 
leads towards the east, it were no easy thing to make it slope, 
incline and lead towards the west, insomuch that fatigue and 
vexation would be the lot of all that great crowd of folk.’ 

■ Just so, brethren, if the rajah's royal ministers or friends 
or boon companions or kinsmen or blood-relations should 
come to that brother, so 2>ractising, so dwelling, and offer him 
wealth, saying: “Come, good man! Why should these 
yellow robes torment you '( Why do you parade about with 
shaven crown and bowl ? Come 1 Eetinn to the lower life. 
Enjoy possessions and do deeds of merit,” — for that brother 
to return to the lower life is impossible. 'W’hy ? Because, 
brethren, as that brother’s heart has for many a long day been 
bent on detachment, inclined to detachment, tinned towards 
detachment, there is no possibility for him to retinn to the 
lower life.’ 

§ 204 (8). The Judas tree} 

Now a certain brother went to visit another brother, and 
on coining to him said: — 

‘ Pray, friend, how far is a brother’s insight fully purified V 

‘ Friend, when a brother understands, as they really are, the 
arising and the destruction of the sixfold sense-sphere, to that 
extent is his insight fidly developed.’ 

I Kiijsukn (What d'ye call it '?), bnleu Jramtosa. ( ’/. JCit. ii, No. 248, 
where the Master is asked by four bretlireu to e.xplaiii jhrina, which 
they understand in four several ways. He e.xplains to them by the 
p.ir.ible of the Judas tree, seen dilierciitly at four several seasons by 
these four brethren. The jxirable here given is told of Brahmadatta, 
rajah of Benares. (/. Tin. Jdtribi, vol. ii. (Bouse), p. 184; Jdtala 
Tak,-i, p. 197. 



XXXV, IV, 5, § 204 ] Kindred Sayinys on Sense 125 

But that brother was dissatisfied with the other’s answer to 
his question, and went away to another brother and asked 
the same question. He replied: — 

‘ Friend, when a brother understands, as they really are, the 
arising and the destruction of the five factors of grasping,^ to 
that extent his insight is fully purified.’ 

But again that brother, dissatisfied with this answer, went 
away to another brother and put the same question. He 
replied : — 

‘ Friend, when a brother understands, as they really are, 
the arising and the destruction of the four great essentials," 
to that extent is his insight fully purified.’ 

Again that brother was dissatisfied with the reply and went 
away to another brother and put the same question. He 
replied: — 

‘Friend, when a brother understands, as it really is, that 
whatsoever is of a nature to arise, all that is of a nature to 
cease, to that extent his in.sight is fully purified.’ 

Thereupon that brother, being dissatisfied, went to see the 
Exalted One, and on coming to him, saluted him and 
sat down at one side. So seated that brother said to the 
Exalted One:— 

‘ Lord, I went to a certain brother and asked this question 
of him: “Pray, friend, how far is a brother’s insight fully 
purified V’ At these words, lord, that brother replied (and 
he described his severed visits, questions, and the answers he 
received). . . . So, lord, being di.ssatisfied with these answers 
to my question I am come to the Exalted One (and now 
I ask), “ Pray, lord, how far is a brother’s insight fully 
purified ?’’ ’ 

‘ Suppose, brother, a man who had never seen a Judas tree. 
So he went to a certain man who had seen one,^ and on coming 
to him asked him: “What sort of thing is a Judas tree, 
master?” The other replies: “Well, my man, the Judas 

1 Paiir ’ upndrina-hktiandh'l . Cf. K.S. iii, jjafsiw. 

- MahCihhatdni. 

^ Dassdm (usually mesins ’far-sighted’). Coi/ty. ijena kiysuko 
dittha-pubbo. 



126 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 193 

tree is blackish, something like a charred stump.” So, 
brother, for the time being, the Judas tree is to him as that 
other man sees it. 

Well, the man is not satisfied with the answer to his ques- 
tion, so he goes away to another man who had seen one, and 
puts the same question. The other replies: “Well, my 
man, the Judas tree is reddish, something like a lump of flesh.” 
So, brother, for the time being the Judas tree is to him as that 
other man sees it. 

Still dissatisfied with the reply to his question, he goes away 
to another man who had seen one, and puts the same question. 
He replies: “ Why, my man, a Judas tree is stripped of its 
bark.^ It has its pods burst,^ something like an acacia tree.” 
So, brother, for the time being the Judas tree is to him as that 
other man sees it. 

Well, the man is not satisfied with the reply to his question, 
so he goes away to see yet another man who had seen a Judas 
tree, and puts the same question. That other replies: “ Well, 
my man, the Judas tree is very thick-leaved.® It gives 
a close shade, just like a banyan tree.” So, brother, for the 
time being a Judas tree is to him as that other sees it. Just 
so, brother, according as the insight of those good folk is fully 
purified, in accordance with that they give their explanation 
of it. 

In the same way, brother, the insight of these worthies is 
fully purified according to their several bents,^ and they give 
their explanation accordingly. 

It is even as some rajah’s border-town,® brother, strongly 
built with walls and towers, and having six gates to it. This 
town hath a wise and watchful warden of the gates, who keeps 
out enemies and welcomes friends. From the east there 
comes a pair of swift messengers, and they say unto the 

^ Text odlraka-jdto, v.l. ociraka-. Corny, ojtrlka-, ocirika-. Pali Diet, 
ociraka (‘ with the bark off ’). 

- Adinna-sipatiko. Cf. M. i, :i06. 

^ Bahala-patta-jmlaso. Corny, has phala-patta-. JA.bdlapaldsa. 

‘ Yathd yalhd adliimuttdnay. 

^ Cf. Mrs. Rhys Davids’ Buddhism, p. 181; Buddh. Psych., 72. 



XXXV, IV, 5, § 204 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 127 

warden of the gates: “ Good fellow, where is the lord of this 
town ?” 

And he replies: “ Yonder he sits in the midst where the four 
ways meet.” 

Then those twin messengers deliver unto the lord of the 
town the message of the Truth, and go their ways by the path 
by which they came. 

Likewise also from the west and from the north there comes 
a pair of swift messengers, and they say unto the warden of 
the gates: “ Good fellow, where is the lord of this town ?” 
And in like manner he replies, and they deliver unto the lord 
of that town the message of the Truth and go their ways by 
the path by which they came. 

Now, brother, have I made you a parable, and for your 
understanding of it this is the explanation : — 

“ The town,” brother, is a name for the body, of the four 
great essentials compounded, of mother and father sprung,' on 
rice and gruel fed, impermanent, of a nature to be worn away, 
pounded away, broken and scattered. 

“ Having six gates,” brother, — this is a name for the per- 
sonal sixfold sense-sphere. 

“Warden of the gates,” brother, — this is a name for mind- 
fulness. 

“ Pair of swift messengers,” brother, — this is a name for 
calm and insight. 

“ Lord of the town,” brother, ^ — this is a name for con- 
sciousness. 

“ In the midst, where four ways meet,” brother, — this is a 
name for the four great essentials, the elements of earth, 
water, fire and air. 

“ Message of the Truth,”® brother, — this is a name for 
Nibbana. 

“ By the way they came,”^ brother, — this is a name for the 
Ariyan Eightfold Path, to wit, right view and the rest . . . 
and right concentration.’ 

1 Cf. supra, - In C oni y.’*’ story, he is a dissolute 

young fellow, forced to reform by the two messengers. 

^ Yathdbhutaij vacauay, ‘ telling how it really is.’ * Cf. Expos., § 204. 



128 


The Salayatana Boole [text iv, 195 


§ 205 (9). The lute} 

In wtatsoever brother or sister, brethren, there should arise 
desire or lust or malice or infatuation or repugnance of heart 
in respect of objects cognizable by the eye, let such refrain 
his heart from that. Fearsome and beset with fear is this 
way, beset with thorns and jungle, a devious track,^ a wrong 
path,® hard to travel on.^ Followed by the unworthy is this 
path, not by the worthy ones. So with the thought, ‘ ’tis 
no proper path for thee,’ let a man refrain his heart from 
objects cognizable by the eye. And in respect of savours and 
the rest, in respect of mind-states cognizable by mind, if there 
should arise desire or malice ... let him refrain his heart 
from mind-states cognizable by mind. 

Suppose, brethren, there is growing corn that has reached 
ripeness, and a lazy watcher of the corn. Then a cow that 
devours® corn comes down into that corn and eats her fill with 
ravenous delight. Even so, brethren, the ignorant manyfolk, 
being uncontrolled in the sixfold sense-sphere, eats its fill with 
ravenous delight among the five sensual pleasures. 

But suppose, brethren, that there is growing corn that has 
reached ripene.ss and a zealous watcher of the corn. Then 
a cow that devours corn comes trespassing in that corn. The 
watcher of the corn seizes her with a firm grip by the muzzle. 
Gripping her muzzle he gets a firm hold of her forehead and 
holds her fast. So holding her fast above the forehead,® he 
gives her a sound drubbing with a stick, and having so be- 
laboured her, he lets her go. 

This happens a second time, brethren. Then for a third time, 
brethren, a cow that devours corn comes down into that corn, 

* ■ This parable,’ says Cotn;/., ' was given at Jeta Grove.’ 

- Uinmafjgd. Coini/. ‘Xo way for one journeying to the world of 
devas or mankind or Xibbana.’ 

^ KiiDuiinijga. Skt. Lii-iiinrga, ‘an evil way.’ Cf. Itiv. 117; 736. 

* Diihitihi, ' beset with robbers.’ But Co/iig. reads dvihitilca, as 
infra, p. 323 of te.xt. See Pali Diet. s.v. 

^ Cf. Brethren, verse 446. 

® U pari-ghatdgar) (‘pot’), like kumbha (of an elephant), not as 
Pali Diet. ref. s.v. Corny, dvinnay sinyanay antare. 



XXXV, IV, 5, § 205 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 129 

and again the man . . . belabours her with a stick and lets 
her go. So it comes about, brethren, that the corn-devouring 
cow, whether she roam in village or forest, whether given to 
standing^ or lying down, woidd never trespass in that corn 
again: for she bethinks her of that last belabouring with a 
stick. 

Just so, brethren, when a brother’s heart is stirred, stirred 
strongly by the sixfold sense-sphere, yet inwardly he stands 
fast, becomes tranquil, is one-pointed, is composed.- 

Snppose, brethren, the sound of a lute has never been heard 
by a rajah or royal minister. Then he hears the sound of a 
lute and says : ‘ Good man, pray what is that sound so en- 
trancing, so delightful, so intoxicating, so ravishing,^ of such 
power to bind V 

Then they say to him : ‘ That, lord, is the sound of what is 
called a lute, that sound so entrancing, so delightful, so 
intoxicating, so ravishing, of such power to bind.’ 

Then he says: ‘ Go, my man. Fetch me that lute.’ 

So they fetch him that lute and say to him : ‘ This, lord, 
is that lute, the sound of which is so entrancing ... of such 
power to bind.’ 

Then he says: ' Enough of this lute, my man. Fetch me 
that sound.’ 

They say to him: ‘This lute so called, lord, consists of 
divers parts,'* a great number of parts. It speaks because it 
is compounded of divers parts, to wit, owing to the belly, 
owing to the parchment, the handle, the frame,* the strings, 
owing to the bridge® and proper effort of a player. Thus, lord, 
this lute, so called, consists of divers parts, of a great number 
of parts. It speaks because it is compounded of divers parts.’ 

Then that rajah breaks up that lute into ten or a hundred 


^ Thdnn-hahuld. nimjjd-hahnla. 

- Coimj. L'.xplains the four words of tlie four jhiiiiua respeetivcly. 

“ Mucchiimiiyii. ('uiaij. nincrhitaij viyri karanato miicchissati. 

* Cf. MU. Fanh., U'.i. The parts tliore given are pitta, niiimm, dnni, 
dandu, upmtui, taiitiyo, kona. 

^ Text upavRiunj (r.l. iipavlne, iipadhirane). ('omij. has ujuidliarane-^ 
irMaf-e (framework). ® KmjaT) !=catiirat)'a>j •iJra-diiV'dikiDj. C. 



130 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 197 

pieces. Having done so, he splinters and splinters it again. 
Having done so, he burns it in fire,^ then makes it a heap of 
ashes and winnows the heap of ashes in a strong wind or lets 
them be borne down by the swift stream of a river. 

Then he says : ‘ A poor thing- is what you call a lute, my 
men, whatever a lute may be. Herein the world is exceeding 
careless and led astray.’ 

Even so, brethren, a brother investigating® body as far as 
there is scope'* for body, investigating feeling, perception, the 
activities, investigating consciousness, so far as there is scope 
for consciousness, — in all of these investigations, whatever 
there be of ‘ I ’ or ‘ I am ’ or ‘ Mine,’ there is none of that 
for him. 

§ 206 (10), The six animals.^ 

Suppose, brethren, a man with a wounded body, with a 
festering body, were to enter a swampy jungle. Its grasses 
and thorns pierce his feet and scratch his festering limbs. 
That man, brethren, would feel pain and despair all the more 
owing to that. Even so, brethren, some brother here goes 
to dwell in village or jungle, and meets with one who rebukes 
him.® This venerable one and he who thus treats him,'^ 
saying, ‘ Such a life (as yours) is a thorn of impurity to the 
village,’ knowing him to be such a thorn, — (these two) are 
to be understood as restraint and non-restraint. 


1 The stock series of plirases for utter destruction of anything. 
Cf.K.S.in, 61. 

^ Text asc.kkirdyat) (v.l.asatikimyaij, also the reading of Corny., with 
expl. asati=ldmaka. JA. i, 285. Tanti-handhi-ldmakam evd ti attho. 

“ Text samanesati. Corny, sammannesati (expl. as khandha-samma- 
sanmj . . . pariyesati), but Pali Did., which I follow here, samannesati. 
The pas.sage is quoted at Mahaniddesa, p. t39, wliere it is spelt sam- 
mannesati. ^ Oati. 

^ Tfs. 21agg. ii, t84, " the six personal sense-spheres are to be regarde 1 
as six creatures : the external sphere as their feeding-ground. ’ 

* Vattaray. Corny, codakay. 

^ Ecaykdrl. ‘ Like a physician.’ Corny. Owing to the structure of 
this sentence the distinction between the two men is obscured. I think 
the reading should be ayan ca (the brother), so ca evaykdr * fhe rebuker). 
8inh. MSS. read so for kho. 



131 


XXXV, IV, 5 , § 2o6] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

And how, brethren, is non-restraint ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother, seeing an object with the eye, 
is attached to objects that charm, is averse from objects that 
displease, and dwells with attention to body distracted. His 
thought is mean, and he understands not, as it really is, that 
emancipation of heart, that emancipation of wisdom, whereby 
those evil, unprofitable states, that have arisen, cease utterly 
without remainder. 

Hearing a sound with the ear, smelling a scent with the 
nose, tasting a savour with the tongue, contacting what is 
tangible with body . . . cognizing a mind-state with the 
mind, he is attracted to mind-states that charm, is averse 
from mind-states that displease, and dwells with attention to 
body distracted. His thought is mean and he understands 
not . . . without remainder. 

Suppose, brethren, a man catches six animals, of diverse 
range and diverse pasturage, and tethers them with a stout 
rope. He catches a snake and tethers it with a stout rope: 
also a crocodile, a bird,' a dog, a jackal, and a monkey does he 
tether with a stout rope. Having done so, brethren, he ties 
them together with a knot in the middle and sets them going. 

Now, brethren, those six animals of diverse range and diverse 
pasturage would struggle- to be off, each one to his own range 
and pasture. The snake would struggle, thinking: I’ll enter 
the anthill. The crocodile: I’ll enter the water. The bird: 
I’ll mount^ into the air. The dog: I’ll enter the village. The 
jackal would think: I’ll go to the charnel-field. The monkey 
would think : I’ll be off to the forest. 

Now, brethren, when those six hungry* animals grew weary, 
they would follow after the one of them that was stronger, 
they would conform to that one,® they would become subject 
to him. Even so, brethren, in whatsoever brother attention 
to body is not practised, not made much of, the eye struggles 
to pull him with objects that charm. Eepulsive to him are 

1 Pakkhitj. ‘ A bird with an elephant's trunk {'!).' Corny. 

2 Avincheyyutj ~ dkaddheyymj. Corny. 

® Dessdmi (ckefi) uppatissunu. Corny. * Jliatta. 

^ Text ariuvidjilyeyyuy. Corny. aniii idhay-{ihir. from anuvidhdua). 



132 The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 199 

objects that displease. The mind struggles to pull him with 
mind-states that charm. Repulsive to him are mind-states 
that displease. Thus, brethren, is non-restraint. 

And how, brethren, is restraint ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother, seeing an object with the eye, 
is not attached to objects that charm, nor averse from objects 
that displease. He dwells with attention to body established 
and his thought is boundless. He understands, as it really is, 
that emancipation of heart, that emancipation of wisdom, 
whereby those evil, unprofitable states that have arisen come 
to cease utterly without remainder. Tasting a savom with 
the tongue . . . cognizing with mind a mind-state, he is not 
attached to mind-states that charm, nor averse from mind- 
states that displease. He dwells ... he understands . . . 
come to cease utterly without remainder. 

Suppose, brethren, a man catches six animals of diverse 
range and diverse pasturage, and tethers them with a stout 
rope . . . (as above) . . . and so doing he tethers them to a 
stout peg or post. . . . Now, brethren, when those six 
animals grow weary, they would have to stand, crouch or lie 
down by that peg or post. Even so, brethren, in whatsoever 
brother attention to body is practised and made much of, the 
eye does not struggle to pull him with objects that charm. 
Objects that displease are not repulsive to him . . . the 
tongue does not struggle . . . the mind does not struggle to pull 
him with mind-states that charm, nor are mind-states that 
displease repulsive to him. Thus, brethren, is restraint. 

‘ Tethered to a stout peg or post,’ brethren, is a term 
for attention to body.^ Wherefore, brethren, thus must ye 
train yourselves: ‘We shall practise attention to body. It 
shall be made much of, ridden on, built upon, striven with, 
accumulated and thoroughly undertaken.’^ 

§ 207 (11). The sheaf of corn. 

Suppose, brethren, a sheaf of corn thrown down at the four 
crossways. Then six men come up armed with flails, and 
with their six flails beat out that sheaf of corn. Thus, brethren. 


1 VM., 269. 


^ CJ. D. ii, 103; S. ii, 261; Ud. 62. 



133 


XXXV, IV, 5, § 207] Kindred Sayings on Sense 

would that sheaf of corn be threshed thoroughly, thus beaten 
with six flails. Then suppose a seventh man comes up, armed 
with a flail, and threshes that sheaf of corn vvdth his seventh 
flail. Thus would that sheaf of corn be still more thoroughly 
threshed by that seventh flail. 

Even so, brethren, the untaught manyfolk is threshed by 
the eye with objects that charm, by the tongue with savours 
that charm, . . . (lastly) by the mind with mind-states that 
charm. If that untaught manyfolk, brethren, thinks of a future 
becoming, still more thoroughly is it threshed, just as that sheaf 
of corn is still more thoroughly threshed by the seventh flail. 

Once upon a time, brethren, the Devas and Asuras were 
massed for battle.^ Then Vepacitti, lord of the Asuras, 
addressed the Asuras thus: ‘ Good sirs,^ if in the battle now 
set between the Devas and the Asmas the Asmas win the 
day and the Devas be worsted, then do ye bind Sakka, lord 
of the Devas, neck, hand and foot, and bring him into my 
presence in Asura Town.’ 

And in like manner Sakka, lord of the Devas, thus addressed 
the Devas of the Thirty Three: ‘ Good sirs, if in the battle 
now set between the Devas and the Asuras the Asuras be 
worsted and the Devas win the day, do ye bind Vepacitti, lord 
of the Asuras, neck, hand and foot, and bring him into my 
presence at the Devas’ Court of Righteousness.’® 

Well, brethren, in that fight the Devas won the day, and the 
Asuras were worsted. Then the Devas of the Thirty-Three 
bound Vepacitti, lord of the A.suras, neck, hand and foot, and 
brought him into the presence of Sakka, lord of the Devas, 
to the Devas’ Court of Righteousness. 

So there, brethren, was Vepacitti, lord of the Asuras, bound 
neck, hand and foot. Now when it occurred to Vepacitti, 
lord of the Asuras, thus: ‘ Righteous in good sooth are the 
Devas, unrighteous the Asuras. Now go I to Deva T<,wn, 

^ <'f. K.S. i, 28;>. Tlic siitta is there entitied ‘ Forbearauee.' 

^ Mdrisd. Coiiitj. at S. i, 2 explains a.s ‘ they who are free from 
d)ikklm’ 

^ Sndhaininui) deat-iabhny. 

* Corny. ‘ In that they do not give me cause to weep.’ 



134 The Salciyatmia Booh [text iv, 202 

straightway he beheld himself freed from that fivefold bondage 
and possessed of the five pleasures of the senses, and so endowed 
had great delight. But, brethren, when Vepacitti, lord of the 
Asuras, thought: ‘Righteous forsooth are the Asuras, un- 
righteous are the Devas.^ Now go I to Asura Town,’ there- 
upon he beheld himself bound with that fivefold bondage and 
robbed of the five pleasures of the senses. 

Thus subtle, brethren, is the bondage of Vepacitti, but 
more subtle still the bondage of Mara. He v'ho hath conceits, 
brethren, is Mara’s ’nondsman. He who hath no conceits- is 
freed from the Evil One. ‘ I am,’ — that is a conceit. ‘ This 
am I,’ — that is a conceit. ‘ I shall be,’ — that is a conceit. 
‘ I shall not be,’ — that is a conceit. ‘ Embodied shall I 
be,’ — that is a conceit. ‘ Disembodied shall I be,’ — that is 
a conceit. ‘ I shall be conscious,’ — that is a conceit. ‘ Un- 
conscious shall I be,’ — that is a conceit. ‘ Neither conscious 
nor unconscious shall I be,’ — that is a conceit. A conceit, 
brethren, is lust. A conceit is an imposthume, a barb. 'Where- 
fore, brethren, ye must say: ‘With heart free from conceits 
will we abide.’ Thus must ye train yourselves. 

‘ I am,’ brethren, is something moved.® ‘ This am I,’ 
‘ I shall be,’ ‘ I shall not be,’ ‘ embodied,’ ‘ disembodied,’ 
‘ conscious, unconscious, neither conscious nor unconscious 
shall I be,’ — these, brethren, are something moved. What 
is moved is lust, an imposthume, a barb. AWierefore, brethren, 
let your thought be: ‘ With heart immovable will we abide.’ 
Thus must ye train yourselves. 

‘ I am,’ brethren, is something wavering. ‘ This am I ’ 
. . . and the other conceits are something wavering. Wdiat 
wavers, brethren, is lust, an imposthume, a barb. A^dierefore 
let your thought be: ‘ With heart unwavering will we abide.’ 
Thus must ye train yourselves. 


* ('oimj. ‘Ill tliat they biinl me. like a jungle-Iio^' with fivefold 
bouilago, and make me sit here.’ 

- Convj. TtinJt'l-JittJii-MAiiii. The first comeit liere refers to tanlia ; 
the second to dllthi; the third to .wsvi/ir-dfWii foternalist view): the 
fourth to Hcchcdu-diUhl (the aimihikitionist view). 

■’ liijitdij. 



XXXV, IV, 5, § 207 ] Kindred Sayings on Sense 135 

‘ I am,’ brethren, is an obsession.^ " This am I ’ . . . 
and the other conceits are obsessions. An obsession, brethren, 
is lust, an imposthume, a barb. WTierefore, brethren, let your 
thought be: ‘With heart unobsessed will we abide.’ Thus 
must ye train yourselves. 

‘ I am,’ brethren, is vain imagining.- ‘ This am I ’ . . . 
and the other conceits are vain imaginings. Vain imaginings 
are lust, an imposthume, a barb. Wherefore, brethren, let 
your thought be : ‘ With heart that has slain conceit will we 
abide.’ Thus, brethren, must ye train yourselves. 


1 Papancitay . For papanca see Brethren, p. 343 n. 

^ Cf.K.8.\,\% 11 . Mana-(jatay = mana-pamUi. Corny. 



PART II [CHAPIEB XXXYI] 

KliSDRED SAYINGS ABOl T FEELING 
Book I 

§ 1 (1). Conceutnition} 

There are these three feelings, brethren. What three ? 
Feeling that is pleasant, feeling that is painful, and feeling 
that is neither pleasant nor painful. These, brethren, are the 
three feelings. 

Collecteil, ’ware, the mindful follower 
Of the Awakened One well understands 
Feelings, and how they come to be, and where 
They cease, and what the way to feelings’ end.- 
That brother who hath ended them, therefor 
No longer hnngereth.''^ He is set free. 

§ 2 (2). Fof 2^l€asuie. 

There are these three feelings, brethren. . . . 

Pleasure or pain or feeling that is neither, 

The inner and the outer, all that's felt — 

He knows it to be III. He sees the world 
False, perishable.® He sees, by contact with it ,® 

That it is transient, and frees himself.’’ 

1 tiainiidhi. - 'I’c.xt misprints Lhaya-g<i/n!ii(.>). 

“ Xirrlt/llo = nitlanh(). ('miii/. 

* M(j<ii-d]iamininj. ( iSii. v. 7i!8 (as here). 7.'>.S,\vlit‘re it is explained 
as nai<<ina-dluuii)ii(t'i) (Par. ./o/.. .700, .709). 

® ( wny. i>ahijjuim-.-ah]anu7j. 

* Phu^.'a-phif^^a-rayaij pas-ay. Corny. iidHeua phusilm phusili-a 'ra 
sanipassanto (plur^sa is gerund of phufali). Vayay — ante hhanyay 
(Sn. A.). 

’’ Evai/ lattha virajjat i. fsinh. MSS. of ( 'omy. read evay vattay virajjali (is 
free from the round of rebirth). But Eu. Corny, has iaMa vijdnati = 
dukklia-hhdvay viidnati. 


13d 



XXXVI, I, I, § 3] Kindred Sayings about FeeUng 137 
§ 3 (3). By abandoning. 

There are these three feelings, brethren. hat three i . . . 

The lurking tendency^ to lust for pleasant feeling, brethren, 
must be abandoned. The lurking tendency to repugnance 
for painful feeling must be abandoned. The lurking tendency 
to ignorance of feeling that is neither pleasant nor painful 
must be abandoned. 

IVhen in a brother that lurking tendency to lust for pleasant 
feeling to repugnance for painful feeling, to ignorance of neutral 
feeling is abandoned, this abandonment of tendency to lust in 
a brother is called ‘ rightly seeing.’ He has cut oli craving, 
broken the bond,^ by perfect comprehension of conceit he has 
made an end of 111. 

To feel (the touch of) pleasure, not to know 
^Vhat feeling is, to see no refuge from it, — • 

That is the lurking tendency to craving. 

To feel (the touch of) pain, but not to know 
WTiat feeling is, to see no refuge from it, — 

That is the lurking tendency to shunning. 

^Vhat neither pains nor pleases, as is taught 
By the Great Sage,® — if one delights in that, 

Not even thus is he from 111 released. 

But when a brother, ardent (in his ta.sk). 

Lets not his mind run riot,'* thereupon 
That wise one every feeling understands. 

He, understanding feelings, in this life 
Is drug-immune and, when the bodj^ dies, 

.A. saint, lore-perfect, pa.st our reckoning.® 

1 Anufsajja. 

2 Vir(Uta>/i. Voniy has the usual variant vdvuUayi For this .stock 
phrase c/. infra, § o; .vliv. § 9. 

^ Bhuri-panna. if. K.S. iii. 121 «. 

* SamjMtja/imtij lut rliicati = na jnhati. Corny. ' abaiulons not com- 
posure.’ At Sii. V, 156 Coiny. says na ritlahti/ Larofi. 

® SaiihlMv nopeti (na upeti). Seeuotcto iii, 33. Coiny. wtysrullo 
didtlio nmlho li paiinattiij na apeti. 



138 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 206 


§ 4 (4). The bottomless fit} 

The untaught mauyfolk, brethren, utters this saying: 
‘ There is a bottomless pit in the mighty Ocean.’ But herein, 
brethren, the untaught manyfolk utters this saying of what 
is not, of what exists not, to wit: ‘ There is a bottomless pit 
in the mighty Ocean.’ 

Now this word ‘ bottomless pit,’ brethren, is a term for 
painful bodil}^ feeling. The untaught manyfolk, when touched 
by painful bodily feeling, weeps and wails, cries aloud, knocks 
the breast and comes by utter bewilderment. So, brethren, 
it is said: ‘ The untaught manyfolk has not emerged from the 
bottomless pit,^ does not reach solid ground.’ 

But the well-taught Ariyan disciple, brethren, w'hen touched 
by painful bodily feeling, Aveeps not, wails not, cries not aloud, 
knocks not the breast, comes not by utter bewilderment. 
Thus, brethren, it is said: ‘The well-taught Ariyan disciple 
has emerged from the bottomless pit, he reaches solid 
ground.’® 


He who cannot bear with patience pains that come upon him. 

That rack the body, drain the life, cause trembling at their 
touch: 

A\Tio weeps and wails, bursts into tears, feeble and void of 
strength, 

From the abyss hath not come forth nor reached the solid 
ground. 

But he that beareth patiently the pains that come upon him. 

That rack the body, drain the life, and feareth not their 
touch. 

He hath come forth from the abyss and reached the solid 
ground. 


* Pdluld. Corny, derives it tlius: pdla^fn alny iiariyatlo n' atthi (‘no 
end of falling’). Sec Append, to Brethren, p. 418, where Mrs. Bhy.s 
Davids say.s: ‘any circiiin.stancc in whith mie is carried off one’s feet, 
lo.scs balance.’ 

^ Text has /intdleiw, loi piiliilr no. 

* Cndhoh ca n ajjhinjd. t 'J. ti. i. 47. 



xxxvi, I, I, § 5 ] Kindred Sayings about Feeling 139 


§ 5 (o). B>j so regarding. 

There are these three feelings, brethren. What three ? 
Feelings that are pleasant, feelings that are painful, feelings 
that are neither pleasant nor painful. 

Pleasant feelings, brethren, should be regarded as 111. Pain- 
ful feelings should be regarded as a barb. Keutral feelings 
should be regarded as impermanence. 

P.Tren a brother regards pleasant feelings as 111, painful 
feelings as a barb, neutral feelings as impermanence, such an 
one is called, brethren, ‘ rightly seeing.’ He has cut off craving, 
broken the bond, by perfect comprehension of conceit he has 
made an end of 111. 

mo sees that pleasure is an 111 and pain a piercing barb. 
Who sees the state of neutral feeling is impermanent. 

That brother rightly sees indeed and feelings understands. 
He, understanding feelings, in this life is drug-immune: 

When body dies, — a saint, lore-perfect, past our reckoning. 

§ 6 (6). By the barb. 

‘ The untaught nianyfolk, brethren, feels feeling tliat is 
pleasant, feeling that is painful and feeling that is neutral. 
The well-taught Ariyan disciple, brethren, feels the same 
three feelings. 

Now herein, brethren, what is the distinction, what is the 
specific feature,^ what is the difference between the well- 
taught Ariyan disciple and the untaught manyfolk V 

‘ For us, lord, things are rooted in the Exalted One. . . .’ 

‘ The untaught manyfolk, brethren, being touched by feeling 
that is painful, weeps and wails, cries aloud, knocks the breast, 
falls into utter bewilderment. For he feels a twofold feeling, 
bodily and mental. 

Suppose, brethren, they pierce a man with a barb, then with 
a second barb. Just so, brethren, that man feels the pain of 
two barbs. Thu.s doe.s the untaught manyfolk weep and 
wail . . . for he feels a twofold jjaiii. bodily and mental. 

^ CJ. K.S. iii, .tS fur (alhq>p~il/o-<o and the usual phrase tliat follows. 



140 


The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 208 

Touched by that painful feeling he feels repugnance for it 
Feeling that repugnance for the painful feeling, the lurking 
tendency to repugnance fastens on him. Touched by the 
painful feeling, he delights in pleasant feeling. Why so ? 
The untaught manyfolk, brethren, knows of no refuge from 
painful feeling save sensual pleasure. Delighting in that 
sensual pleasure, the lurking tendency to sensual pleasure 
fastens on him. He underfstands not, as it really is, the 
arising and the destruction of feelings, nor the satisfaction, 
the misery, the way of escape from feelings. As he under- 
stands them not, the lurking tendency to ignorance of neutral 
feeling fastens on him. If he feels feeling that is pleasant, he 
feels it as one in bondage.^ If he feels feeling that is painful, 
he feels it as one in bondage. If he feels feeling that is 
neutral, he feels it as one in bondage. This untaught many- 
folk, brethren, is called “ in bondage to birth, death, sorrow 
and grief, woe, lamentation and despair. He is in bondage 
to 111.” So I declare. 

But, brethren, the well-taught Ariyan disciple, when 
touched by painful feeling, weeps not, wails not, cries not 
aloud, knocks not the breast, falls not into utter bewilderment. 
He feels but one feeling, the bodily, not the mental. 

Suppose, brethren, they pierce a man with a barb, but do 
not pierce him with a second barb. Thus that man feels but 
the pain caused by the one barb. Ev^en so, brethren, the 
well-taught Ariyan disciple, when touched by painful feeling, 
weeps not, wails not, cries not aloud, knocks not the breast, 
falls not into utter bewilderment. He feels but one feeling, 
bodily jjain, not mental. 

Moreover, he has no repugriance for painful feeling. As 
he has no repugnance for it, the lurking tendency to re- 
pugnance for painful feeling fastens not on him. He, 
when touched by painful feeling, delights not in sensual 
pleasure. MTiy so ? Because, brethren, the well-taught 
Ariyan disciple knows of a refuge from jJainful feeling apart 
from sensual ease. As he delights not in sensual ease, the 


Suijijulla. 



XXXVI, I, I, § 6 ] Kindred Sayings about Feeling 141 

lurking tendency to sensual ease fastens not on him. As he 
understands, as they really are, hot h the arising and the destruc- 
tion of these feelings, the satisfaction, the misery of them, 
the way of escape therefrom, the lurking tendency to ignorance 
of neutral feeling fastens not on him. If he feels a feeling 
that is pleasant, he feels it as one freed from bondage. If he 
feels a feeling that is painful, he feels it as one that is freed from 
bondage. If he feels a neutral feeling, he feels it as one that 
is freed from bondage. This well-taught Ariyan disciple, 
brethren, is called “ freed from the bondage of birth, old age,^ 
from sorrow and grief, from woe, lamentation and despair, 
freed from the bondage of 111.” So I declare. 

Such, brethren, is the distinction, the specific feature, the 
difference between the well-taught Ariyan disciple and the 
untaught manyfolk. 

Not swayed by feelings is the sage. Nor ease 
Nor pain afiecteth him of knowledge wide. 

Betwixt the wise man and the worldly one 
Vast is the difference in goodliness. 

A searcher of the Norm,^ of knowledge wide, 

Vlio rightly views this world and that beyond. 

Is not heart-harassed by things desired ; 

By undesired things he is not repelled. 

By his disinclination and dislike 
They’re blown away, departed, are no more. 

Knowing the stainless path and sorrowless. 

He rightly knows, becoming he ’s o’erpassed.’ ® 


^ Janl. omitted in the former paragraph. 

- SdiilJtatd-dhdnimav.fa. ('f. K.S. ii, 30; Sii.'iO: — 

Ane/amiigo sidavd satimd 
Sahkliata dhammo iiiyalo padhd navd 

where Corny, expl. = pariTniritn-dhammo’ : Si>. 1038. Coiiiy. ‘ a name 
for the arahant.’ 

^ Bhavassa •pamrjii. 



142 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 210 


§ 7 (7). Sickitesa (i). 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Vesali, in Great 
Grove, at the Hall of the Peaked Gable. 

Then the Exalted One at eventide rising from his solitude 
went to visit the sick-ward, and on reaching it sat down on a 
seat made ready. So seated the Exalted One addressed the 
brethren, saying; — 

‘ Brethren, a brother should meet his end^ collected and 
composed. This is our instruction to you. And how, brethren, 
is one collected ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother dwells, as regards body, con- 
templating body as transient, ^ ardent, composed and thought- 
ful, by having put away® in this world the dejection arising 
from craving. Thus, brethren, is a brother collected. 

And how, brethren, is a brother composed ? 

Herein, brethren, in his going forth and in his returning 
a brother acts composedly. In looking in front and looking 
behind, he acts composedly. In bending or relaxing (his 
limbs) he acts composedly. In wearing his robe and bearing 
outer robe and bowl, in eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting 
he acts composedly. In easing himself, in going, standing, 
sitting, sleeping, waking, in .speaking and keeping silence 
he acts composedly. Thus, brethren, is a brother com- 
posed. 

Brethren, a brother should meet his end collected and 
composed. This is our instruction to you. 

Now, brethren, as that brother dwells collected, composed, 
earnest, ardent, strenuous, there arises in him feeling that is 
pleasant, and he thus understands: “ There is arisen in me 
this pleasant feeling. Now that is owing to something, not 
without cause. Owing to what ? Owing to this same body. 
Now this body is impermanent, compounded, arisen owing to 
something. It is owing to this impermanent body, which 


^ Ktilaij againeyya,\it. ‘reach his time.’ 

^ Kaye kdyanupassl. Corny, nirodhny anupa-smnlo. 

^ Vineyya. I take this as gerund of lineli But it may bo the 
potential mood. Cf. 6'm. 590; AhW.- 577, 



XXXVI, I, I, § 7 ] Kindred Sayings about Feeling 143 

has so arisen, that pleasant feeling has arisen as a conse- 
quence, and how can that he permanent V’ 

Thus he dwells contemplating impermanence in body and 
pleasant feeling, he dwells contemplating their transience, 
their waning, their ceasing, the giving of them up. As he 
thus dwells contemplating impermanence in body and 
pleasant feeling, contemplating their transience . . . the 
lurking tendency to lust for body and pleasant feeling is 
abandoned. 

So also as regards painful feeling . . . the lurking tendency 
to repugnance for body and painful feeling is abandoned. 

So also as regards neutral feeling . . . the lurking tendency 
to ignorance of body and neutral feeling is abandoned. 

If he feels a pleasant feeling he understands; “That is 
impermanent, I do not cling to it.^ It has no lure for me.” 
If he feels a painful feeling he understands likewise. So also 
if he feels a neutral feeling. 

If he feels a pleasant feeling, he feels it as one released from 
bondage to it. 

So also, if he feels a painful feeling and a neutral feeling, 
he feels it as one released from bondage to it. 

AVlien he feels a feeling that his bodily endurance has 
reached its limit, he knows that he so feels. AYhen he feels 
a feeling that life has reached its limit, he knows that he so 
feels. He understands: When body breaks up, after life is 
used up, all my experiences in this world will lose their lure 
and grow cold. 

Just as, brethren, because of oil and because of a wick a 
lamp keeps burning, but, when oil and wick are used up, the 
lamp would go out because it is not fed. Even so, brethren, 
a brother, when he feels a feeling that his bodily endurance 
has reached its limit, that his life has reached its limit, when 
he feels a feeling that, when body breaks up, after life is used 
up, all his experience in this world will lose its lure and grow 
cold, — he knows that he so feels.’ 


I Cf. K.S. ii, 57, and for the parable following (shortened here). 

p. 68. 



144 


The Salayafana Book [text iv, 213 


§ 8 (8). Sickness (ii). 

{The same ns the pfeoioii.s 'town to ‘ there has arisen in me this 
pleasant feeling.') 

‘ . Now that feeling is owing to something, not without 
cause. It is owing to this contact. Now this contact is 
impermanent, compounded, arhen owing to something. Owing 
to this impermanent contact wliich has so arisen, this pleasant 
feeling has arisen: “How can that be permanent ?” Thus 
he dwells contemplating the impermanence in contact and 
pleasant feeling, contemplating their transience, their waning, 
their ceasing, the giving of them up. Thus as he dwells con- 
templating their impermanence . . . the lurking tendency 
to lust for contact and pleasant feeling is abandoned in him. 

So also as regards contact and painful feeling . . . contact 
and neutral feeling (u-s in the previons section) . . . he knows 
that he so feels.’ 

§ 9 (9). Impermanent. 

‘ There are these three feelings, brethren, impermanent, 
compounded, arising owing to something, perishable by nature, 
changeable by nature, of a nature to fade away, of a nature to 
cease. What three \ Feeling that is plea.sant, feeling that is 
painful, and neutral feeling. These are the three.’ 

§ 10 (10). Rooted in contact. 

‘There are these three feelings, brethren, born of contact, 
rooted in contact, related to contact,^ conditioned by contact. 
A\Tiat three ? Feeling that is pleasant, feeling that is painful, 
and neutral feeling. 

Owing to contact that is to be experienced as pleasant,- 
brethren, arises pleasant feeling. By the ceasing of that 
cnitact to be experienced as plea.sant, that pleasant feeling, — • 
arisen owing to that appropriate^ contact to be experienced as 
pleasant, — ceases, is quenched. 

Pliassa-nidniia. t'f. K.iS. ii, 07 for the .section. 

“ Sakha- vedaniyaij Vomy. sakha-vedamoja paccaya-hliuiaij. 

^ Tajjai) —sardixiij. Cf. Bmldh. Psych. Ethics, 6 n. 



XXXVI, II, 2, § i] Kindred Sayings aboid Feeling 145 

Owing to contact that is to be experienced as painful, 
bretiiren, arises painful feeling. B\' the ceasing of that contact 
to be experienced as painful, that painful feeling arisen owing 
to appropriate contact, to be experienced as jiainful, ceases 
and is quenched. 

So also as regards contact to be experienced as neutral. , . . 

Just as, brethren, from the putting together and rubbing 
together of two sticks warmth is born,^ heat is produced: as 
from the changing and parting of those two sticks the warmth 
so born ceases and is quenched, — just so, brethren, these three 
feelings born of contact, rooted in contact, related to contact, 
conditioned by contact, owing to appropriate contact so 
born,— those feelings so born come to cease.’ 


2. The Chapter ox Solitude 
§ 11 (1). Given to solitude. 

Then a certain brother went to visit the Exalted One, and 
on coming to him saluted him and sat down at one side. So 
seated that brother said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ Here, lord, as I was meditating alone this reflection arose 
in me : Three feelings have been spoken of by the Exalted One : 
pleasant feeling, painful feeling and neutral feeling : these three. 
Now the Exalted One has said: “ 'Whatsoever is experienced, 
that is joined with 111.”" Pray, lord, concerning what was 
this saying uttered: “ IVliat.soever is experienced, that is 
joined with III ” V 

‘ Well said, brother ! Well said, brother ! These three 
feelings were named by me, and I said also, “ 'Whatsoever is 
experienced, that is joined with 111.” 

Now, brother, this saying of mine was uttered concerning 
the impermanence of compounded things. This saying of 
mine, “ 'WTiatsoever is experienced, that is joined with 111,” 

1 Cf. Jlil. Pan., 6; Buddh. Psych.. 45: S. v, 212. 

2 Reading with MSS. of Corny, tay diiWui-sannissitay which I follow 
in preference to reading of onr text lay ditkkhasmiy. Corny, expl. 
‘ all of that is 111.’ 


IV 


10 



146 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 217 

was littered concerning the perishable, transient nature of 
compounded tilings, of their nature to fade away and to cease. 

Xow, brother, I have seen that the ceasing of the activities 
is gradual. \Mien one has attained the first trance, speech 
has ceased. A^Tien one has attained the second trance, thought 
initial and sustained has ceased. \^Tien one has attained 
the third trance, zest has ceased. ^\dien one has attained the 
fourth trance, inbreathing and outbreathing have ceased. 
WTien one has attained the realm of infinite space, perception 
of objects has ceased. When one has attained the realm of 
infinite consciousness, perception of the realm of infinite space 
has ceased. When one has attained the realm of nothingness, 
the perception of the realm of infinite consciousness has ceased. 
When one has attained the realm of neithcr-perception-nor- 
non-perception, the perception of the realm of nothingness 
has ceased. Both perception and feeling have ceased when 
one has attained the cessation of perception and feeling. For 
the brother who has destroyed the asavas, lust is extinguished, 
hatred is extinguished, illusion is extinguished. 

Again, brother, I have seen that the mastery of the activities 
is gradual.^ ^Mien one has attained the first trance, speech 
is mastered . . . illusion is mastered (as fw^^eprenoMS section). 

There are these six calmings, brother. ^^Tien one has 
attained the first trance, speech is calmed down. In the 
second, thought initial and sustained^ is calmed down. In 
the third, zest. In the fourth, inbreathing and outbreathing. 
In the trance where perception and feeling have ceased,® per- 
ception and feeling are calmed doivn. For the brother who 
has destroyed the asavas, lust, hatred and illusion are calmed 
down.’ 

§ 12 (2). The sky (i). 

Just as, brethren, divers winds blow in the sky, — some winds 
blow from the east, some from the west, some from the north, 

* Anupublay. For this pas.sagc see Pts. of C'ontr., 122. 

2 Viiakka-vicara. Cf. Bnddh. Psych. Etlu, 10 n. 

2 Sahna-vedayila-nirodlMT], i.e. has attained trance in the subjective 
world. Corny, has cattdro arupa gahiid honli. 



XXXVI, II, 2 , § 14 ] Kindred Sayings about Feeling 147 

some from tlie south, — winds dusty, winds dustless, cool 
winds and hot winds, winds soft and boisterous, — even so in 
this body arise divers feelings, — ^feelings pleasant, feelings 
painful, also neutral feelings. 

As many divers winds blow through the sky, — 

From east and west and north and south they blow. 
Winds dusty, dustless, cool and hot as well. 

Winds boisterous aud low, of many kinds, — 

So in this body many a feeling rises, 

Pleasant and painful, feeling that is neither. 

A brother who is ardent, self-possessed. 

And from the substrate free,^ well understands 
In his awareness feelings of all kinds. 

He, understanding feelings, in this life 
Is drug-immune aud, when the body dies, 

A saint, lore-perfect, past our reckoning.^ 

§ 13 (3). The sky (ii). 

{The same as the above, without thegalhas). 

§ 14 (4). The guest-house.^ 

Suppose, brethren, a guest-house. Thither come from the 
eastern quarter folk who take up their residence therein. 
From the western, northern aud southern quarter they come 
and dwell therein, noblemen and brahmins, commoners and 
serfs.^ Even so, brethren, in this body divers feelings arise, 
feelings pleasant, feelings painful, feelings neutral. 

Pleasant feelings arise that are carnal.^ Painful feelings 
arise that are carnal. Neutral feelings arise that are carnal. 
Likewise arise feelings pleasant, painful and neutral that are 
free from a carnal taint. 

^ Nirupadhi. ' Cf. xxxvi, § 3. 

^ Agantuk’ aycini. t/. (S', v, 51. * Vessd and suJdd. 

® Sdmisa, lit. ‘ with a fleshy bait.’ Kdma-nUsitd, ‘ such as may arise 
in the first trance. The mental feelings are experienced in the fourth 
trance.’ Cotn>j. Cf. M. iii, 217-10; 4/..I. 270; Vibh.V. 26S. 



148 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 219 


§ 15 ( 5 ). Pmperh/ (i). 

Then the venerable Auanda Ciiuie to the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side the venerable Ananda .said to the Exalted 
One: — • 

‘ Pray, lord, what are the feelings ? A^^lat is the arising of 
feelings, what is the ceasing of feelings, what the way leading 
to the ceasing of feelings 1 Mliat is the satisfaction, the 
misery, of feeling, what is the refuge from feeling ? ’ 

‘ There are these three feelings, Ananda: pleasant, painful 
and neutral feelings. These, Ananda, are called feeling. By 
the arising of contact comes the arising of feelings. By the 
ceasing of contact comes the cea.sing of feelings. This Ariyan 
Eightfold Path is the way leading to the ceasing of feelings, 
namely: right belief and the rest . . . right contemplation. 
That pleasure, that mental ease which arises owing to feeling, — 
that is called “ the satisfaction of feeling.” As to the feelings 
which are impermanent, painfrd, changeable by nature, — these 
are called the misery of feeling.” That restraint of desire 
and lust for feeling, that abandoning of desire and lust for 
feeling, — that is the refuge from feeling. 

Moreover, Ananda, I have seen the ceasing of the activities 
to be gradual.- 'When one has attained the first trance, speech 
has cea.sed. . . . MTien one has attained the cessation of 
perception and feeling, perception and feeling have ceased. 
In the brother who has destroyed the asavas, lust has ceased, 
hatred has ceased, illusion has ceased. 

Moreover, Ananda, I have seen that the mastery of the 
activities is gradual. "Blien one has attained the first trance, 
speech is mastered . . . illusion is mastered. 

Moreover, Ananda, I have seen that the calming of the 
activities is gradual. Mdien one has attained the first trance, 
speech is calmed . . . illusion is calmed.’ 


^ Saiildl'ffij, ‘what ]»el(>ng.s to ono ' (hlonrusi). 
“ Ani(]n>h}ut. ('f. M/ijtrft § 11 . 



XXXVI, II, 2 , § ig] Kiiidnil Sayings about Feehiuj 149 


§ 16 (6). Property (ii). 

Then the venerable Ananda came to see the Exalted One. . . 
A.s he sat at one side, the Exalted One said to the venerable 
Ananda : — 

‘ 4\Tiat, Ananda, is feeling ? IVhat is the ceasing of feeling ? 
What is the way leading to the ceasing of feeling ? What is 
the satisfaction, the misery of feeling, what is the refuge from 
feeling V 

‘ For us, lord, things have the Exalted One for their root, 
their guide, their resort. Well for us, lord, if the meaning of 
this saying were to occur to the Exalted One. Hearing the 
Exalted One the bretliren will bear it in mind.’ 

‘ Then listen, Ananda. Apply your mind closely and I will 
speak.’ 

‘ Even so, lord,’ replied the venerable Ananda. . . . The 
Exalted One said : — 

‘ There are these three feelings, Ananda . . .’(«*■ § 15). 

§ 17 (7). Eightfold (i). 

{The same as § 15. 'Eightfold’ means, ceasing, mastering and 
the six calmings there described.) 

§ 18 (8) Eightfold (ii). 

Then a number of brethren came to the Exalted One. . . . 
As they^ sat at one side, the Exalted One said to those 
brethren : — 

‘ AVhat, brethren, is feeling I {all as in § 16). 

§ 19 (9). Ficetoolsx 

Xow Fivetools, the carpenter, came to visit the venerable 
Udayi,® and on coming to him, saluted him and sat down at 

1 All MS8. have iiisinno, whieli slioukl read nisiiine. 

- Paiicah' amjd: According to I'ojh//. tlie live ««;/'(«! cou.stituting the 
tools of a carpenter are (adze), niltu'utann (chisel), danda 

(measuring-stick), iniKjijiini (gavel), kCita-sutla (blackened thread): 
tVe.dern carpenters use a chalked thread. Cj. Mil. P.. -113; .T.P.T.S., 
1884, 70-8: also /ei/i, a hollow r-eed. (Ceylon carpenters use a bambu 
joint for holding nails, etc,, and small tools.) 

^ Cf. supm, ^ IS'.y. J/. i, 396, 447. Here Cow^. calls him pa/a/du Z/it/a. 



150 The Sulciyatana Booh [text iv, 223 

one side. So seated Fivetools, the carpenter, said to the 
venerable Udayi — 

‘ Pray, master P'dayi, how many feelings are spoken of by 
the Exalted One V 

‘ Three feelings, carpenter, are spoken of by the Exalted 
One, — pleasant feeling, painful feeling and feeling that is 
neither pleasant nor painful. These are the three.’ 

At these words Fivetools, the carpenter, said to the venerable 
Udayi : — 

‘ Not three feelings were spoken of by the Exalted One, 
master Udayi. There are two feelings, — pleasant and painful 
feeling. As to this neutral feeling, it was spoken of by the 
Exalted One as belonging to pure and perfect bliss. 

Then a second time the venerable Udayi said to the carpenter 
Fivetools ; — 

‘ Not two feelings, carpenter, were spoken of by the E.xalted 
One. Three feelings were spoken of by the Exalted One, — 
pleasant, painful and neutral feelings. These are the three 
so spoken of.’ 

Then a second time also Fivetools, the carpenter, said to the 
venerable Udayi : — 

‘ No, master Udayi. ' There are two feelings so spoken of. . . ‘ 

Then a third time the venerable Udayi asserted and the 
carpenter Fivetools denied that there were three feelings. 

So neither could convince the other. 

Now the venerable Ananda overheard the talk between the 
venerable Udayi and Fivetools, the carpenter. Thereupon 
the venerable Ananda went to the Exalted One. . . . Seated 
at one side he repeated in full to the Exalted One the talk 
between the venerable Udayi anil Fivetools, the carpenter, so 
far as it went. Then the E.xalted One said; — ■ 

‘ Though it was true, Ananda, Fivetools the carpenter did 
not agree vdtli the explanation of the brother Udayi, nor would 
the latter agree with the explanation of the former, though it 
was true. 

^ hifni, xliii, § 24, iSanlitt). ( om;/. ' tSrl pi ndnC utthena panlf 
cttlieiia ra ■•suhhan li i-iilki uirodho.' T’or panlla see JJuddh. Psych. Eth., 
2 ()() 11. 



XXXVI, II, 2 , § iq] Kindred Sayings about Feeling 151 

There are two feelings, Ananda, in my way of explaining. 
There are also three feelings, Ananda, in my way of explaining. 
There are also five, six, eighteen, thirty-six, there are one 
hundred and eight^ feelings in my way of explaining, Ananda. 
Such is the exposition of the Norm taught by me, Ananda. 

Though I have thus expounded my method of teaching the 
Norm, Ananda, of those who will not approve of, will not agree 
with, each other’s exposition of it, however vrell said and 
spoken, — of such you may expect this. They will dwell 
quarrelsome, wrangling, disputatious, wounding each other 
with the weapons of the tongue.^ 

Now such is the method of the Norm, as expounded by me. 
When I have so expounded it, those v/ho approve of, agree 
with, each other’s e.xposition of it, being well said and spoken, — 
of such you may expect this; they will dwell in harmony, 
courteous, without quarrelling, like milk and water mixed, 
looking on one another with the eye of affection. 

There are these five sensual elements, Ananda. What five ? 
Objects cognizable by the eye, desirable, pleasant, delightful 
and dear, passion-fraught, inciting to lust. . . . There are 
objects cognizable by ear, nose, tongue. . . . There are 
objects cognizable by body, tangible, de.sirable, pleasant, 
delightful and dear, passion-fraught, inciting to lust. . . . 
These, Ananda, are the five sensual elements. That pleasure, 
that happiness that arises owing to the five sensual elements, — 
that, Ananda, is called “ sensual pleasure.” 

Now, Ananda, there may be some who aver: “ This is the 
supreme pleasure and happiness that beings experience.” 
But of that view of theirs I do not allow. A\Tiy not ? There 
is, Ananda, another pleasure, still more excellent and exquisite 
than this. And what is that ? 

Herein, Anaiifla, a brother, aloof from sensuality, aloof from 
evil conditions, enters on the first trance, which is accom- 
panied by thought directed and sustained, which is born of 
solitude, easeful and zestful, and abides therein. This, 


1 Tlio numboi- oi the khandhas (thirty-six iu a tiireofokl way). 

2 CJ. Uddn., 67. 



152 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 226 

Auanda, is anotiier pleasure still more excellent and exquisite 
than that one. 

There may be some, Ananda, who aver ; This is the supremo 
pleasure and happiness that beings can experience.” But of 
that I do not allow. And why not ? There is yet another 
pleasure more excellent, more exquisite than this (of the first 
trance). And what is it 1 Herein, Ananda, a brother, by the 
calming down of thought directed and sustained, enters on the 
inward calm, that single-mindetlness of will, apart from thought 
directed and sustained, born of mental balance, zestful and full 
of ease, which is the second trance. This, Ananda, is a 
pleasure still more excellent, still more exquisite than that 
other. 

Again, Ananda, there may be those who aver; “ This (of the 
second trance) is the supreme pleasure and happiness that 
beings can experience.” But that d do not allow. Why not ? 
There is yet another pleasure. . . . What is that ? 

Herein, Ananda, a brother, by the fading out of zest becomes 
balanced and remains mindfid and composed, anti experiences 
with the body the happiness of which the Ariyans aver; “ The 
balanced thoughtful man dwells happily.” Then he enters 
on the third trance and abides therein. Aow this, Ananda, 
is a pleasure still more excellent, still more exquisite (than the 
previous one). 

Again, Ananda, there may be .some who aver: This (of 
the third trance) is the supreme pleasure and happiness that 
beings can experience. " But this also I do not allow. A\liy 
not ! Because there is yet another pleasure. . . . What is 
that ? 

Herein, Ananda, a brother, rejecting jdeasure and jjain, by 
the coming to an end of the joy and sorrow which he had 
before, enters on and abides in the fourth trance, which is free 
of pain and free of pleasure, but is a state of perfect purity 
of balance and equanimity. This, Ananda, is a pleasure still 
more excellent, still more exqui.site than that other. 

Again, Ananda, there may be some who aver. . . . But 
there is yet another pleasure. . . . What is that ? Herein, 
Ananda, a brother, passing utterly beyond the perception of 



xxxvi, II, 2 , § 19 ] Kiudred Sayings about Feeling 153 

objects, by the coming to an end of perception of resistance,^ 
by not attending to perception of diversity, with the idea 
of “ infinite- is space,” attains and abides in the realm of the 
inhnity of space. This, Ananda, is a pleasure still more 
excellent, still more exquisite (than that other). 

Again, Ananda, there may be those who aver; “ This is the 
supreme pleasure. . . . ’ But there is yet another pleasure. . . . 
A\Tiat is that ? 

Herein, Ananda, a brother, passing utterly beyond the 
realm of infinite space, with the idea of “ infinite is conscious- 
ness,” attains and abides in the realm of infinite consciousness. 
This, Ananda, is a pleasure still more excellent, still more 
exquisite (than that other). 

Again, Ananda, there may be some who aver: “This is 
the supreme pleasure. ...” But there is yet another 
pleasure. . . . AATiat is that 1 

Herein, Ananda, a brother, passing utterly beyond the realm 
of infinite consciousness, with the idea: “ There is nothing at 
all,” attains and abides in the realm of nothingness. This, 
Ananda, is a pleasure yet more excellent, yet more exquisite 
(than that other). 

Again, Ananda, there may be some who aver: "This is 
the supreme pleasure. . . .” But there is yet another 
pleasure. . . . A\'hat is that ? 

Herein, Ananda, a brother, passing utterly beyond the realm 
of nothingness, attains and abides in the realm which neither 
is nor is not perception. This, Ananda, is a pleasure. . . . 

But, Ananda, if some should aver: “ This is the supreme 
pleasure and happiness that beings can experience, ’ 1 do not 
allow of that. AVhy not I Because, Ananda, there is yet a 


^ Piitiyha (liere in its psychological .sense) The re.sistance 

offered to oiitwaril-going consciousness, hy which one hecoines aware of 
something. 

- Text has (UKtUd in this and the ne.xt para., following the Sinha- 
lese MSS. But It! and U are so similar in Smhale.si' script that they are 
often indistinguishable. Burmese MSS. read uikuiIii. and Coinij. doe.s 
not notice the passage, so I translate according to atKiuta, always used 
in this stock formula. 



154 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 228 

pleasure more excellent, still more exquisite than that one. 
What is that ? 

Herein, Ananda, a brother, passing utterly beyond the realm 
which neither is nor is not perception, attains and abides in 
(a state which is) the cessation of perception and feeling.^ 
This, Ananda, is a pleasure still more excellent, still more 
exquisite (than that other). 

But, Ananda, there is a possibility that the Wanderers who 
hold other views might aver: “Gotama the recluse spoke of 
the cessation of perception and feeling, and proclaims that 
as pleasure. ^Vhat is the meaning of this and how is this ?” 
The Wanderers who hold other views, Ananda, should be 
replied to thus: “Friends, the Exalted One did not proclaim 
that as pleasure in connection with just pleasant feeling: but 
wheresoever, friends, pleasure is obtained, the Exalted One 
proclaims just that pleasure, howsoever and of whatsoever 
nature, as pleasure.” 

§ 20 (10). By a brother. 

There are two feelings, brethren, in niy way of explaining. 
There are also three feelings, five, six, eighteen, thirty-six, 
there are one hundred and eight feelings in my way of 
explaining. Such, brethren, is my way of explaining the 
Norm. {The rest is as in the last section). 


3. The Methou of the Hundred and Eight® 

§ 21 (1). Sivaka. 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Rajagaha, in the 
Bamboo Grove, at the Squirrels’ Feeding-ground. 

Now on that occasion the AVanderer Sivaka of the Toji-knot'* 
paid a visit to the Exalted One. On coming to him he greeted 
him in friendly wise, and after the exchange of greetings and 

^ Sahiid-vednyita-nirodhi, <,'J. liuddh. Psych., 119. 

^ See end of J 22. 

'' Moliya, having his hair tied in a mdi. Cf. K.S. ii, 9 «. He may 
have been a pliysieian. Cf. A. iii, 3.56; Thaj. 14. 



XXXVI, II, 3 > § 2 i] Kindred Sayings About Feeling 155 

courtesies, sat down at one side. So seated, the Wanderer 
Sivaka of the Top-knot said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ There are some recluses and brahmins, master Gotama, 
who say thus, who hold this view; IMiatsoever pleasure or 
pain or mental state a human being experiences, all that is 
due to a previous act. iSiow what says master Gotama about 
this V 

‘ Now, Sivaka, in this connection there are some suft’erings 
originating from bile.^ You ought to know by experience,^ 
Sivaka, that this is so. And this fact, that sufferings originate 
from bile, is generally acknowledged by the world as true. 
Now, Sivaka, those recluses and brahmins who say thus, who 
hold this view: That whatsoever pleasure or pain or mental 
state a human being experiences, all that is due to a previous 
act, both in what is known by personal experience and in what 
is generally acknowledged by the world as true, — in both they 
go too far. Wherefore I declare those recluses and brahmins 
to be in the wrong. 

Also, Sivaka, in this connexion, there are some sufierings 
originating from phlegm, from wind, from the union of bodily 
humours,^ from changes of the seasons, from stress of untoward 
happenings,^ from sudden attacks from without,® also from 
ripeness of one’s karma, Sivaka, — as you ought to know by 
experience. And this fact, Sivaka, that sufierings originate 
from ripeness of one’s karma, is generally acknowledged by 
the world as true. Now, Sivaka, the recluses and brahmins 
who say thus, who hold this view: “ Whatsoe\'er pleasure or 

I Cf. Mil. Pahh., 134, and S.B.E. xxxv, p. 191, where NSgaseiia is 
questioned on the sinlessness of the Buddlia by King Milinda, and 
quotes this autla. See infra, p. 161 n. A. ii, 87. - SCimaij. 

^ MSS. of Corny, agree in reading i,aiinipdldni for text's saiinipdti- 
Icdni. Cf. the additional note on p. 161. 

^ V isama-purihCirajdai, ejj. ‘as when one goes cut hastily at night 
and is bitten by a snake.’ Corny. In the pas.sage quoted above, Mil. P., 
134, Prof. Rhys Davids trails, ‘avoiding of dissiinilaritie.s.’ Corny, at 
A. ii, 87, ‘ by sitting or standing too long ’ (any excess). 

® Opakkamikdni.e.tj. ‘ arrested as a robber or adulterer.’ Corny. M.P. 
gives as example the wounding of the Buddlia’s foot by a splinter of 
rock. The woid means ‘elianee external happenings.’ 



156 


The Salayatuna Booh [text iv, 231 

pain or mental state a human being experiences, all that is 
due to a previous act,” herein they go beyond personal ex- 
perience and what is generally acknowledged by the world. 
AVherefore do I declare those recluses and brahmins to be in 
the wrong.’ 

At these words the AVanderer SIvaka of the Top-knot said to 
the Exalted One : — 

‘ Excellent, master Gotama! . . . Let the master Gotama 
accept me from this day forth, so long as life shall last, as a 
follower who ha.s taken refuge in him.’ 

AA'ith bile, phlegm, wind, the union 
Of humours, season.s' changes and the stress 
Of circumstance and awkward happenings, 

The ripeness of one’s karma makes the eighth. 

§ 22 (2). One hundred and eight. 

I will teach you an exposition of the Norm, brethren, accord- 
ing to the method of the one hundred and eight. And what, 
brethren, is that exposition of the Norm '? 

There are two feelings, brethren, in my way of expounding. 
There are also three, five, six, eighteen, thirty-six, and one 
hundred and eight feelings. 

And what, brethren, are the tuo feelings i They are bodily 
and mental feeling.s. These, brethren, are called ' the two 
feelings.' 

And what, brethren, are the three feelings 1 They are 
pleasant, painful and neutral feelings. 

And what, brethren, are the five feelings ? They are the 
controlling powers^ of pleasure, pain, joy, grief and indiffer- 
ence. . . . 

And what, brethren, are the six feelings 1 They are the 
feeling born of eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-, tongue-, body- 
and mind-contact. . . . 

And what, brethren, are the eighteen feelings ? They are 
the six ways of giving attention- to joy, grief and indif- 
ference. . . . 


- Vparicara. 


^ Indriyaiti. 



XXXVI, II, 3 , § 23 ] Ki'inJreA Sayings about Feeling 157 

And what, brethren, are the thirty-six feelings ? The}" are 
the six forms of joy concerned with the worldly life, the six 
forms of joy concerned with giving npd they are the six forms 
of grief concerned with the worldly life and six forms of grief 
concerned ^yith giving up : there are six forms of indifference 
concerned with the worldly life and six forms of indifference 
concerned with giving up. These, brethren, are called ‘ the 
thirty-six feelings.’ 

And what, brethren, are the one hundred and eight feelings ? 

There are thirty -six feelings of the past, thirty-six of the 
future, and thirty-six feelings of the present time. These, 
brethren, are the one hundred and eight feelings, and this is 
the method of expounding the Norm according to the one 
hundred and eight. 


§ 23 (3). The brother. 

Then a certain brother came to the Exalted One. . . . 
Seated at one side that brother said this : — 

‘ llTiat, lord, are the feelings, what the arising of feelings, 
and what is the way leading to the arising of feelings ? IVhat 
is the ceasing of feelings, what is the way leading to their 
ceasing, what is the satisfaction, the misery of feelings, what is 
the way of escape from feelings V 

‘ There are these three feelings, brother : pleasant, painful 
and neutral feelings. These, brother, are called “ the three 
feelings.” From the arising of contact comes the arising of 
feelings. Craving is the way leading to the arising of feelings. 
By the ceasing of contact comes the ceasing of feeling. This 
Ariyan Eightfold Path, to wit; right view . . . and right 
contemplation, is the way leading to the ceasing of feelings. 
The pleasure and happiness which arise owing to feeling, — 
that is the satisfaction in feeling. The misery of feeling is the 
impermanence, the pain, the unsubstantial nature of feeling. 
The abolishing of desire and lust, the abandoning of desire and 
lust, — that is the escape from feelings.’ 


* Nell Jiamma. 



158 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 233 


§ 24 ( 4 ). Knowledge of the past. 

Formerly, brethren, before my enlightenment, when I was 
not yet fully enlightened, but a Bodhi8at,this thought occurred 
to me : BTiat now are feelings ? What is the arising of feel- 
ings ? What is the ceasing of feelings, what the way leading 
to the ceasing of feelings ? WTiat is the satisfaction, what is 
the misery of feelings ? What is the way of escape from 
feelings ? 

Then, brethren, I thought thus : There are these three feel- 
ings ... (as in the previous section). ... At the thought, 
brethren, ‘This is feeling,’ — in things not heard of before^ 
there arose in me vision, there arose in me knowledge, insight 
arose, wisdom arose, light arose. 

At the thought: ‘ This is the arising of feeling,’ brethren, 
in things not heard of before . . . light arose. 

At the thought : ‘ This is the way leading to the arising of 
feeling,’ brethren, . . . light arose. 

At the thought: ‘This is the ceasing of feeling, ’brethren, . . . 
light arose. 

At the thought : ‘ This is the way leading to the ceasing of 
feeling. . . .’ At the thought: ‘ This is the satisfaction, the 
misery of feeling, this is the escape from feeling,’ brethren, in 
things not heard of before there arose in me vision, knowledge 
arose, insight arose, wi.sdom aro.se, light arose. 

§ 25 ( 5 ). By a brother. 

Then a number of Ijrethren came to sec the Exalted One . . . 
and asked: ‘ What, lord, is feeling V {repealed as in § 23). 

§ 20 (0). Recluses and brahmins (i). 

There are these three feelings, brethren. What three ? 
Pleasant feeling, painful feeling, neutral feeling. 

BTiatsoever recluses or brahmins understand not as they 
really are the arising, the destruction, the satisfaction and 
misery of, the escape from, the.se three feelings, [those recluses 


^ Piibbe ananassatesa dhammesu. 


f J. K.S. ii, 7 nn. 



XXXVI, n, 3 , § 29 ] Kindred Bayings abonl Feeling 159 

aad brahmins^ are approved neither among recluses as recluses 
nor among brahmins as brahmins. And those venerable ones 
have not understood of themselves, have not realized, the 
profit of being recluses or brahmins, nor have they lived in the 
attainment thereof. 

But those recluses and brahmins who have clone so, are 
approved both among recluses as recluses and among brahmins 
as brahmins. And those venerable ones have understood of 
themselves, have realized, the profit of being recluses or brah- 
mins, and having so attained do live in the present life.] 

§ 27 (7). Recluses and brahmins (ii). 

(The same as in § 26.) 

§ 28 (8) Recluses and brahmins (iii). 

. . . MTiatsoever recluses or brahmins understand not feeling, 
understand not the arising of feeling, the ceasing of feeling, 
the way leading to the ceasing of feeling . . . those recluses 
or brahmins are not approved. . . . But those who do under- 
stand . . . have realized . . . even in the present life. 

§ 29 (9). Purified and free from carnal taint?’ 

There are these three feelings, brethren. A\Tiat three ? . . . 
There is, brethren, a zest that is carnal and a zest that is 
not carnal. There is a zest that is still less carnal than the 
other. 

There is a pleasure that is carnal, a pleasure that is not 
carnal, and a pleasure still less carnal than the other. 

There is an indifference . . . there is a release that is carnal, 
one that is not carnal, and one that is still less carnal than the 
other. 

And what, brethren, is the zest that is carnal ? 

There are these five sensual elements, brethren. A\Tiat 
five ? Objects cognizable by the eye, objects desirable, 

^ The words in brackets arc abbreviated in the text and are to be 
supplied from 8. ii, 14 [K.S. ii, 12). 

^ Cf. supra, § 14. 



160 The Salayaiana Book [text iv, 235 

leasant, delightful and dear, passion-fraught, inciting to 
lust. . . . There are things cognizable by body, tangibles, 
desirable, pleasant. . . . These, brethren, are the five sensual 
elements. MTiatsoever zest, brethren, arises owing to these 
five, that is called ‘ zest that is carnal.’ 

And what, brethren, is zest that is not carnal ? 

Herein a brother, aloof from sensuality, aloof from evil 
conditions, enters on the first trance, which is accompanied 
by thought directed and sustained, born of solitude, easeful 
and zestful, and abides therein. By the calming down of 
thought directed and sustained, he enters on the inward calm, 
that one-pointedness of will, apart from thought directed and 
sustained, born of mental balance, zestful and easeful, which 
is the second trance, and abides therein. This, brethren, is 
called ‘ zest that is not carnal.’ 

And what, brethren, is the zest that is still less carnal than 
the other ? 

That zest which arises in a brother who has destroyed the 
asavas, who can look upon his heart as released from lust, — 
that zest, brethren, i.s called ‘the zest that is still less carnal 
than that other.’ 

And what, brethren, is pleasure that is carnal ? 

There are these five sensual elements, brethren. What 
five ? {as above), . . . AMiatsoever pleasure and happiness 
arise owing to these five sensual elements, — that, brethren, 
is called ‘ pleasure that is carnal.’ 

And what, brethren, is the pleasure that is not carnal ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother, aloof from sensuality (as above) 
. . . having entered on the second trance, abides therein. 
By the fading out of zest, he abides indifferent, mindful and 
composed, and experiences pleasure through the body. Having 
entered on the third trance, which the Ariyans describe in 
these terms; ‘He who is indifferent and mindful dwells 
happily,’ he abides therein. This, brethren, is the pleasure 
that is not carnal. 

And what, brethren, is the pleasure that is still less carnal 
than the other ? 

In a brother who has de.stroyed the asavas, who can look 



XXXVI, II, 3, § 29] Kindred Sayings about Feeling 161 

upon Ms heart as released from lust, as released from hatred, 
as released from illusion, there arises pleasure and happiness. 
This, brethren, is called ‘ the pleasure that is still less carnal 
than that other.’ 

And what, brethren, is the indifference that is carnal ? 

There are five sensual elements (as above) . . . the indif- 
ference that arises owing to these is called ‘ indifference that is 
carnal.’ 

And what, brethren, is the indifference that is not carnal ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother, by the abandoning of pleasure, 
by the abandoning of pain, by the destruction of the happiness 
and dejection which he had before, having entered upon that 
state which is neither pleasant nor painful, that utter purity 
of mindfulness reached by indifference, which is the fourth 
trance, and abides therein. This, brethren, is called ‘ the 
indifierence that is not carnal.’ And what, brethren, is the 
indifference that is still less carnal than that other ? 

In a brother who has destroyed the asavas, who can look 
upon his heart as released from lust, hatred and illusion, there 
arises indifference. This, brethren, is called ‘ the indifference 
that is still less carnal than that other.’ 

And what, brethren, is the release that is carnal ? 

Release that is concerned with (material) objects is carnal. 
Release that is concerned with immaterial objects is not carnal. 

And what, brethren, is the release that is still less carnal 
than that other ? 

In a brother who has destroyed the asavas, who can look 
upon his heart as released from lust, hatred and illusion, there 
arises a release. This, brethren, is called ‘ the release that is 
still less carnal than that other.’ 

Additiosal Note to Page 155. 

At M.P. 302 (trans. p. 104), Nagasena sums up in verso the causes 
of untimely death : — 

‘ By hunger, thirst, by poison, and by bites. 

Burnt, drowned, or slain, men out of time do die ; 

By the three humours, and by three combined, 

By heats, by inetpialities, by aids, 

By all these seven men die out of time.’ 

[‘ All can he treated medicinally except the ripene.ss of Karma.’ Corny. ] 



PART III 


[CHAPTER XXXVII] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT WOMANKIND 

I. First Repetition 
§ 1 (1). Charming and not charming. 

Possessed of five qualities, bretliren, woman is altogether 
without charm for a man. What five ? She is not beauteous 
in form, not possessed of wealth, not moral. She is slack, she 
gets no offspring. Possessed of these five qualities, brethren, 
a woman is altogether without charm for a man. 

Possessed of five qualities, brethren, woman is altogether 
charming to a man. What five ? She is beauteous in form, 
possessed of wealth, moral, vigorous and gets offspring. 
Possessed of these five qualities, brethren, a woman is alto- 
gether charming to a man. 

§ 2 (2). Charming and not charming. 

Possessed of five qualities, brethren, a man is without charm 
for a woman. WTiat five ? {The same as the above.) 

§ 3 (3), Special. 

There are these five speciaP woes, brethren, which a woman 
has to undergo as apart from a man. What five ? Herein, 
brethren, a woman at a tender age goes to her husband’s 
family and leaves her relatives behind. That is the first 
special woe. 

Again, brethren, a woman is subject to menses. That is 
the second woe. 


1 Avenikd (a word of doubtful origin), def. by Corny, as pafipvgga- 
likdni {idoneus), asadlidrandni jmrisehi (not in common with males). 

162 



XXXVII, in, I, § 4 ] Sayings about Womankind 163 

Again, brethren, a woman is subject to pregnancy. That 
is the third woe. 

Again, brethren, a woman has to bring forth. That is the 
fourth woe. 

Again, brethren, a woman has to wait upon^ a man. That 
is the fifth special woe which a woman has to undergo as 
apart from a man. 

These, brethren, are the five special woes which a woman 
has to undergo as apart from a man. 

§ 4 (4). Three things. 

Possessed of three things, brethren, a woman, as a rule, when 
body breaks up, after death is reborn in the Waste, the Way 
of Woes, the Downfall, in Purgatory.^ What three ? Herein, 
brethren, a woman stays at home with heart haunted by the 
taint of stinginess.® At noontide she stays at home with 
heart haunted by jealousy.^ At eventide she stays at home 
haunted by sensuality and lust. These are the three things, 
brethren, possessed of which a woman ... is reborn r . . in 
purgatory. 


(Anuruddha 1. The Dark Side)® 

Then the venerable Anuruddha® came to visit the Exalted 
One. . . . Seated at one side he said : — 

‘ Herein, lord, with clairvoyant eye, purified and super- 
human, I behold womankind, after death, when body breaks 

^ Paricariyar) upeii. 

2 The stock phrase apdya, duggali, vinipdla, niraya. According to 
Corny, the first is a synonym for purgatory generally (‘hell’ eternal 
not existing for the Buddhist), the second is dukkhassagati, the third 
vitmsa-nipdta, the fourth is purgatory proper, nir-aya, ' a going asunder.’ 
Soo Ud.A. 418; Dialog, ii, 91 n. 

^ Corny. ‘ she will not give food to her crying children.’ 

Corny. ‘ she is jealous of her husband’s doings.’ 

^ KariTia-palcIcha (the dark fortnight of the moon), as opp. to § 14 
infra. The title seems to refer to S. ii, xvi, 7 {K.S. ii, 139), the waxing 
and waning of good qualities. 

® Anuruddha was noted for his claiivoyant powers. He is proclaimed 
(A. i, 23) as best of those who had ‘the heavenly eye.’ Cf. K.S. ii, 
cap. xix (of Moggallana). 



164 


The Saluyatana Book [text iv, 241 

up, being reborn in the Waste, the Way of Woe, the Downfall, 
in Purgatory. Of what qualities possessed, lord, is a woman 
so reborn V 

§ 5 (1). Wrathful. 

‘ Possessed of five things, Anuruddha, a woman ... is 
reborn ... in purgatory. WTiat five ? She is faithless, 
shameless, unscrupulous, wrathful, of weak wisdom. These 
are the five things possessed of which ... a woman ... is 
so reborn.’ 

§ 6 (2). Grudging. 

{As above, with grudging as fourth term.) 

§ 7 (3). Envious. 

(As above, with envious as fourth term.) 

§ 8 (4). Through stinginess. 

(As above, with stinginess as fourth term.) 

§ 9 (5). Adulteress. 

(As above, with adulteress as fourth term.) 

§ 10 (6). Immorality. 

(As above, with immoral . . .) 

§ 11 (7). Of small ktiowledge. 

(As above, with small knowledge . . .) 

§ 12 (8). Indolent. 

(As above, with indolent . . .) 

§ 13 (9). Muddle-headed. 

(As above, with muddle-headed as fourth term,.) 

§ 14 (10). The fivefold guilty dread.^ 

Possessed of five things, Animiddha, womankind is reborn 
... in Purgatory, ^\^lat five ? She takes life, takes what 

^ Cf. A'.fS'. ii, 48. These are to be guarded against by the five charges 
(paiica.nla). 



165 


XXXVII, III, 3, § 25] Sayings about Wo^nankind 

is not given, acts wrongly in sense-desires, tells lies, indulges 
in fermented and distilled liquor, intoxicants causing sloth. 
These are the live things possessed of which womankind . . . 
is reborn in Purgatory. 


2. Second Repetition 
(Anuruddha 2. The Bright Fortnight) 

Then the venerable Anuruddha came to visit the Exalted 
One. . . . Seated at one side he said to the Exalted One : — ■ 

‘ Herein, lord, I behold with clairvoyant eye, purified and 
superhuman, — I behold womankind, when body breaks up after 
death being reborn in the Happy Lot, in the Heavenly World. 
Of what qualities possessed, lord, is a woman so reborn V 

§ 15 (1). Not wrathful. 

‘ Possessed of five things, Anuruddha, womankind is so 
reborn. What five ? She is faithful, modest, scrupulous, not 
wrathful, rich in wisdom. . . . 

§§ 16-24 (2-10). 

{The reverse o/§§ 6-14 above, viz.: She is not grudging, not 
envious, not stingy, no adulteress, moral, of wide knowledge, 
energetic, has her wits about her and observes the five 
charges.) 


3. 

§ 25 (1). Gonfident. 

There are these five powers in a woman, brethren. What 
five ? The power of beauty, the power of wealth, the power 
of kin, the power of sons,^ the power of virtue. These are the 
five. Possessed of these five powers, brethren, womenfolk 
dwell at home in confidence. 

1 Riipa = rupa-sampatii. 

^ Puila. Daughters are not welcomed in Indian families. The 
word, however, may bo rendered by ‘ children.’ 



166 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 246 


§ 26 (2). By force. 

(The same) . . . Possessed of these five powers, brethren, 
a woman dwells at home overpowering her husband. 

§ 27 (3). By conquering. 

(The same) . . . Possessed of these five powers, brethren, 
a woman continues to^ get the better of her husband. 

§ 28 (4). One. 

Possessed of one power, brethren, a man continues to get 
the better of a woman. AVhat power ? By the power of 
authority. 

Neither the power of her beauty, nor her power of wealth, 
of kin, of sons, nor her power of virtue can avaiP a woman who 
is mastered by the power of authority. 

§ 29 (5). Quality. 

Possessed of these five powers . . . the power of virtue. 

Suppose, brethren, a woman is possessed of the power of 
beauty, but not of wealth. Thus is she defective by one 
quality. But suppose her possessed of both, then is she 
complete by that quality. 

Suppose, brethren, a woman is possessed of the power of 
beauty and wealth, but not of kin. Then is she defective by 
that one quality. But suppose her possessed of all three, 
then is she complete by that quality. 

Suppose, brethren, a woman is possessed of the power of 
beauty, wealth, and kin, but not of sons. Then is she defective 
by that one quality. But suppose her possessed of all four, 
then is she complete by that quality. 

Suppose, brethren, a woman is possessed of the first four, 
but not of the power of virtue. Then is she defective by that 
one quality. But suppose her possessed of all five, then is 
she complete by that quality. 

Such, brethren, are the five powers of womanfolk. 

* Tdyali. 


^ Vattati. 



XXXVII, III, 3 , § 32 ] Sayings about Womankind 167 


§ 30 (6). They overthrow. 

There are these five powers of womanfolk, brethren. "What 
five ? . . . (As before.) 

Suppose a woman possessed of the power of beauty, but not 
of virtue. They cause her overthrow. They do not let her 
stay^ in the family. 

Suppose, brethren, a woman possessed of the power of beauty 
and wealth, but not of virtue. They cause her overthrow. 
They do not let her stay in the family. 

Suppose, brethren, a woman possessed of the powers of 
beauty, wealth, and kin, but not of virtue . . . possessed of 
these three and the power of sons, but not of virtue. They 
cause her overthrow. They do not let her stay in the family. 

But suppose, brethren, a woman possessed of the power of 
virtue, but not of beauty. They let her stay in the family. 
They do not cause her overthrow. 

Suppose a woman possessed of the power of virtue, but not 
of wealth ... of virtue, but not of kin ... of virtue, but not 
of sons. They let her stay in the family. They do not 
cause her overthrow. 

Such, brethren, are the five powers of womanfolk. 

§ 31 (7). Because of.^ 

There are, brethren, five powers of womanfolk. . . . 

But it is not because of the power of beauty, wealth, kin, 
or sons that a woman is reborn after death in the Happy Lot, 
in the Heaven World, when body breaks up. It is because of 
virtue, brethren, that women are so reborn. Such, brethren, 
are the five powers of womanfolk. 

§ 32 (8). Condition,.^ 

There are these five conditions, brethren, hard to be won 
by a woman who has wrought no merit. What five ? 

1 Vasenti. Pali Diet, takes the word as simply ‘preserve’; but 
Corny, says: ‘Saying “she hath trespassed beyond bounds,” they take 
her by the neck and throw her out. They do not “let her stay ’’ in the 
family.’ 

* Hetu. 


’ Thdnaij. 



168 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 249 

She may wish: ‘Oh that I may be reborn in a proper^ 
family.’ That is the first condition which is hard to be won 
by a woman who has wrought no merit. 

‘ Born in a proper family, may I go (as wife) to a proper 
family.’ That, brethren, is the second condition which is 
hard to be won. , . . 

‘ Born in a proper family, gone (as wife) to a proper family, 
may I dwell in the home without a rival. That, brethren, is 
the third condition which is hard to be won. . . . 

‘ Born in a proper family, gone (as wife) to a proper family, 
dwelling in the home without a rival, may I have a son.’ That, 
brethren, is the fourth condition which is hard to be won. . . . 

‘ Born in a proper family . . . possessed of a son, may I 
continue to have mastery over my husband.’ That, brethren, 
is the fifth condition which is hard to be won by a woman who 
has not wrought merit. Such, brethren, are the five con- 
ditions. . . . 

There are these five conditions, brethren, easily won by a 
woman who has wrought merit. ^Vhat five ? {The same five 
ivishes are realized by such.) 

^ § 33 (9). Confident. 

Possessed of five things, brethren, womenfolk dwell confident 
at home. What five ? 

A woman abstains from taking life, from taking what is not 
given, from wrong practice in sensual lusts, from falsehood and 
from fermented liquor, distilled liquor, intoxicants giving rise 
to sloth. 

Possessed of these five thing.s, brethren, a woman dwells 
confident at home. 


§ 34 (10). Growth. 

Increasing in five growths, brethren, the Ariyan woman 
disciple increases in the Ariyan growth, takes hold of the 
essential, takes hold of the better.® "VWiat five ? 


‘ Patirupa. 

^ SUrdddyinl ca varddCiyini ca. 


^ .Uapntli, another wife. 



XXXVII, III, 3, § 34] Sayings about Wmnankind 169 

She grows in faith, ^ grows in virtue, in learning, in gene- 
rosity, in wisdom. Making such growth, brethren, she takes 
hold of the essential, she takes hold of the better. 

AVko in this world in faith and virtue grows. 

In wisdom, generosity and lore — 

A virtuous disciple, in this world 
She vdns what is essential for herself.^ 

1 As at S. i, 21, ‘faith ’ means that she believes in karma and its 
fruit. 

2 Saray 


atlaiio. 



PART IV 


[CHAPTER XXXVIII] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT JAMBUKHADAKA 
/§ 1. Nibbdna. 

Once the venerable Sariputta was staying among the folk of 
Magadha, at Nalaka* village. 

Then the Wanderer, Rose-apple-eater, ^ came to visit the 
venerable Sariputta, and on coming to him greeted him in 
friendly wise, and after the exchange of greetings and 
courtesies sat down at one side. So seated, the Wanderer, 
Rose-apple-eater, said to the venerable Sariputta : — 

‘ “ Nibbana, Nibbana !”* is the saying, friend Sariputta. 
Pray, friend, what is Nibbana V 

‘ The destruction of lust, the destruction of hatred, the 
destruction of illusion, friend, is called Nibbana.’ 

‘ But is there, friend, any path, any approach to the realiza- 
tion of this Nibbana V 

‘ There is such a path, friend, there is such an approach.’ 

‘ And what is that path, friend, what is that approach to 
the realization of this Nibbana ?’ 

‘ It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path, friend, for the realization 
of Nibbana, to wit : right view, right aim, right speech, right 
action, right living, right effort, right mindfulness, right con- 
centration. Such, friend, is this path, this approach to the 
realization of Nibbana.’ 

^ Nalaka, of Magadha, was the native village of Sariputta, and is 
frequently mentioned in Psalms of the Brethren, q.v. He died there 
(S. v, 161). 

^ Jambu-khddaka, ‘the name of one of Sariputta ’s nephews, a 
‘clothed’ (channa) \yandercr.’ Corny. 

^ if. Pis. of Contr., ltd a.; Buddhism, 180. 

170 



xxxviii, IV, § 3 ] Sayings about JamhuhJiadalca 171 

‘ A goodly^ path, friend, a goodly approach to the realization 
of this Nibbana and a proper occasion^ for earnestness too, 
friend !’ 

§ 2. Arahantship. 

‘ They say, “ Arahantship, Arahantship !” friend Sariputta. 
Pray, friend, what is Arahantship ?’ 

‘ The destruction of lust, friend, the destruction of hatred, 
the destruction of illusion, — that is called Arahantship.’ 

‘ But is there, friend, any path, any approach to the realiza- 
tion of this Arahantship V 

‘ There is such a path, friend.’ 

‘ And what, friend, is that path, what is that approach to 
the realization of this Arahantship V 

‘ It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path, friend . . . [in each of 
the following sections the formula is repeated with the new term 
in question). 

‘ A goodly path, friend ! A goodly approach to the realiza- 
tion of this Arahantship, friend Sariputta !’ 

§ 3. Norm-preacher. 

‘ Who, pray, friend Sariputta, are Norm-preachers in the 
world, who are well-practised in the world, who are happy ones 
in the world V 

‘ They, friend, who teach a Norm for abandoning lust in the 
world, for abandoning hatred in the world, for abandoning 
illusion in the world, they are Norm-preachers in the world. 

They, friend, who are practised in the abandoning of lust, 
hatred and illusion, they are well practised in the world. 

They, friend, whose lust is abandoned, cut off at the root, 
made like a palm-tree stump, made unable to grow again in 
the future, of a nature not to arise again; they whose hatred 
is abandoned . . . whose illusion is abandoned, cut ofi at the 
root ... of a nature not to arise again, — they, friend, are 
happy ones in the world.’ 

‘ But, friend, is there any way, any approach to the abandon - 
ing of this lust, this hatred, this illusion ?’ 

I Bhaddaka, ^ Alan ca. 



172 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 253 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend, to such abandoning.’ 

‘ And what, friend, is that way . . .V 

‘ It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path. . . .’ 

‘ A goodly path, friend . . . !’ 

§ 4. What is it ? 

‘ What is it, friend, for which the righteous life is lived under 
Gotama the recluse 

‘ For the comprehension of 111, friend, the righteous life is 
lived under Gotama the recluse.’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend, is there any approach to the 
comprehension of this 111 V 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend, for such comprehension. . . .’ 

§ 5. Comfort?- 

‘ “ Won comfort, won comfort !” is the saying, friend Sari- 
putta. Pray how far has a man won comfort V 

‘ In so far, friend, as one understands, as they really are, 
the arising and the ceasing, the satisfaction and the misery of, 
and the escape from, the sixfold sense-sphere, just so far, 
friend, has he won comfort.’ 

‘ But, friend, is there any way, any approach to the realiza- 
tion of this comfort ?’ 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend, to such realization. . . .’ 

§ 6. Supreme comfort. 

‘“Supreme comfort, supreme comfort!” is the saying^ 
friend Sariputta. Pray how far has a man won supreme 
comfort V 

‘ In so far, friend, as a man, by seeing, as they really are, 
the arising and ceasing, the satisfaction and the misery of, 
and the way of escape from, the sixfold sphere of contact, is 
freed without grasping,® — just so far, friend, has he won 
supreme comfort.’ 


‘ t'f. Dialog, i, 56 ff. : ‘ The fruits of the life of a recluse.’ 
^ .istfdsa, lit. ‘ quiet breathing.’ 

^ Ajiupadd-vimiiUo. 



XXXVIII, IV, § 9] Sayings about JambuJcMdaka 173 

‘ But is there any way, friend, any approach to the realiza- 
tion of this supreme comfort V 

‘ There is indeed such a way, friend. . . 

§ 7. Feeling. 

Feeling, feeling !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. Pray 
what is feeling V 

‘ There are these three feelings, friend ; pleasant feeling, 
painful feeling, neutral feeling. These are the three feelings.' 

‘ But is there any way, friend, any approach to the compre- 
hension of these feelings V 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend. . . .’ 

§ 8. Asava.^ 

‘ “ Asava, asava !” friend Sariputta, is the saying. Pray 
what is asava V 

‘ There are these three asavas, friend: sensuality, becoming^ 
and ignorance. These are the three asavas.’ 

‘ But is there any way, any approach, friend, to the abandon- 
ing of these asavas V 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend. . . 

§ 9. Ignorance. 

‘ “ Ignorance, ignorance !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. 
Pray what is ignorance V 

‘ Not understanding about 111, friend, not understanding 
about the arising of 111, the ceasing of 111, the way leading to 
the ceasing of 111, — this, friend, is called “ ignorance.” ’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend, any approach to the abandon- 
ing of this 111 ?’ 

‘ There is such a way, friend. . . .’ 


1 See Introd., v, of K.S. iii; Expos., ii, 470, where they are referred to 
as ‘intoxicants.’ Lord Chalmers, Majjhitna trans., vol. i, calls them 
‘ cankers.’ 

^ Bhav'asava, in the sense of the niddm of rebirth. Sometimes 
four are named, the above with the addition of ditfhi, ‘ view.’ Cf 
Expos. 63-5. 



174 


TTie Salayatana Book [text iv, 257 


§ 10. Craving. 

‘ “ Craving, craving !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. Pray 
what is craving V 

‘ There are these three cravings, friend : the craving for sense 
delight, the craving for becoming, the craving for not- 
becomingd These are the three cravings.’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend ... for the abandoning of 
these cravings V 

‘ There is such a way, friend. . . 

§ 11. Flood?- 

‘ “ The flood, the flood !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. 
Pray what is “ the flood ” V 

‘ There are these four floods, friend : the flood of sensuality, 
the flood of becoming, the flood of opinion, the flood of 
ignorance. These are the four floods.’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend . . . ?’ 

‘ There is indeed such a way. . . .’ 

§ 12. Grasping. 

‘ “ Grasping, grasping !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. 
Pray what is grasping ?’ 

‘ There are these four graspings, friend : the grasping after 
sensuality, the grasping after opinion, the grasping after rule 
and ritual,® the grasping after theory of self.'* These are the 
four graspings.’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend ... for the abandoning of 
these graspings V 

‘ There is indeed such a way, friend. . . .’ 

§ 13. Becoming. 

‘ “ Becoming, becoming !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. 
Pray what is “ becoming ” V 

1 Vi-bhava, generally ‘excessive wealth’ (intensified existence); 
but here vi- is a negative prefix. Cf. Dialog, iii, 208. 

2 Ogha. Cf. J.P.T.S., 1919, p. 4.5. 

2 Slla-hbata. 


* Atla-vada. 



xxxviii, IV, § 15 ] Sayings about J ambukhadalca 175 

‘ There are these three becomings, friend: becoming in the 
world of sense, becoming in the heaven-world of form, and 
becoming in the heaven-world that is formless^ These are 
the three becomings.’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend, any approach to the aban- 
doning of these becomings V 

‘ There is indeed such a way, friend. . . .’ 

§ 14. Sufferitig. 

‘ “ Suffering, suffering !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. 
Pray what is suffering V 

‘ There are these three forms of suffering,^ friend; the sort 
of suffering caused by pain, the sort caused by the activities, 
the sort caused by the changeable nature of things. These 
are the three sorts of suffering.’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend, any approach to the compre- 
hension of these forms of suffering V 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend. . . .’ 

§ 15. The person-pack.^ 

‘ “ Person-pack, person-pack !” is the saying, friend Sari- 
putta. Pray, what is the person-pack V 

‘ These five factors of grasping,'* friend, were called ‘ person- 
pack ’ by the Exalted One, to wit: the factor of grasping body, 
that of grasping feeling, that of grasping perception, that of 
grasping the activities, and the factor of grasping conscious- 
ness. These five factors were so called by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend, is there any approach to the 
comprehension of this person-pack V 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend, there is indeed an approach 
to the comprehension of this person-pack. And what, friend, 
is that way and approach ? It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path 
for the comprehension of this person-pack, to wit : right view 

^ The three worlds of kdma, rupa, and arupa. 

2 DukkJtatd, the abstract of dukkhay. 

® Sakkdya, one’s own group or personality. Cf. K.S. iii, 135, 153. 

« Cf. K.S. iii, C4. 



176 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 260 

. . . right contemplation. This, friend, is the way, this is 
the approach to the comprehension of this person-pack.’ 

‘ A goodly way, friend ! A goodly approach to the compre- 
hension of this person-pack, and a proper occasion for earnest- 
ness too, friend Sariputta !’ 

§ 16. Hard to do. 

‘ Pray, friend Sariputta, what is hard to do in this Norm- 
discipline V 

‘ Going forth,^ friend, is hard to do in this Norm-discipline.’ 

‘ But, friend, for one who has gone forth, what is hard 
to do V 

‘ For one who has gone forth, friend, to feel delight is a thing 
hard to do.’ 

‘ But, friend Sariputta, what can be hard to do for one who 
feels delight ? ’ 

‘ The practice of what is in conformity with the Norm,^ 
friend, is hard to do for him who feels delight.’ 

‘ What then, friend 1 Would one who has long® practised 
in conformity with the Norm become an Arahant V 

‘ After no long time, friend.’ 

1 Pabbajja, the taking to tlio robes of the mendicant. 

2 Dhainmdnudhaiiiiiui-patipaUi. Cf. K.S. iii, 36 7i. Not ‘ the minor 
precepts’ (as often translated), but in the sense of anulotna-dhamma. 
Corny, ‘accordantly.’ 

^ We might translate ‘ would it be long ere one who has practised . . .,’ 
which would seem to suit the answer given. Corny, says ‘ such an 
one, if instructed at dawn, will achieve success at nightfall; if 
instructed at nightfall, he will succeed at dawn.’ 



PART V 


. CHAPTER XXXIX] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT SAMANDAKA 

§ 1. Nibbdna. 

Once the venerable Sariputta was staying among the Vajji, 
at Ukkavela^ on the banks of the river Ganges. 

Then Samandaka,- the Wanderer, came to visit the venerable 
Sariputta, and on coming to him greeted him in friendly wise, 
and after the exchange of greetings and courtesies sat down 
at one side. So seated, the Wanderer Samandaka said this 
to the venerable Sariputta ; — 

‘ “ Xibbana, Nibbana !” is the saying, friend Sariputta. 
Pray, friend, what is Nibbana V 

‘ The destruction of lust, the destruction of hatred and 
illusion, friend, is called “ Nibbana.” ’ 

‘ But is there any way, friend, is there any approach to the 
realization of this Nibbana V 

‘ There is indeed a way, friend, there is an approach to the 
realization of this Nibbana.’ 

‘ But what, friend, is that way, what is that approach ?’ 

‘ It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path, friend, to wit: right view 
(and the rest to), right concentration. That, friend, is the way, 
that is the approach to the realization of this Nibbana.’ 

1 Reading Ukkdvela for text'.s UkkareJCi. At 8. v, Ifilf we have 
UkkaceUt, and both liere and there MSS. are confused. Tlie letters 
V and c in Sinhalese are easily mistaken. I would read -vela at both 
places. The Uduna ( 'omy. (p. 322) on Ud. vi, 1, calls it Ukkdvela. a 
village near Vesali. the capital of the Vajji. Cf. Uriiveld. Vin. i, etc. 

^ The Sinhalese texts and Corny, read Sdmanmkdni and Sunmndakani, 
possibly a corruption for Sdmannakdni. son of a wanderer, at Brethren, 
40. I cannot find other mention of him. 

IV 177 


12 



178 


The Saldyatana Book [text iv. 262 

‘ A goodly way, friend ! A goodly approacli indeed to the 
realization of this Mbbana, and a proper occasion for earnest- 
ness too, friend S^iputta !’ 

§§ 2-15. 

{Repeated as in Part I V, and in the text abbreviated by pe.) 

§ 16. Hard to do. ^ 

{The same as section \^oJ Part lY ) 



PART VI 


[CHAPTER XL] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT MOGGALLANA 

§ 1. Together with thought directed. 

Once the venerable Moggallana’^ the Great was staying near 
Savatthi, at Jeta Grove in Anathapindika’s Park. 

Then the venerable Moggallana the Great addressed the 
brethren, saying: ‘ Brethren.’ 

‘ Yes, brother,’ replied those brethren to the venerable 
Moggallana the Great. 

‘ Friends, when I was meditating alone here, this considera- 
tion arose in me:^ “ They speak of the first trance, the first 
trance ! Now what is the first trance ?” 

Then I thought: “Herein when a brother, aloof from sen- 
suality, aloof from evil states, attains the first trance which 
is accompanied by thought directed and sustained,® which is 
born of solitude, fidl of zest and ease, and abides therein, this 
is called ‘ the first trance.’ ” 

Now, friends, aloof from sensuality ... I entered on the 
first trance . . . and abode therein. But, friends, when I 
had remained in this condition (and had emerged from trance), 
perception and work of mind connected with sensuality still 
continued.'* 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power® came 

* Spelt tluoughout in text with one 1. but undoubtedly should be 
spelt as here. 

2 Cf. K.S. ii, 184. 

2 Sa-vitakka, a property of the first trance. 

* Kdim-sahagatd. ^ Panca-mvarana-sahagatd. i.e. the five hin- 
drances of sensual life induced him to give up his efforts [hdm-blidgitjd 
Corny., which adds the words I have bracketed in the text trans 

® Iddhiyd. 


179 



180 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 263 

to me and said : “ Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss^ in 
the first trance, brahmin ! Make steadfast thy mind in the 
first trance. In the first trance make the mind one-pointed.^ 
In the first trance compose the mind.” 

So after that, friends, aloof from sensuality ... I entered 
upon . . . and abode in the first trance. 

Now, friends, if anyone would say rightly : “ Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” he would say 
of me: “Helped by the Master did the disciple win great 
super-knowledge.” ’ 

§ 2. Without directed thought? 

‘(I thought, friends): “They say ‘the second trance, the 
second trance.’ Now what is the second trance ? ” 

Then, friends, this occurred to me : Herein when a brother, 
by the calming down of thought directed and sustained, attains 
the inward calm, that one-pointedness of -nTll, apart from 
thought directed and sustained, born of concentration, zestful 
and full of ease, which is the second trance, and abides therein, 
this is called the second trance. 

So I, friends, by the calming down . . . entered on the 
second trance and abode therein. But when I had so done 
(and had emerged from trance), perception and work of mind 
connected with directed thought still continued. 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power came 
to me and said: “ Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss in 
the second trance, brahmin ! Make steadfast thy mind in the 
second trance. In the second trance make the mind one- 
pointed. In the second trance compose the mind.” 

So after that, friends, by the calming down ... I entered 
upon . . . and abode in the second trance. 

Now, friends, if anyone would say rightly: “ Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” he would 
say of me: “ Helped by the Master did the disciple win great 
super-knowledge.” ’ 

^ Mix painado, here aorist of pamajjali. Cf. 8. ii, 273. 

^ Ekodi-tcaraihi. ^ Avitakka 



XL, VI, § 4 ] Kindred Sayings about Moyyallana 181 
§ 3. By happiness. 

‘(I thought, friends): “They say, ‘The third trance, the 
third trance.’ Now what is the third trance V’ 

Then, friends, this occurred to me: Herein a brother, by 
the fading out of zest, abides balanced and remains mind- 
ful and composed, and experiences with the body that ease 
of which the Ariyans aver: “ The balanced, thoughtful man 
dwells happily.” Thus he enters on and abides in the third 
trance. This is called “ the third trance.” 

So I, friends, by the fading out of zest . . . entered the 
third trance . . . and abode therein. But when I had thus 
abode (and had emerged from trance), perception and work 
of mind connected with zest still continued. 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power came 
to me and said: “ Mogallana, iloggallana, be not remiss in 
the third trance, brahmin ! Make steadfast the mind in the 
third trance. In the third trance make the mind one-pointed. 
In the third trance compose the mind.” 

So after that, friends, by the fading out of zest ... I 
entered upon . . . and abode in the third trance. 

Now, friends, if any would say rightly: “Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” then of me 
would he be right in saying: “ Helped by the Master did the 
disciple win great super-knowledge.” ’ 

§ 4. Balanced. 

‘ (Then I thought, friends): “ They say, ‘ The fourth trance, 
the fourth trance.’ Now what is the fourth trance 1” 

Then, friends, this occurred to me: Herein a brother, re- 
jecting pleasiu-e, rejecting pain, by the coming to an end 
of the joy and sorrow which he had before, enters on and 
abides in the fourth trance, which is freed from pleasure, freed 
from pain, but is a state of perfect purity of balance and 
equanimity. This is called “ the fourth trance.” 

So I, friends, rejecting pleasure, . . . entered on . . . and 
abode in the fourth trance. . . . But when I had thus abode 
(and had emerged from trance), perception and work of mind 
connected with happiness still continued. 



182 


The Salayatania Booh [text iv, 266 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power came 
to me and said: “ Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss in 
the foirrth trance, brahmin ! Make steadfast the mind in the 
fourth trance. In the fourth trance make the mind one- 
pointed. In the fourth trance compose the mind.” 

So after that, friends, rejecting pleasure ... I entered on 
and abode in the fourth trance. . . . 

Xow, friends, if any one would rightly say: “ Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” of me would 
he rightly say: “ Helped by the Master did the disciple win 
great super-knowledge.” ’ 


§ 5. Space. 

‘ (Then I thought, friends) : “ They say, ‘ The realm of 
infinite space, the realm of infinite space.’ Now what is the 
realm of infinite space V’ 

Then, friends, this occurred to me: Herein a brother, 
passing utterly beyond the perception of objects, by the 
coming to an end of the perception of resistance, by not 
attending to perception of diversity, with the idea of “ infinite 
is space,” enters on and abides in the realm of infinite space. 
This is called “ the realm of infinite space.” 

So I, friends, passing utterly beyond the perception of 
objects . . . entered on and abode in the realm of infinite space. 

But when I had thus abode (and had emerged from trance), 
perception and work of mind, connected with the perception 
of objects, still continued. 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power came 
to me and said : “ Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss in the 
realm of infinite space, brahmin ! Make steadfast the mind, 
make the mind one-pointed, compose the mind in the realm 
of infinite space.” 

So after that, friends, passing utterly beyond objects . . . 
I entered on and abode in the realm of infinite space. 

Now, friends, if any would rightly say: “Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” of me would 
he rightly say: “ Helped by the Master did the disciple win 
great super-knowledge.” ’ 



XL, VI, § 7 ] Kindred Sayings about Moggalldna 183 


§ 6. Consciousness. 

‘ (Then I thought, friends) : “ They say, ‘ The realm of 
infinite consciousness, the realm of infinite consciousness.’ 
Now what is that realm ?” 

Then, friends, this occurred to me: Herein a brother, 
passing utterly beyond the realm of infinite space, with the 
idea: “Endless^ is consciousness,” enters on and abides in 
the realm of infinite consciousness. This is called “ the 
realm of infinite consciousness.” 

So I, friends, passing utterly beyond . . . entered on and 
abode in the realm of infinite consciousness. 

But when I had thus abode (and had emerged from trance), 
perception and work of mind, connected with the realm of 
infinite space, still continued. 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power came 
to me and said: “ Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss in 
the realm of infinite consciousness, brahmin ! Make steadfast 
the mind, make the mind one-pointed, compose the mind in 
the realm of i nfin ite consciousness.” 

So after that, friends, passing utterly beyond ... I entered 
on and abode in the realm of infinite consciousness. 

Now, friends, if any would rightly say: “Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” of me would 
he rightly say; “ Helped by the Master did the disciple win 
great super-knowledge.” ’ 

§ 7. Nothingness. 

‘(Then I thought, friends): “They say, ‘The realm of 
nothingness, the realm of nothingness.’ Now what is that 
realm ?” 

Then, friends, this occurred to me: Herein a brother, 
passing utterly beyond the realm of infinite consciousness, 
with the idea of “there is nothing at all,” enters on and abides 
in the realm of nothingness. This is called “ the realm of 
nothingness.” 

1 As above, at xxxv'i, § 19, 1 read anantay for text’s atuiUaij. 



184 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 268 

So I, friends, passing utterly beyond . . . entered on and 
abode in the realm of nothingness. But when I had thus 
abode (and had emerged from trance), perception and work 
of mind, connected with the realm of infinite consciousness, 
still continued. 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power 
came to me and said: “ Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss 
in the realm of nothingness, brahmin ! Make steadfast the 
mind ... in the realm of nothingness.” 

So after that, friends, passing utterly beyond ... I 
entered on and abode in the realm of nothingness. 

Xow, friends, if any would rightly say; “Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” rightly 
would he say that of me.’ 

§ 8. Neither-perceiving-nor-non-jierceiving. 

‘(Then I thought, friends): “They say, ‘The realm of 
neither-perception-nor-non-perception.’ Now what is that 
realm ?” 

Then, friends, this occurred to me : Herein a brother, passing 
utterly beyond the realm of nothingness, enters on the realm 
where he neither perceives nor perceives not. This is called 
“’the realm of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.” 

So I, friends, passing utterly beyond . . . entered on and 
abode in the realm of neither-perceiving-nor-non-perceiving. 
But when I had so abode (and had emerged from trance), per- 
ception and work of mind connected with the realm of nothing- 
ness still continued. 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One by magic power came 
to me and said: “Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss in 
the realm of Jieither -perceiving-nor-non-perceiving, brahmin ! 
Make steadfast the mind ... in the realm of neither -per- 
cei ving-iior-non-per ceiving. ’ ’ 

So after that, friends, passing utterly beyond the realm of 
nothingness ... I entered on and abode in the realm of 
neither-perceiving-nor-non-perceiving. 

Now, friends, if any would rightly say: “Helped by the 
Master . . .” he would say that rightly of me.’ 



XL, VI, §io] Kindred Sayings about Moggalldna 185 


§ 9. The unconditioned} 

‘(Then, friends, I thought): “They say, ‘The uncon- 
ditioned heart’s rapture, the unconditioned heart’s rapture.’ 
Now what is that ?” 

Then, friends, this occurred to me ; Herein a brother, paying 
no attention to any or all distinguishing marks, enters on and 
abides in that rapture of heart which is without conditions. 
This is called “ the unconditioned heart’s rapture.” 

So I, friends . . . abode in that rapture. But when I had 
so abode (and had emerged from trance), there came con- 
sciousness that followed after distinguishing marks." 

Thereupon, friends, the Exalted One came to me by magic 
power and said: “ Moggallana, Moggallana, be not remiss in 
the unconditioned heart’s rapture, brahmin ! Make steadfast 
the mind, make the mind one-pointed, compose the mind in 
the unconditioned heart’s rapture.” 

So after that, friends, paying no attention to any or all dis- 
tinguishing marks, I entered on and abode in the uncon- 
ditioned heart’s rapture. 

Now, friends, if any would say rightly: “Helped by the 
Master the disciple won great super-knowledge,” of me would 
he rightly say those words.’ 


§ 10, Sakka. 

Once the venerable Moggallana the Great was staying near 
SavatthI, at Jeta Grove in Anathapindika's Park. 

Then, just as a strong man might stretch out his bent arm 
or bend his outstretched arm, even so did the venerable 
Moggallana the Great vanish from Jeta Grove and appear 
among the Devas of the Thirty-Three. 


^ Animilta ceto-samddhi, ‘without attributes or distinguishing 
mark.’ 

^ Nimittdnusari-viniiiruiy — i.e. consciousness that was still tainted 
with myd-dosa-moha. Cj. Sn.A (Param. Jot., ii. 3t3). 



186 


The Salciyatanu Book [text iv, 270 


1 . 

Tlien Sakka, lord of the devas, together with five hundred 
of the devatas/ came to visit the venerable Moggallana the 
Great, and on coming to him saluted him and stood at one 
side. As he thus stood, the venerable Moggallana the Great 
said to Sakka, lord of the devas; — 

‘ Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is the going to take 
refuge in the Buddha. Such going to take refuge in the 
Buddha is the reason why, when body breaks up, after death, 
some beings are born here in the Happy State, in the Heaven 
World. 

Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is the going to take 
refuge in the Norm . . . good indeed is the going to take 
refuge in the Order of Brethren. Such going ... is the 
reason why some beings . . . are reborn in the . . . Heaven 
World.’ 

‘ Good indeed, as you say, my good sir,^ Moggallana, is the 
going to take refuge in the Buddha ... in the Norm . . . 
in the Order of Brethren. It is indeed the reason why some 
beings . . . are so born.’ 

Then Sakka, lord of the devas, came with six, with seven, 
eight hundred, with eight thousand devas . . . and said the 
same words (in reply to those of the venerable Moggallana 
the Great). 

2 . 

Then Sakka, lord of the devas, together with five hundred 
devatas, came to visit the venerable Moggallana the Great 
. . . who said to him : — 

‘ Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is the going to win 
possession of unwavering faith® in the Buddha, saying thus: 
“ ’Tis he, that Exalted One, Arahant, All-enlightened One, 

' JJevatd. There is often no distinction drawn between deva and 
devata (see Pnli Diet, s.v.), but here the words seem used in reference to 
humans who have been born in deva-loka owing to their faith, as related 
in the section following. 

* Mdrisa. See supra, xxxv, § 207 n. 

^ A recca-jxisudeiia, ‘unshaken (acala) faith in the ten points and the 
thirteen causal actions.’ Corny. Cf. Dialog, ii, 251 n. 



XL, VI, 2, §io] Kindred Sayings about Moggalldna 187 

perfect in knowledge and practice, Happy One, World- 
knower, unsurpassed Charioteer of men to be tamed,’- Teacher 
of devas and mankind, the Buddha, the Exalted One.” Such 
going to win possession of unwavering faith in the Buddha 
is the reason why, when body breaks up, after death, some 
beings are born here in the Happy Lot, in the Heaven World. 

Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is the going to win pos- 
session of unwavering faith in the Norm, saying thus: “ Well 
proclaimed by the Exalted One is the Norm, seen in this very 
life, a thing not invol-ving time,^ inviting one to come and see, 
leading onward, to be known for themselves by the -wise.” 
Such going to win possession of unwavering faith in the Norm 
is the reason why some beings . . . are born here in the 
Happy Lot, in the Heaven World. 

Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is going to win possession 
of unwavering faith in the Order, saying thus: “Walking 
righteously is the Exalted One’s Order of Disciples, walking 
uprightly, walking in the right path, walking dutifully is the 
Exalted One’s Order of Disciples, namely, the four pairs of 
men, the eight sorts of men.® That is the Exalted One’s 
Order of Disciples. Worthy of honour are they, worthy of 
reverence, worthy of oSerings, worthy of salutations with 
clasped hands, a field of merit unsmrpassed for the world.” 
Such going to win possession of unwavering faith in the Order 
is the reason why some beings . . . are born here in the 
Happy Lot, in the Heaven World. 

Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is the going to win pos- 
session unwavering* of the virtues loved by the Ariyans,® 
virtues imbroken, whole, unspotted,® untarnished, giving 
freedom,’^ praised by the wise: virtues which are untainted 
(by craving or delusion), which lead to concentration of mind. 
Indeed, 0 lord of the devas, such going to win possession 


^ Text has wrongly -dhamma for -damma. 

^ Akdlika. CJ. K.S. i, 15 n. 

^ Those on the Fourfold Path in its twofold division. 

‘ Text reads avecca here but not further on. 

® CJ. Dialog, ii, 85. 100 n. ® A-sabalehi. 

’’ Bhujissehi. Text reads bhunj--, spelt bhojisiya at S. i, 44. 



188 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 27-4 

unwavering of the virtue loved by the Ariyans is the reason 
why some beings, when body breaks up, after death, are born 
here in the Happy Lot, in the Heaven World.’ 

‘ Good indeed, my good sir, Moggallana, as you say, is the 
going to win possession of unwavering faith in the Buddha 
. . . in the Norm ... in the Order. Good indeed is the 
going to win possession unwavering of the virtues loved by 
the Ariyans. . . . Indeed, my good sir, such going ... is 
the reason why some beings . . . are born here in the Happy 
Lot, in the Heaven World.’ 

Then Sakka, lord of the devas, together with six hundred 
. . . seven hundred . . . eight hundred . . . eight thousand 
devatas, came to the venerable Moggallana the Great, saluted 
him and stood at one side. As he thus stood, the venerable 
Moggallana the Great said this to Sakka, lord of the devas: 
{the tvhole is repeated by both speakers). 

3. 

. . . Then Sakka, lord of the devas, together with five 
hundred devatas came to the venerable Moggallana the Great 
. . . who said to him: — 

‘ Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is the going to take 
refuge in the Buddha ... in the Norm ... in the Order. 
Such going ... is the reason why some beings . . . are 
reborn in the Heaven World. Of these, some devas win 
excellence^ in ten things, to wit: in the heavenly life, the 
heavenly colour, the heavenly bliss, fame, supremacy, in 
heavenly objects, sounds, scents, savours and things 
tangible.’ 

‘ Good indeed, my good sir, Moggallana, is such going to 
refuge . . .’ 

Then Sakka, lord of the devas, together with six, seven, 
eight hundred, with eight thousand devatas, came to the 
venerable Moggallana the Great (and repeated w'hat he had 
said before). 


1 As at S. i, 87, adhitjanluinti ^ahhibtiaviiHli. Corny. 



XL, VI, 4, § ii] Kindred Sayings about Moggalldna 189 


4. 

Then Sakka . . . with five hundred devatas came . . . 
and as he stood at one side the venerable Moggallana the 
Great said to him : — 

‘ Good indeed, 0 lord of the devas, is the going to win pos- 
session of unwavering faith in the Bnddha . . . the Norm . . . 
the Order, saying: “ ’Tis he, that Exalted One . . and 
“ Well proclaimed by the Exalted One . . and “ Walking 
righteously is the Exalted One’s Order of Disciples . . .’’for 
that is the reason why some beings . . . are born in the 
Heaven World. Of these, some win excellence in ten 
things, to wit: the heavenly life, the heavenly colour, the 
heavenly bliss, fame, supremacy, in heavenly objects, sounds, 
scents, savours and things tangible.’ 

‘ Good indeed, my good sir, Moggallana, is such going to take 
refuge . . . such going to win possession . . .’ 

Then Sakka, lord of the devas . . . (the whole repeated as 
in the previous section). 

§ 11. Candana (i-lxiii each). 

Then Candana,^ son of a deva, came . . . 

Then Suyama, son of a deva, came . . . 

Then Santusita, son of a deva, came . . . 

Then Sunimmita, son of a deva, came . . . 

Then Vasavatti,^ son of a deva, came . . . 

{The ^vhole as before.) 


1 Cf. K.S. i, 15. 

2 Vasavatti. Cf. S. i, 133; It. 94, 112 (a class of dovas who control 
what others have created). The foregoing three and this one seem 
to be selected as representatives with Sakka of the five divisions (?) 
of the next, or Kama-world. 



PART VII 


[CHAPTER XLI] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT CITTA 
§ 1. Fetter. 

Once a number of elder brethren were staying at Macchika- 
sanda^ in Wild Mango Grove. 

Now on that occasion, as this number of elder brethren, 
after going their rounds and eating their meal, were sitting 
together in conclave at the pavilion,^ the following chance 
talk arose : — 

‘ Fetters and things that tend to fetter, friend, — are these 
two things different in spirit and in letter,® or are they one and 
the same spirit, but different in letter V 

Thereupon the matter was expounded by divers brethren 
in divers ways thus : — 

‘ Friend, a fetter and things that tend to fetter, — both of 
them are different in spirit and different in letter.’ While 
others expounded the matter thus : ‘ Friend, a fetter and 
things that tend to fetter, — both of these are one and the same 
in spirit, but different in letter.’ 

Now at that time Citta,'* the housefather, had arrived at 
Migapathaka® on some business or other. And Citta, the 

* This village (‘ fishers’ clump ’), near SavatthI, was the home of 
Citta (pron. Chitta) the housefather, to whom the Grove belonged. 
See Brethren, 107. 

- An octagonal peaked open-sided ‘summer-house,’ thatched vrith 
palm-leaves, as in Ceylon to-day, but sometimes half -walled and tiled. 

^ Atlha and vyanjana, 

* Citta is on the list of ‘ great ones ’ at A. i, 28, 88, as a leading lay- 
follower versed in Norm-exposition, and is held up as a model at K.S. 
ii. 159 (see n. 2). 

® ■ The deer-run.’ Comi/. says it was his tributary village, behind the 
Ambataka (wild mango) Grove. 


190 



191 


XLi, VII, § i] Kindred Sayings about Citta 

housefather, heard it said that a number of elder brethren, 
after going their rounds and eating their meal, were sitting 
together in conclave at the pavilion, and that the following 
chance talk had arisen . . . 

So Citta, the housefather, went to visit those elder brethren, 
and on coming to them he saluted them and sat down at 
one side. So seated, Citta the housefather said to those 
elder brethren: — 

‘ I heard, my lords, the rumom: that a number of elder 
brethren . . . were sitting together . . . and that such and 
such chance talk arose. ... Is it so V 

‘ It is so, housefather.’ 

‘ Now, my lords, these two things, the fetter and the things 
that tend to fetter, are different both in spirit and in letter. 
Now, my lords, I will make you a comparison. Maybe some 
wise ones here will know the meaning of what I say. 

Suppose, my lords, a black steer and a white steer are yoked 
together by one rope or one yoke. Now he who should say 
that the black steer is the fetter to the white one, or the white 
one to the black one, — would he in so saying be saying rightly 1 ’ 

‘ Not so, housefather. The black steer is not a fetter to the 
white one, nor is the white one a fetter to the black one. But 
the fact of their being yoked by one rope or yoke,— that is a 
fetter.’ 

‘ Well, my lords, just so the eye is not a fetter of objects, nor 
objects a fetter to the eye. But the desire and lust that arise 
owing to the pair of them, — that is the fetter. The ear is not 
a fetter to sounds . . . the nose is not a fetter to scents, nor 
the tongue to savours, nor savours to tongue, but the desire 
and lust that arise owing to the pair of them, — that is the fetter. 
Likewise mind is not a fetter to mind-states, nor mind-states 
to mind, but the desire and lust that arise owing to the pair 
of ^em, — that is the fetter.’ 

‘ Good for you, housefather. Well gotten for you, house 
father, that in you the eye of wisdom is conversant with^ 
the profound teaching of the Enlightened One.’ 

1 Kamati = vahati, •pavattati (travels, proceeds, carries on.) Corny. 
(Also Corny, at Sn. 177 says Kamati = carali, jmvisati.) 



192 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 283 


§ 2. Isidatta (i). 

Once a number of elder^ brethren were staying at Macchi- 
kasanda in Wild Mango Grove. 

Then Citta, the housefather, went to visit those elder 
brethren, and on coming to them saluted them and sat down 
at one side. So seated Citta, the housefather, said to those 
elder brethren: ‘Let my lords the elders accept of me to- 
morrow’s meal.’ 

And those elder brethren accepted by silence. 

Thereupon Citta, the housefather, understanding the 
acceptance of those elder brethren, rose from his seat, saluted 
the elder brethren by the right and went away. 

Now the elder brethren, when the night was gone, robed 
themselves at early davm, and taking bowl and outer robe 
went to the dwelling of Citta, the housefather, and on reaching 
it sat down on seats prepared. 

Then Citta, the housefather, came to those elder brethren, 
and saluting them sat down at one side. So seated, Citta, 
the housefather, said to the venerable (chief) elder: — ^ 

‘ They say, lord, “ Diversity of elements, diversity of 
elements.”® Pray, lord, how far was diversity of elements 
spoken of by the Exalted One V 

At these words the venerable chief elder was silent. 

Tlicn a second time did Citta, the hoirsefather, put the same 
question, and a third time, and on each occasion the venerable 
chief elder was silent. 

Now on that occasion the venerable Lsidatta was the junior 
of alC that order of brethren. Then the venerable Isidatta 
said to the venerable chief elder: — 


' Thero (sthnvim) a term usually applied to a bhikkhu of ten years’ 
standing. 

“ Text prints ihera with a capital, but it is unlikely that a bhikkhu 
would have or assume such a name. Corny, says ‘the eldest maha- 
them.’ The title, in Ceylon, is applied to the incumbent of a vihura, 
while mahd-nayaka-thera is the name of a head of a sect. Cf. A. A. 387. 

^ Cf. S. ii. 140 and supra, xxxv. 129. 

* Sahha-naixika, ‘ novice of all.’ 



xLi, VII, § 3 ] Kindred Sayings about Citta 193 

‘ My lord, may I reply to this question of Citta, the house- 
father 

‘ Do you reply, Isidatta, to the question of Citta, the 
housefather.’ 

(Then said the venerable Isidatta); ‘ You question thus, 
do you not, housefather; “ ‘ Diversity of elements, diversity of 
elements ’ is the saying ” ; and you ask how far diversity 
of elements was spoken of by the Exalted One V 

‘ I do, lord.’ 

‘ Well, housefather, this was said of diversity of elements 
by the Exalted One; “The clement of eye, the element of 
body, the element of eye-consciousness, and so forth . . . the 
element of mind, that of mind-states and that of mind- 
consciousness.” Thus far, housefather, did the Exalted One 
speak of the diversity of elements.’ 

Thereupon Citta, the housefather, was glad of what was 
said by the venerable Isidatta and welcomed it. Then with 
his own hand he served and satisfied tliosc elder brethren 
with food both hard and soft. And those elder brethren, 
having eaten their fill, withdrew their hands from their bowls, ^ 
rose up and went away. 

Then the venerable chief elder said to the venerable 
Isidatta ; — 

‘ Well for you, friend, that this question arose. This 
question did not occur to me. Therefore, friend Isidatta, if 
on another occasion such a question arises, do you replv in 
like manner.’ 

§ 3. Isidaflii (ii). 

Once a number of elder brethren were staying at iMacchi- 
kasanda in Wild Mango Grove. 

Then Citta, the housefather, came to visit those elder 
brethren, . . . and said; — 

‘ Let my lords the elders accept of me to-morrow's meal.’ 

And the elder brethren accepted by silence. 

^ Omta-patta-pdnino. The phrase is usually explained by Coniii. 
as here translated. (See Pali Did.) But on this passage ('otnij. 
remarks. ‘ withdrawing the hand from the bowl, washing hand and 
bowl, putting the bowl in its sling.’ C'/. DA. 277 ; 456; f'd-t. 242. 

IV 1:5 



194 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 286 

Then Citta, the housefather, seeing the acceptance of the 
elder brethren, rose from his seat, saluted them by the right 
and went away. 

Then the elder brethren, when that night was gone, robed 
themselves at early dawn, and taking bowl and outer robe, 
went to the dwelling of Citta, the housefather, and on reaching 
it sat down on seats prepared. Then Citta, the housefather, 
came to them . . . sat down at one side . . . and said to 
the venerable chief elder: — 

‘ As to these divers views that arise in the world, my 
lord elder, such as: Eternal is the world, not eternal is the 
world, finite is the world, infinite is the world, life and body 
are the same, life and body are different, the Tathagata exists 
after death, he exists not, he both exists and exists not, he 
neither exists nor exists not; also as to the sixty -two heretical 
views set forth in the Brahmajala,^ — owing to the existence 
of what, lord, do these views prevail: owing to the non- 
existence of what do these views not prevail V 

At these words the venerable chief elder was silent. 

Then Citta, the housefather, put the same question again 
and yet a third time . . . but the venerable chief elder was 
silent. 

Now on that occasion the venerable Isidatta was the junior 
of that company of brethren. Then the venerable Isidatta 
said to the venerable chief elder : ‘ My lord elder, may I reply 
to this question of Citta, the housefather V 

‘ Do you reply to it, Isidatta.’ 

‘Now, housefather, your question was this, was it not V 
(and he repeated the question). 

‘ Yes, lord.’ 

‘ Now, housefather, as to those divers views that arise in 
the world, such as : Eternal is the world, and the rest, and as 
to these sixty-two heretical views that are set forth in the 
Brahmajala, ... it is owing to the person-pack view^ that 

1 The wefl-known first Sultania of D. i {Dialog., i). Preached in the 
early days of the Master, this must have been often repeated, so as 
to be familiar to brethren and laymen alike, antedating this collection. 

2 Sakkaya-dittlii. Cf. K.S. iii, 134, 153 n. 



xLi, VII, § 3 ] Kindred Sayings about Citta ] 95 

they arise, and if the person-pack view exists not, they do not 
exist.’ 

‘ But, lord, how comes the person-pack view to be ?’ 

‘ Herein, housefather, the untaught manyfolk,^ who discern 
not those who are Ariyans, who are unskilled in the Ariyan 
doctrine, who are untrained in the Ariyan doctrine, who 
discern not those who are worthy ones, who are unskilled in 
the worthy doctrine, untrained in the worthy doctrine, — they 
regard body as the self, they regard the self as having body, 
body as being in the self, the self as being in the body. They 
regard feeling as the self . . . perception, the activities as 
the self .• . . they regard consciousness as the self, they regard 
the self as having consciousness, consciousness as being in the 
self, the self as being in the consciousness. That, housefather, 
is how the person-pack view arises.’ 

‘ But, lord, how is there no person-pack view V 

‘ Herein, housefather, the well-taught Ariyan disciple, who 
discerns those who are Ariyans, who is skilled in the Ariyan 
doctrine, who is trained in the Ariyan doctrine, who discerns 
those who are worthy ones, who is skilled in the worthy 
doctrine, well trained in the worthy doctrine, — such regards 
not body as the self, regards not the self as having body, nor 
body as being in the self, nor the self as being in body. . . . 
He regards not feeling, perception, the activities as being . . . 
he regards not consciousness as being the self, regards not the 
self as having consciousness, regards not consciousness as 
being in the self, nor the self as being in the consciousness. 
That is how, housefather, there is no person-pack view.’ 

‘ Whence comes the worthy Isidatta,- my lord ?’ 

‘ I come from Avanti,® housefather.’ 

‘ Lord, there is at Avanti a clansman named Isidatta, an 


1 Cf. K.S. iii, 3. 

- See Brethren, 107. He had been, by correspondenee, the 'unseen 
friend,’ referred to here, of Citta, who had informed him of the Norm. 
He then became ordained, acquired super-knowledge, visited the 
Master, and became Arahant. Cf. AA. 387. 

^ Avanti is north of the Vinhya Mts., the site of the school founded 
by Maha-Kaccana. See Rhys Davids' BiiddhUl India, p. 1. 



196 The Sdldyatana Book [text iv, 288 

UDseen friend of ours, who has gone forth (from the household 
life). Has your reverence seen him V 

‘ I have, housefather.’ 

‘ Pray where, lord, does that venerable one now dwell V 

At these words the venerable Isidatta was silent. 

‘ Is your reverence the worthy^ Isidatta V 

‘ I am, housefather.’ 

‘ Then may the worthy Isidatta take his pleasure at Macchi- 
kasapda. Lovely is Wild Mango Grove ! I will do my 
best to supply the worthy Isidatta vdth the requisites of robes 
and alms and lodging, of comforts and medicines in time of 
sickness.’ 

‘ That is kindly said, housefather. 

Thereupon Citta, the housefather, was delighted with the 
words of the venerable Isidatta and welcomed them. And 
with his ovTi hand he served the elder brethren with choice 
food both hard and soft, until they had eaten their fill. Then 
the elder brethren, having eaten their fill, withdrew hand from 
bowl, rose up and went away. 

Then said the venerable chief elder to the venerable 
Isidatta : — 

‘ Well for you, friend Isidatta, that this question arose. 
That question did not occur to me. Therefore, friend Isidatta, 
if on another occasion such a question arises, do you reply in 
like manner.’ 

Then the venerable Isidatta, having set his lodging in order, 
took bowl and outer robe and departed from Macchikasanda, 
and in thus departing from Macchikasanda he was gone for 
good and came not back any more. 

§ 4. Mahaka. 

Once a number of elder brethren were staying at Macchika- 
sanda in Wild Mango Grove. 

Then Citta, the housefather, went to visit those elder 


1 Ai/i/a. 

- Kalydnay vuccati. Formula for a polite refusal, acceptance always 
being by .silence. 



197 


XLi, VII, § 4 ] Kindred Sayings about Citta 

brethren, and on coming to them saluted them and sat down 
at one side. So seated the housefather Citta said to those 
elder brethren: — 

‘ Let my lords the elders accept from me to-morrow’s meal 
in my cowpen.’ 

And those elder brethren accepted by silence. 

Then Citta, the housefather, seeing the acceptance of those 
elder brethren, rose from his seat, saluted them by the right 
and went away. 

Now when that night was gone, the elder brethren at early 
dawn robed themselves, and taking bowl and outer robe went 
to the cowpen of Citta the housefather, and on coming there 
sat down on seats prepared. 

Then Citta, the housefather, with his own hand served the 
elder brethren with choice butter and milk-rice till they had 
eaten enough. 

Now when the elder brethren had eaten their fill and with- 
drawn hand from bowl they rose from their seats and went 
away. And Citta, the housefather, saying: ‘ Gather up the 
remains,’^ followed in the steps of the elder brethren. 

Now on that occasion there was a sweltering^ heat, and the 
elder brethren walked with bodies melting away,® methinks, 
since they had eaten well of the meal. 

And at that time the venerable Mahaka was the junior of 
that company of brethren. Then said the venerable Mahaka 
to the venerable Chief Elder : — 

‘ It were well, my lord Chief, if a cool wind should blow 
and there were a thunderstorm and the skv should rain down 
drop by drop.’^ 

‘ It were indeed well, friend Mahaka, if it were as you say.’ 

Thereupon the venerable Mahaka so wrought by magic 


1 Vlssajjetlia. Cwiiy. reacl.s vliHtjjelrit. 

- Text kutthita, wTongly, 1 think, for ,Sitih. M.S.S, of text and Coini/. 
on text read kiklta and klkita (see Did.), rvhieh Corny. ex]ilains as 
kuthita, lietlhCi santatta-vaUkaya, njHiri dhlpeim rurnti, tikhinan ti atlho 
(‘hot sand below and burning heat above’), adding: ‘anyhow, this 
word (pada) is in the uiigarbled Tipiteka-teacliing of tlie Buddha.’ 

^ Paveliyam'in.eiia. Corny, says ajxivitiyam'iiiena. * Cf. K.S. i, 12d n. 



198 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 290 

power that a cool wind blew and there was a thunderstorm 
and the sky rained down drop by drop. 

Now Citta, the housefather, had this thought: Why, even 
the junior of this company of brethren has such magic power ! 

Now when the venerable Mahaka reached the Pleasance 
he said to the venerable chief elder: ‘ Enough of this, lord !’ 

‘ Yes, friend Mahaka, enough of this ! You have done 
enough. Ser\uce enough^ has been done, friend Mahaka.’ 

So the elder brethren went to the residence, but the venerable 
Mahaka went to his own lodging. Then Citta, the housefather, 
came to see the venerable Mahaka, saluted him and sat down 
at one side. So seated, Citta, the housefather, said to the 
venerable Mahaka: — 

‘ "Well for me, sir, if the worthy Mahaka would show me 
something superhuman, some miracle of magic.’ 

‘ Then, housefather, do you put a cloak on the verandah 
and scatter^ a bundle of grass.’ 

‘ Very well, sir,’ said Citta, the housefather, and did as he 
was bidden. 

Then the venerable Mahaka went into his lodging and shot 
the bolt of the door, and so VTOught by magic power that a 
flame came through the keyhole and the parts about the 
door-bar and set the grass on fire but not the cloak. Then 
Citta, the housefather, in alarm, with hair on end, beat out 
the cloak and stood aside. 

Then the venerable Mahaka came out of his lodging and said 
to Citta, the housefather: ‘ Enough of this, housefather !’ 

‘ Yes, my lord Mahaka, enough of this ! Enough has been 
done, my lord Mahaka. Enough service has been done, my 
lord Mahaka. Let my lord, the worthy Mahaka, take his 
pleasure in Macchikasanda. Delightful is MTld Mango Grove. 
I will do my best to supply the worthy Mahaka with the 
requisites of robes and alms, and lodging, comforts and 
medicines in time of sickness.’ 

‘ That is kindly said, housefather.’ 

Then the venerable Mahaka, having set his lodging in order. 


' Ptijilaiii eltumlii. 


- Okd'iehi ^vippakiri. Corny. 



199 


XLi, vir, § 5] Kindred Sayings about Citta 

took bowl and outer robe and left Macchikasanda, and in 
thus departing from Macchikasanda he was gone for good 
and came not back againd 

§ 5. Kamabhu (i). 

Once the venerable Kamabhu was staying at Macchikasanda 
in Wild Mango Grove. 

Then Citta, the housefather, came to visit the venerable 
Kamabhu, and on coming to him saluted him and sat down at 
one side. As he thus sat, the venerable Kamabhu said to 
Citta, the housefather: — 

‘ “ Pure-limbed,^ white-canopied, one-wheeled, the car 
rolls on. 

Lo ! he that cometh : faultless, stream-cutter, bond ■ 
less he.” 

Of this that is said in brief, housefather, how say you the full 
meaning should be regarded V 

‘ Was this said by the Exalted One, sir V 

‘ It was, housefather.’ 

‘ Then, sir, do you wait a moment while I look into the 
meaning of it.’ 

So Citta, the housefather, was silent a moment, and then 
said to the venerable Kamabhu: — 

‘ “ Pure-limbed,” sir, is a term for the virtues. “ White- 
canopied,” sir, is a term for release.® “ One- wheeled,” sir, 
is a term for mindfulness. “ Rolls on,” sir, is a term for 
coming and going. “ Car,” sir, is a term for body, of the 
four great essentials compounded,'* of parents sprung, on rice- 

1 Su?h iddhi, purely to iiiiprciS, is strongly tensurrd. Yinntja Texts, 
iii, 80. 

^ Xdanga = ‘ niddosa [id day).’ Corny. See K.8. ii, 189; Vd. 70, 
§ 5; Ud.A. 370 {nelagga), where the same words are said of the dwarf- 
brother Lakuutaka. Cf. Asl. 398 {Expos. 506). 

* Vimulli, ‘the fruits of Arahantship,’ Corny., who remarks that 
this was a hard thing for a layman to know; that it must be called 
an inference of Citta’s. not a proof that he was Arahant. The brother 
is. perhaps naturally, slow to admit a lajunan's insight. 

* Cf. supra, § 103 n. 



200 


The Salmjatana Book [text iv, 292 

gruel fed, impcruianent, of a nature to be worn away, pounded 
away, broken and scattered. Lust, sir, is a fault. Hatred 
is a fault. Illusion is a fault. In a brother who bas destroyed 
the asavas, these are abandoned, cut down at the root, made 
like the stump of a palm-tree, made things that have ceased 
to be, so that they cannot sprout again in time to come. 
Therefore a brother who has destroyed the asavas is “ fault- 
less. “ That cometh,”^ sir, is a term for the Arahant. 
“ Stream,” sir, is a term for craving. In a brother who has 
destroyed the asavas, this is abandoned, cut down at the root, 
made like the stump of a palm-tree, made something that 
has ceased to be, so that it cannot sprout again in time to 
come. Therefore, sir, a brother who has destroyed the 
asavas is called stream-cutter.” Lust, sir, is a bond, hatred 
is a bond, illusion is a bond. In a brother who has destroyed 
the asavas these are abandoned ... so that they do not 
sprout again in time to come. Therefore, sir, a brother who 
has destroyed the asavas is called “ bondless.” Thus, sir, 
as regards what was said by the Exalted One: — 

“ Pure-limbed, white-canopied, one-wheeled, the car 
rolls on. 

Lo ! he that cometh: faultless, stream-cutter, bond- 
less he,”— 

thus, sir, shwdd be understood in full the meaning of this 
saying in brief.’ 

‘ Good for you, housefather ! Well gotten for you, house- 
father, that in you the eye of wisdom is conversant with 
the profound teaching of the Enlightened One !’ 

§ G. Kiimabhu (ii). 

Once the venerable Kamabhu was staying at Macchi- 
knsanda in Wild Mango Grove. 

Then Citta, the housefather, came to visit the venerable 

^ Anlf/ha. Fur the word see Puli Diet. Anigha is properly an-igha, 
not n'ujlia, as here explained by the housefather. Corny. ‘ niddukkha.' 

2 Text has ayanlante for ayanian ti. 



201 


xLi, VII, § 6] Kindred Sayings about Citta 

Kamabliu, and on coming to liini saluted him and sat down 
at one side. So seated, Citta, the housefather, said to the 
venerable Kamabhu : — 

‘ Sir, how many activitie,s^ are there C 

‘ There are three activities, housefather ; those of body, 
speech and mind.’ 

‘ Well said, sir,’ said Citta, the housefather, pleased with the 
venerable Kamabhu's reply, and welcomed it. Then he asked 
a further question : — 

‘ But what, sir, is the activity of body, what of speech, what 
of mind V 

‘ Inbreathing and outbreathing, housefather, is the activity 
of body; though directed and sustained is the activity 
of speech: perception and feeling are the activity of mind.’ 

‘ Well said, sir,’ said Citta, the housefather . . . and asked 
again : — 

‘ But why, sir, are inbreathing and outbreathing the activity 
of body ? Why is thought directed and sustained the 
activity of speech. IVliy are perception and feeling the 
activity of mind V 

‘ Inbreathing and outbreathing, housefather, are bodily 
processes, dependent on body. Therefore are they called 
“ the activity of body.” First one directs thought and sustains 
it, then one utters speech. Therefore is thought directed 
and sustained called “ the activity of speech.” Perception and 
feeling are mental processes dependent on mind. Therefore 
are they called “ the activity of mind.” ’ 

‘ Well said, sir,’ said Citta, the housefather . . . and asked 
again : — 

‘ But how, sir, comes the attainment of the ceasing of per- 
ception and feeling 1 ’ 

‘ A brother, housefather, in attaining the ceasing of per- 
ception and feeling does not think: “ I shall attain, I am 
attaining, the ceasing of perception and feeling, I have at- 
tained the ceasing of perception and feeling,” but his mind has 

1 Sahkhdm. The section also occurs at M. i. 3U1. Lord Chalmers 
(Dialogues, v, 215) translates 'plastic forces.’ Corny. =sankhanijali, 

battlyatl ti.’ 



202 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 294 

been so practised that it leads him on to the state of being 
sucb.’^ 

‘ Well said, sir,’ said Citta, the housefather. ... ‘ But, 

sir, in attaining the ceasing of perception and feeling, what 
states cease first ? Is it the activity of body or of speech or 
of mind V 

‘ In so attaining, housefather, a brother’s activity of speech 
ceases first,^ then that of body, then that of mind.’ 

‘ Well said, sir. . . . But a brother who has so attained, 
how does he differ from a dead man, from one who has made 
an end V 

‘ In a dead man, housefather, in one who has made an end, 
the activity of body has ceased, become calmed. So also have 
the activities of speech and mind, — they have ceased, become 
calmed. Life has run out, vital heat has ceased, the faculties 
are scattered. In him, housefather, who has attained the 
ceasing of perception and feeling, the activity of body also has 
ceased, become calmed. So also have the activities of speech 
and mind. But his life has not run out, vital heat has not 
ceased, the faculties have become clarified. That is the 
difference between a dead man, one who has made an end, 
and one who has attained the ceasing of perception and 
feeling.’ 

‘ Well said, sir. . . . But how comes about the emerging 
from attaining the ceasing of perception and feeling V 

‘ In emerging from such attainment, housefather, a brother 
does not think: “/ will now emerge, I am emerging, I have 
now emerged from attaining the ceasing of perception and 
feeling,” but his mind has been so practised that it leads him 
on to the state of being such.’ 

‘ Well said, sir. . . . But when a brother is thus emerging 
from it, what .states arise first ? Is it activity of body, of 
speech, or of mind ?’ 

‘ In a brother so emerging from it, housefather, activity of 
mind arises first, next that of body, and last that of speech.’ 

1 TiUhattrl ya Jiixinfli, or ‘ to thusness ’ (a term for Nibbaiia). 

Cf. S. V, 90; Points of fontrorersy, 338, n. 1, where the S. passage is 
overlooked. ^ In first jluinu speech cease.s. 



xLi, VII, § 7] Kindred Sayings about Citta 203 

‘ Well said, sir. . . . But when a brother has so emerged 
from it, how many contacts touch him V 

‘ When a brother has so emerged from it, housefather, three 
contacts touch him: the void, the signless and the aimless 
contact.’ ^ 

‘ Well said, sir. . . . But when one has so emerged from it, 
how does a brother’s mind tend, slope, incline 

‘ His mind tends to detachment,® housefather, it slopes to 
detachment, it inclines to detachment.’ 

‘ Well said, sir !’ said Citta, the housefather, pleased with 
the venerable Kamabhu’s words, and welcomed them and 
asked yet another question : — 

‘ But, sir, how many states are most useful for the attain- 
ment of the ceasing of perception and feeling V 

‘ Indeed, housefather, you ask last what you ought to have 
asked first ! Yet will I explain to you. Two states are most 
useful, housefather, for the attainment of the ceasing of per- 
ception and feeling, — calm and insight.’ 


§ 7. Godatta. 

Once the venerable Godatta’* ** was staying at Macchikasancla 
in Wild Mango Grove. 

Then Citta, the housefather, came to visit the venerable 
Godatta, and on coming to him saluted him and sat down at 

* Sniinato, animitto, apiMnihUo phmao. For these terms sec Dndt'h. 
Psych. Elh., 92 Jf. and notes. He is ‘emptj- ’ of lust, etc., freed from 
the three marks or signs of mrni., adukkhti. attd, and, being experienced 
in dukkha, he desires notliing. fixes his aim on nothing but Nibbana. 
Corny, refers to V.M. 6.>8. At Putisamhh., ii, 35, the homily begins : 
‘ Brethren, there are three deliverances, that of the void, the signless, 
the aimless.’ CJ. Expos., ii, 301. 

^ The u.sual phrases for a river's course to the sea, ninna, poim, 
pabbhdra. 

** Viveka^' Nihbdnu.' Corny. 

* Is this the Godatta of Brethren, 281 ? The story there reminds one 
of that of Brlaam and his as.s. His fallen ox, eruelly beaten by him, 
spoke with a human voice, and prayed that both might Ijo reborn 
in reversed position. Godatta gave up all and ‘took orders.’ 



204 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 296 

one side. As lie tlius sat, the venerable Godatta said to 
Citta, the housefather: — 

‘ Housefather, this heart’s release and this utterly unworldly^ 
heart’s release, and this heart’s release that is by the void and 
that which is signless, — ^are these states diverse in spirit, 
diverse in letter, or are they the same both in spirit and in 
letter V 

‘ There is one view of the question,^ sir, according to which 
these states are diverse both in spirit and in letter. But there 
is another view, sir, according to which they are one and the 
same both in spirit and in letter. But what, sir, is that view 
according to which they are diverse both in spirit and in 
letter ? 

Herein,® sir, a brother dwells suffusing one quarter of the 
world with his heart possessed of kindliness : so also the second, 
third and fourth quarters: and in like manner above, below, 
across,^ everywhere, for all sorts and conditions,® — the whole 
world does he abide suffusing with a heart possessed of kindli- 
ness that is widespread, grown great and boundless, free from 
enmity and untroubled.® 

And he does likewise with heart possessed of compassion, 
possessed of sympathy, possessed of equanimity that is wide- 
spread, grown great and boundless, free from enmity and 
untroubled. This, sir, is called “ the heart’s release by a 
boundless heart.” 

And what, sir, is the heart’s release that is utterly unworldly ? 

Herein, sir, a brother, passing utterly beyond the sphere 
of infinite consciousness, with the idea of “ there is nothing at 

^ Akincannft, ‘ without pos.session.s or clinging.' 

- Pariijaija. 

’’ CJ. M. i, :J8. The four brahmn-vihihax, or ’ sublime states.' or 
‘dwellings’ of thought. ’Heart’ is more literallv ‘mind': “citta, 
which is mind {iiiano). which i.s consciousness {ciniiCum)." See K.S., 
ii, 05. ll'e should say, ’will,’ >Sec infra, xlii. 8; I’.J/., cap. ix, 

p]). 

^ Tiriyay, expl. at ]'.M. :S08 as ‘the intermediate (piartcrs.’ 

“ Tc.xt read.s mbb' uttluildya, but connnontatois read sabb' attatdya, 
which I follow here. V.il. Corny, ‘without distinction of persons.’ 

® Ai-ydpajjhay =‘ ?iiddukLhay.’ V.M. Corny. 



xLi, VII, § 7 ] Kindred Sayings about Citta 205 

all,” reaches and abides in the sphere of nothingness. This, 
sir, is called “ the utterly unworldly heart’s release.” 

And what, sir, is the heart’s release by the void ? 

Herein, sir, a brother goes to the forest or the root of a tree 
or a lonely spot, and thus reflects: “Void is this of self or of 
what pertains to self.” This, sir, is called “ the heart’s 
release by the void.” 

And what, sir, is the heart’s release that is signless I 

Herein, sir, a brother, without thought of all signs, reaches 
and abides in that tranquillity of heart that is signless. This, 
sir, is called “ the heart’s relea.se that is signless.” 

Such, sir, is the view of the question according to which 
states are diverse both in spirit and in letter. 

And what, sir, is the view according to which states are one 
and the same, both in spirit and in letter ? 

Lust, sir, sets a limit. ^ Hate sets a limit. Illusion sets a 
limit. In the brother who has destroyed the asavas these 
are abandoned, cut down at the root, made like a palm-tree 
stump, made unable to become, of a nature not to grow again 
in future time. Of all the boundless ways^ of heart’s release, 
the unshaken^ heart’s release is deemed supreme among them. 
Truly that unshaken heart's release is void of lust, void of 
hate, void of illusion. 

Lust, sir, is a hindrance.'* Hate is a hindrance. Illusion is 
a hindrance. In the brother who has destroyed the asavas 
these are abandoned, cut down at the root. ... Of all the 
unobstructed ways of heart's release, the unshaken heart’s 
release is deemed supreme among them. Truly that unshaken 
heart’s release is void of lust, void of hate, void of illusion. 

Lust, sir, causes distinctive signs. Hate causes distinctive 


1 PamCimi-karana. Corny, says it means ‘taking the measure of a 
man.’ One does not know his nature till raga-dosa, etc., arise. 

^ ‘ The four paths and the four fruits.’ Corny. 

® Akiij)pa = ' arahiiUa-pliala-celovitimlli (which is the topmost of all 
paths).’ Corny. 

* Kihcamy = palibodha, a hindrance, lit. ‘a something.’ CJ. Uddna, 
ii, 6, whore the sages are called akincam, worldlings Mkincajid (■ with 
the somethings ’), hampered by possessions. 



206 


The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 298 

signs. Illusion causes distinctive signs. In tlie brother who 
has destroyed the asavas these are abandoned. ... Of all 
the signless ways of heart’s release the unshaken heart’s release 
is deemed supreme among them. Truly that unshaken heart's 
release is void of lust, void of hate, void of illusion. 

Such, sir, is the view according to which these states are one 
and the same, both in spirit and in letter.’ 

§ 8. Nigantha. 

Now at that time the Nigantha.^ Nata’s Son, had come 
to ]\lacchikasancla together with a great company of the 
Niganthas. 

Now Citta, the housefather, heard it said: ‘ The Nigantha, 
Nata’s Son, has come to Macchikasanda together with a great 
company of the Niganthas.’ 

So Citta, the housefather, with a number of followers, went 
to visit the Nigantha, Nata’s Son, and on coming to him 
greeted him in friendly wise, and after the exchange of greet- 
ings and courtesies sat down at one side. 

As he thus sat, the Nigantha, Nata’s Son, said to Citta, the 
housefather: ‘ Hast thou faith, housefather, in the teaching of 
Gotama, the recluse, that there is a mental balance without 
thought directed and sustained, that there is a ceasing of 
thought directed and sustained ?’ 

‘ Herein, sir, I do not walk with faith in the teaching^ of 
Gotama, the recluse, that there is a mental balance without 
thought directed and sustained, that there is a ceasing of 
thought directed and sustained.’ 

At these words, the Nigantha, Nata’s Son, looking rmmd® 
on his own company, said : — 

‘ I would have you look, sirs, how straight is this housefather 
Citta, how guileless^ is this housefather Citta, how ingenuous 

^ He was Vardhamana, the head of tlie Jain community. Cf. D. 
i, 57. The word means ‘ free from bonds.’ 

2 I.e.. ‘ not with faith only.' Corny, says that to assert faith in a 
teaching is the method of those who have not declared anna, realization. 

^ Reading apaloketvd, as below, with 8inh. MSS. and MSS. of Corny. 
Text has ullohelvd. 

* Reading asafha for text’s amttha. 



207 


xLi, VII, § 8] Kindred Sayings about Citta 

is this housefather Citta ! Why, he who should think there 
can he any ceasing of thought directed and sustained, might 
think the mind coidd be caught in a net, or that Ganga’s 
stream could be held back with his own fist !’ 

‘ Now what think you, sir ? 'ii'hich is the more excellent, 
knowledge or faith V 

‘ Why, housefather, knowledge is more excellent than 
faith.’ ^ 

‘ Now I, sir, if I so desire, aloof from lusts, aloof from states 
that are evil, can enter upon the first trance, which is joined 
with thought directed and sustained, born of solitude, zestful 
and easeful, and can abide therein. I, sir, if I so desire, by the 
cal min g down of thought directed and sustained, . . . can 
enter on the second trance and abide therein. I, sir, if I so 
desire, by the fading out of zest . . . can enter on the third 
trance and abide therein. I, sir, if I so desire, by abandoning 
ease . . . can enter on the fourth trance and abide therein. 
Thus knowing, sir, thus seeing, believing what other recluse 
or brahmin, should I hold that there is a mental balance 
without thought directed and sustained, or that there is a 
ceasing of thought directed and sustained V 

At these words, the Nigantha, Nata’s Son, looking round 
on his company, said : — 

‘ I would have you look, sirs, how crooked is this housefather, 
how crafty, how counterfeiting is this housefather Citta !’ 

'Now, indeed, sir, we understand yoiu: saying: “I would 
have ye look, sirs, how straight is this housefather Citta, how 
guileless, how honest is this housefather Citta.” And now 
indeed we understand your saying: “I would have ye look, 
sirs, how crooked is this housefather Citta, how crafty, how 
dishonest is this housefather Citta.” 

If, sir, your first assertion was true, your last was false. 
And if your last was true, your first was false. Now here, sir, 
these ten reasonable questions^ arise. If you know the way to 

1 The three ‘ jewels ’ of the Jains — ^unlike the three later so called of 
the Buddhists — were morals, faith, and knowledge. 

^ Saha-dhammikd = sa-hlrand. Corny, says these are the Kumdra- 
panha or ‘novice’s catechism ’ of ten questions. Cf. KhP. 2: /). i. 94. 



208 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 300 

reply to them, you should gwe me a counter-hlow along with 
your company. One question, one explanation, one answer.^ 
Two questions, two explanations, two answers. Three, four, 
five, six . . . ten questions, ten explanations, ten answers.’ 

Then Citta, the housefather, getting no reply to these ten 
reasonable questions, rose up from his seat and went away. 

§ 9 . The Unclothed {ascetic). 

Now at that time Kassapa,- the Unclothed, an old family 
friend, had come to Macchikasanda. 

And Citta, the housefather, heard it said : ‘ They say our old 
family friend Kassapa, the Unclothed, has come to Macchi- 
kasanda.’ So Citta, the housefather, went to visit Kassapa, 
the Unclothed, and on coming to him greeted him in friendly 
wise, and after the exchange of greetings and courtesies sat 
down at one side. So seated, Citta, the housefather, said to 
Kassapa, the Unclothed: — 

‘ How long have you been a Wanderer, worthy Kassapa 1’ 

■ Full thirty years, housefather, have I been a AVanderer.’ 

‘ In those thirty years, sir, have you come by any super- 
human experience,^ any truly Ariyan excellence of knowledge 
and insight, any comfortable life T 

‘ In these full thirty years, housefather, that I have been a 
Wanderer, I have never come by any superhuman experience, 
nor any truly Ariyan excellence of knowledge and insight, 
nor any comfortable life, — nothing but nakedness and a shaven 
crown and dusting away the gravel.' ‘ 

Text reijydkaranaij. MSS. of Corny. hydl:aranaij. 

- CJ. Dialog, i, 223 jf.; S. ii, 19, 22 for this Kassapa, the Unclothed. 

“ Ullari-tnanussa-dhaimna. Corny, explains that the ten ways of 
meritorious action (three of deed, four of speech, three of thought) 
constitute the normal good man's life. Anything beyond this is uttariij. 
CJ. M. i, 68 f., Sunakkhatta's attack, and lii, 157, where the Buddha 
asks the same question of Anuruddha, Buddh. Ftych.. 1U5, 

* Fdfdld-nipphotaridya, according to text. The word occurs here 
only. Pali Diet. expl. as ‘plucking out the hair ’ (?), but Corny, reads 
(paedla, gritty soil), and explains that a bunch of peacock's feathers 
was used for beating away dust and grit from the place where one sits 
on the ground, a painful thing for the naked ! 



xLi, VII, § 9] Kindred Sayings ahoxit Cifia 209 

At these words Citta, the housefather, said to Kassapa, the 
Unclothed : — 

‘ A strange thing indeed ! A wonder indeed, the good 
teaching of the hforui ! To think that in full thirty rears one 
should come by no superhuman experience, no tridy Ariyan 
excellence of knowledge and insight, nor any comfortable 
life, — nothing but nakedness and a shaven crown and dusting 
away the gravel !’ 

‘ But you, housefather, — how long is it since you entered 
on the life of the disciple V 

‘ I too, sir, have been full thirty yeiirs a disciple.’ 

‘ But in those full thirty years, housefather, have you come 
by any superhuman experience, any truly Ariyan excellence of 
knowledge and insight, any comfortable life ?’ 

‘ How should it not be so, sir ? I, sir, when I so desire, aloof 
from lust, aloof from states that are exil, can enter upon the 
first trance, which is joined with thought directed and sus- 
tained, born of solitude, zestful and easeful, and abide therein. 

I, sir, when I so desire, by the calming down of thought 
directed and sustained, . . . can enter on the second trance 
and abide therein. I, sir, if I so desire, by the fading out of 
zest . . . can enter on the third trance and abide therein. 
I, sir, if I so desire, by abandoning ease . . . can enter on 
the fourth trance and abide therein. Why, sir, if I should 
make an end earlier than the Exalted One, ’twere no wonder 
if the Exalted One should pronounce thus of me: “ There is 
no fetter, bound by which Citta, the housefather, could come 
back again to this world.” ’ 

At these words Kassapa, the Unclothed, said to Citta, the 
housefather : — ■ 

‘ A strange thing, indeed ! A wonder, indeed, the good 
teaching of the Korm ! To think that a householder, one 
who wears white clothes, should come to such superhuman 
experience, such truly Ariyan excellence of knowledge and 
wisdom, such comfortable living. Oh, housefather, may I 
get ordination in this Norm-discipline ? May I get full 
ordination V 

Thereupon Citta, the housefather, took Kassapa, the Un- 
IV 14 



210 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 302 

clothed, to some elder brethren. And on coming to them 
he said : — 

‘ Sirs, this is Kassapa, the Unclothed, an old family friend 
of ours. Let the elders ordain this man. Let them give him 
full ordination. I for my part will do my best to supply the 
requisites of robes, alms and lodging, and comforts and 
medicines in time of sickness.’ ^ 

So Kassapa, the Unclothed, got ordination in the Norm- 
discipline, got full ordination. And not long after he was 
ordained did the venerable Kassapa, dwelling solitary, secluded, 
zealous, ardent and aspiring, in no- long time attain that 
goal supreme of the righteous life, to win which the clansmen 
rightly go forth from home to the homeless. So that in that 
very life, of himself, he fully understood it, realized it and 
abode therein, and knew: ‘Destroyed is rebirth, lived is the 
righteous life, done is the task, for life in these conditions there 
is no hereafter.’ 

So the venerable Kassapa was yet another of the Arahants. 

§ 10. Seeing the sich. 

Now at that time Citta, the housefather, was sick, afflicted, 
stricken with a sore disease. 

Then a number of devas that dwell in gardens,® forest and 
trees, devas that dwell in healing herbs and forest trees, 
gathered and came together and said to Citta, the house- 
father : — 

‘Aspire thus, housefather: “In future time may I be a 
rajah, a world-ruler.” ’ 

At these words Citta, the housefather, replied to those devas 
that dwell in gardens , . . and forest trees : ‘ That is a thing 
impermanent, that is a thing unstable, that must pass and 
be left behind.’ 

At these words the comrades and blood-relations of Citta, the 
housefather, said to him: — 

‘ Set up mindfulness, good master ! Talk not at random.’ 


^ Cf. supra. 3[a}mk-a, xli, § 4. ^ Text omits no. 

^ According to Corny, they are fairies that dwell on flowers and fruits. 



xLi, VII, § lo] Kindred Sayings about Citta 211 

‘ W'liat have I said that makes you tell me to set up mind- 
fulness and talk not at random V 

‘Why, good master, you said this: “That is a thing im- 
permanent, that is a thing unstable, that must pass and he 
left behind.” ’ 

‘ Yes, but I said that to the dev'as that dwell in gardens, 
forest and trees, devas that dwell in healing herbs and forest 
trees, who said to me: “ Aspire thus, housefather : ‘In future 
time may I be a rajah, a world-ruler.’ ” ’ 

‘ Wdiat significance, housefather, did the devas that dwell 
in gardens . . , see, so as to say: “Aspire, housefather, to 
be a rajah, a world-ruler ” ?’ 

‘Those devas . . . thought thus: This Citta, the house- 
father, is a virtuous man, of a lovely nature. If he aspire to 
be in future time a rajah, a world-ruler, the righteous aspira- 
tion of the heart, righteous in its very purity, will prove a 
blessing to the virtuous man, will bring forth righteous fruit. 
Seeing such significance did those devas . . . say: “Aspire 
thus, housefather: In future time may I be a rajah, a wurld- 
ruler.” Then I said to them: “ That is a thing impermanent, 
that is a thing unstable, that must pass and be left behind.” ’ 

‘ Then, good master, do you instruct us.’ 

‘ Wherefore thus must ye train yourselves : Possessed of faith 
unfaltering in the Buddha will we be, saying: “ ’Tis he, that 
Exalted One, Arahant. the Fully Enlightened One, perfect 
in knowledge and practice, world knowur, unsurpassed 
charioteer of men to be tamed, teacher of devas and mankind, 
a Buddha, an Exalted One. 

— Possessed of faith unfaltering in the Korm wall we be, 
saying: “ Well proclaimed by the Exalted One is the Norm, 
a thing to be seen in this very life, not a thing of time, inviting 
to come and see, leading onwurd, to be realized by them that 
are wise, each for himself. 

— Possessed will we be of faith unfaltering in the Order, 
saying: “Walking righteously is the Exalted One’s Order of 
Disciples, walking in the right way is the Exalted One’s Order 
of Disciples, wulking dutifully is the Exalted One’s Order of 
Disciples, to wit, the four pairs of men, the eight sorts of men. 



212 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 304 

that is the Exalted One’s Order of Disciples, worthy of honour, 
worthy of respect, worthy of oflierings, worthy to be saluted 
with uplifted palms, a field of merit unsurpassed for the world. 

— Wiatsoever worthy offering there be in our clan, all that 
shall be imparted without favour to righteous ones^ that are 
of lovely nature.” 

Tlius must ye train yourselves.’ 

So, when he had inclined the hearts of his comrades and 
blood-relations towards the Buddha, the Norm and the Order, 
when he had e.stablished them in giving up, Citta, the house- 
father, made an end. 

^ Corny, appropriates the.se qualitie.s for the hhikhlms. 



PART VUI 


lCHAPTER XLIl] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT HEADMEN 
§ I. Wrathful} 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Savatthi at Jeta 
Grove in Anathapindika’s Park. 

Then Wrathful, the headman, came to see the Exalted One, 
and on coming to him, he saluted him and sat down at one 
side. So seated, Wrathful, the headman, said to the Exalted 
One: — 

‘ Pray, lord, what is the reason, what is the cause, why 
such and such an one is styled “ wrathful,” and what the 
reason, what the cause w'hy such and such an one is styled 
“ kindly ” r;- 

‘ Herein, headman, a certain man’s passion is not 
abandoned. Owing to that others harass him. Harassed 
by others he shows vexation. Thus is he styled “wrath- 
ful.” Resentment is not abandoned. Owing to that others 
harass him. Harassed by others he shows vexation. Thus 
is he styled “ wwathful.” Illusion is not abandoned. Owdng 
to that others harass him. Thus harassed by others he is 
styled “ wrathful.” That, headman, is the reason, that is the 
cause why such and such an one is styled “ wrathful.” 

Now herein, headman, if a certain man's passion is aban- 
doned, owing to that others do not harass him. Unharassed 
by others he shows no vexation. Thus is he styled “ kindly.” 
Resentment is abandoned. Owdng to that others do not 

r Canda (pron. Chanda). Corny, says the nickname was applied by 
the elder brethren who compiled the text.s. The term gdtnani, which 
gives the title to this collection or suyyutlu, is applied to any chieftain 
of a band, village headman, or company -manager, etc. 

2 Suntla {/iu-mlu) Gk. evfierys. 



214 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 305 

harass him. Uuharassed by others he shows no vexation. 
Thus he is styled “ kindly.” If illusion be abandoned, others 
do not harass him. Unharassed by others he shows no 
vexation. Thus is he styled “ kindly.” That is the reason, 
that is the cause, headman, why a certain one is styled 
“ kindly.” ’ 

At these words Wrathful, the headman, said to the Exalted 
One: — 

‘ Excellent, lord ! Excellent it is, lord ! Just as if one 
should raise what is overthrown, or show forth what is hidden, 
or point the way to him that wanders astray, or hold up a 
light in the darkness that they who have eyes may behold 
objects, — even as in divers ways hath the Norm been set 
forth by the Exalted One. To the Exalted One, lord, I go 
for refuge, to the Norm and to the Order of Brethren. May 
the Exalted One accept me as a lay disciple, as one who hath 
gone to him for refuge, from this day forth so long as life 
doth last.’ 

§ 2. Leaf-basket} 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Rajagaha, in Jeta 
Grove at the Squirrels’ Feeding-ground. 

Then Talaputa, the stage-manager, came to the Exalted 
One, saluted him and sat down at one side. So seated, 
Talaputa, the stage-manager, said to the Exalted One;— 

‘ I have heard, lord, this traditional saying of teachers of 
old who were actors, to wit: speaking of stage-players they 
said: “A player who on the stage or in the arena makes 
people laugh and delights them by his counterfeiting of the 
truth, when body breaks up, after death is reborn in the 

^ Put i. These sectional headings are really mnemonic abbreviations 
of the full names of the characters. The name tala-jmta (a basket of 
woven palm-leaves so commonly used in the East. CJ. Brethren, 
p. dlS) was given to him, saj's Corny., because his complexion was 
bright and cheerful, like the colour of a cluster of ripe palm-fruit, 
probably referring to the beautiful colour of a bunch of wuld dates. 
But the connexion is not clear. Our text and some MSS. of text 
and Corny, have lala. After his ordination, this brother describes his 
experiences in striking verses, well rendered at Brethren, 369 ff. 



xLii, vin, § 2 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 215 

company of the Laughing Devas.” What says the Exalted 
One in this matter V 

‘ Enough, manager ! Let be. Ask me not this question.’ 

Then a second time did Talaputa, the stage-manager, put 
the same question, and the Exalted One replied : — 

‘ Enough, manager ! Let be. Ask me not this question.’ 

Then a third time did Talaputa, the stage-manager, put the 
same question, asking; ‘ What says the Exalted One in this 
matter V 

‘ True it is I did not permit your question, saying ; ‘ ‘ Enough , 
manager ! Let be. Ask me not this question.” Neverthe- 
less I will expound this thing to you. 

In the case of those beings, manager, who aforetime were 
not free from lusts, but were bound with the bond of lust; 
who aforetime were not free from resentment, but were bound 
with the bond of resentment: who aforetime were not free 
from illusion, but were bound with the bond of illusion, — 
in such cases, a player who on the stage or in the arena brings 
about lustful, resentful, or illusory states of mind, so that 
such beings become still more lustful, still more resentful, still 
more deluded, — being himself drugged and slothful, he drugs 
and makes others slothful, — such an one, when body breaks 
up, after death is reborn in the Purgatory of Laughter.^ 

Now if his view of the matter is as you say: “ Whatsoever 
player on the stage or in the arena makes people laugh and 
delights them with his counterfeiting of the truth ... is 
reborn in the company of the Laughing Devas,” then I declare 
his view is perverted. Now, manager, I declare that for one 
who is guilty of perverted view there are two paths open, one 
is Purgatory and the other is rebirth as an animal.’ “ 

At these words, Talaputa, the stage-manager, cried aloud 
and burst into tears. (Then said the Exalted One: — ) 

‘ That was why I disallowed your question, saying : 
“ Enough, manager ! Let be. Ask me not that question.” ’ 

1 Pahasa niraya. Not a distinctive purgatory, say.s Corny., but a 
section of Avici, where actors in imagination play their parts again, 
and are ‘ cooked.’ 

* C/. M. i, 388; Pis. of Conlr., 290. 



216 Ihe Saldyatam Book [text iv, 308 

‘ But, lord, I am not lamenting for that. I lament at 
the thought that for many a long day I have been cheated, 
deceived and led astray by teacher after teacher, actors, in 
the belief that a player who on the stage or in the arena makes 
people laugh and delights them by his counterfeiting of the 
truth is reborn in the company of the Laughing Devas. 

Excellent, lord ! Excellent it is, lord ! Just as if one 
should raise what is overthrown, or show forth what is hidden, 
or point out the way to him that wanders astray, or hold up 
a light in the darkness so that they who have eyes may 
behold objects, — even so in divers ways hath the Norm been 
set forth by the Exalted One. To the Exalted One I go for 
refuge, to the Norm and to the Order. 0 that I might gain 
ordination from the Exalted One, that I might gain full 
ordination.’ 

So Talaputa, the stage-manager, got ordination from the 
Exalted One, got full ordination. And not long after doing 
so the venerable Talaputa, dwelling solitary . . . was yet 
another of the Arahants. 

§ J. Fighting-man. 

Then Fighting-man,^ the trainer, came to see the Exalted 
One. ... As he sat at one side. Fighting-man, the trainer, 
said to the Exalted One:^ — 

‘ I have heard, lord, this traditional saying of teachers of 
old who were fighting-men; A fighting-man who in battle 
exerts himself, puts forth effort, thus exerting himself and 
putting forth effort is tortured and put an end to by others. 
Then, when body breaks up, after death he is reborn in the 
company of the Devas of Passionate Delight.’’ “ ^\Tiat says 
the Exalted One of this V 

‘ Enough, trainer ! Let be. Ask me not this question.’ 

Then a second time Fighting-man, the trainer, put the same 
cpiestion (and got the same reply), and yet a third time put 

1 YmUia-ajlvo. He get his living hy fighting, and was tlius called 
by the elders who compiled the texts. Corny. As above, gamatii 
means here ‘ head of a band,' possibly ‘ captain of free-lances. 

- Saruhjita. 



xLii, vm, §3] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 217 

the same question, asking : ‘ A^^lat says the Exalted One of 
this V 

‘ True it is, trainer, that I do not^ admit your question, and 
said: “ Enough, trainer ! Let be. Ask me not this question.” 
Nevertheless I will expound it to you. 

In the case of a fighting-man who in battle exerts himself, 
puts forth effort, he must previously have had this low, 
mean, perverse idea : “ Let those beings be tortured, be bound, 
be destroyed, be exterminated, so that they may be thought 
never to have existed.” Then, so exerting himself, so putting 
forth effort, other men torture him and make an end of him. 
When body breaks up, after death he is reborn in the Purgatory 
of Quarrels.'^ 

Now if his view was this: “ A fighting-man who exerts him- 
self, puts forth effort in battle, thus exerting himself, thus 
putting forth effort, is tormented and made an end of by 
others. AATien body breaks up, after death he is reborn in the 
company of the Devas of Passionate Delight,” — then I say 
that view of his is perverted. Now, trainer, I declare that 
for one who is guilty of perverted view one of two paths is 
open, either purgatory or rebirth as an animal.’ 

At these words Fighting-man, the trainer, cried aloud and 
burst into tears. (Then said the E.xalted One: — ) 

‘ That was why I disallowetl your question, trainer, saying: 
“ Enough, trainer ! Let be. Ask me not this question.” ’ 

‘ But, lord, I am not lamenting for that, but at the thought 
that for many a long rlay I have been cheated, deceived and 
led astray in the past by teacher after teacher, fighting-men, 
in the belief that any fighting-man ... is reborn in the 
company of the Devas of Passionate Delight. 

Excellent, lord ! . . . {as before) . . . from this day forth, 
so long as life lasts, may the Exalted One regard me as one 
who has gone to him for refuge.’ 

^ LdblUiini here, but in the previous section wUattliay. 

“ Siirdjilii Ximija. The texts confuse the two words, .saninjitti for 
the Demlohi and sumjila for the Xiraya. As above, Corny, says it is 
not a distinctive purgatory, but a part of Aeici. where fighting-iuen 
of all sorts fight in imagination and are ‘cooked.’ 



218 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 310 


§ 4. Elephant. 

Then Mahout/ the head keeper, came to see the Exalted 

One . . . 

{Text omits the particulars and merely gives this) — ‘ ... so 
long as life doth last.’ 

§ 5. Horse. 

Then Jockey,^ the head trainer, came to see the Exalted One 
. . . saluted him and sat do-wn at one side. 

{With the exception of the name all is as in § 3.) 

§ G. Westlander^ (or The dead man). 

Once the Exalted One was staying at Ealanda^ in Pavarika 
Mango Grove. 

Then Asibandhaka’s Son,® the headman, came to see the 
Exalted One and, on coming to him saluted him and sat dowm 
at one side. So seated, Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, 
said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ Lord, the brahmins of the west, who are carriers of 
waterpots, wearers of lily-garlands, purifiers by w'ater, fire- 
worshippers, when a man has died and made an end, — they 
lift him up and carry him out,® call on him byname^ and speed 
him heavenwards. But the Exalted One, who is Arahant, 
an All-enlightened One, is able to bring it about that the whole 
world, when body breaks up, after death can be reborn in the 
Happy Lot, in the Heaven World.’ 

‘ As to that, headman, I will question you. You may reply 
as you think fit. Now what think you, headman ? Suppose 
a case where a man is a taker of life, a taker of what is not 

* Halth' Cirohii, here the nickname for the head-keeper. 

^ aroha, a nickname as above. 

^ Paccha-hhumaka, probably of the land west of the modern Delhi. 

* In Magadlia, where afterwards was the famous university. 

® 'Snake charmer.’ At § 8 infra he is styled ‘follower of the 
Unclothed.’ 

® Text uyynpenli (they bring out the body). Sinh. MSS. of text have 
assaynpenti. Those of Corny, have this and uasuydpenti, probably a 
confusion of the first and ussdpenti Corny, says it is equal to upari- 
ydpeiili. With the following argument cf. Dial, i, Tevijja-Sta, pp. 309 If. 

’ 'lent sanndpevii : Corny, samaiihdpenli. 



XLii, viii, § 6 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 219 

given, a wrong-doer in respect of sensual passion, a liar, a 
backbiter, of bitter speech, a babbler and covetous, of male- 
volent heart, of perverted view. Then a great multitude 
gathers and throngs together, aspires and praises him and goes 
about with uplifted palms, saying : “ May this man, when 
body breaks up, after death be reborn^ in the Happy Lot, 
in the Heaven World.” Now what think you, headman 1 
Pray would that man, owing to the aspirations and praises of 
that great multitude, owing to their going about with uplifted 
palms, — would that man, when hody breaks up, after death 
be reborn in the Happy Lot, in the Heaven World V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Again, headman, suppose a man hurls a huge, great rock 
into a deep, deep pool of water. Then a great multitude 
gathers and throngs together and aspires and praises it and 
goes about with uplifted palms, saying: ” Rise up, good rock ! 
Float up, good rock ! Float ashore, good rock !” Now what 
think you, headman ? Would that huge, great rock, because 
of the aspirations, because of the praises, because of the 
going about with uplifted palms of that great multitude, — 
would it rise up or float up or float ashore 1’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Even so, headman, whatever man is a taker of life, a taker 
of what is not given, a wrong-doer in respect of sensual passion, 
a liar, a backbiter, of bitter speech, a babbler and covetous, 
with malevolent heart, of perverted view, — ^however much 
a great multitude, gathering and thronging together, might 
aspire and praise him and go about with uplifted palms, 
saying: “ May this man, when body breaks up, after death be 
reborn in the Happy Lot, in the Heaven World,” yet would 
that man, when body breaks up, after death be reborn in the 
Woeful Lot, in the Do^vnfall, in Purgatory. 

Now what think you, headman 1 Suppose that in this case 
in a man who abstains from taking life, who abstains from 
taking what is not given, who abstains from VTong action in 
respect of sensual passion, from lying, from backbiting, from 


^ .Text should read upiipihjjuUu, It, as iu the next section. 



220 The SalSyatana Booh [text iv^ 313 

bitter speech and babbling, who is not covetous, not of male- 
volent heart, a man of right view, — then a great multitude, 
gathering and thronging together, aspire and praise him and 
go about with uplifted palms, saying: “May this ma»i . . , 
be reborn in the Heaven World,” what think you, headman ? 
Would that man, because of the aspirations and praises and 
going about with uplifted palms of that great multitude, be 
reborn in the Woeful Lot, in the Downfall, in Purgatory V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Suppose again, headman, a man plunges a jar of butter 
or a jar of oil into a deep, deep pool of water, and breaks it, 
and it^ becomes shreds or fragments and sinks down to the 
bottom ; but the butter or oil that was in it floats up to the top. 

Then suppose a great multitude, gathering and thronging 
together, aspires and praises it, and goes about with uplifted 
palms, saying: “Sink down, good butter! Sink in, good 
butter ! Go to the bottom, good butter and oil !” What 
think you, headman ? Would that butter and oil, because of 
the aspirations and praises and going about with uplifted 
palms of that great multitude, — would they sink down, would 
they sink in, would they go to the bottom V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Even so, headman, whatever man abstains from taking life 
and so forth, however much a great multitude . . . might 
aspire . . . and pray for his rebirth in Purgatory, yet would 
he be reborn in the Happy Lot, in the Heaven World.’ 

At these words Asibandhaka's Son, the headman, said to the 
Exalted One: — 

‘ Excellent, lord ! Excellent it is, lord ! . . . (as before) 
... so long as life doth last, as one who has gone to him for 
refuge.’ 

§ 7 . Teaching. 

Once the Exalted One was staying at Nalanda, in Pavarika 
Mango Grove. 

Then Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, came to see the 

' In the te.\t ya and m should he omittetl. They rest on the authority 
of one MS. only, and ( omy. omits them. 



XLii, VIII, § 7] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 221 

Exalted One, and on coming to him saluted him and sat down 
at one side. So seated . . . lie .said: — 

‘ Does not the E.xalted (_>ne, lord, dwell in compassion for 
every living thing ?' 

‘ Yes, headman, the Tathagata does so dwell.’ 

‘ But, lord, does the Exalted One teach the Yorm in fulB 
to certain ones, but to certain others he does not teach the 
Norm in full V 

‘ Now, headman, as to this I shall question you. Do you 
reply as you think fit. 

Now what think you, headman ? Suppose a yeoman farmer^ 
here has three fields, one excellent, one moderate, and one 
poor, hard, saltish, of bad soil. Now what think you, head- 
man ? When that yeoman farmer wants to sow his seed, 
which field would he sow first, the excellent field, the moderate 
field, or the one that is poor, hard,® saltish, of bad soil V* 

‘ That yeoman farmer, lord, wishing to sow his seed, would 
first sow the excellent field, and having done so he would sow 
the moderate one. Having so done he might and might not 
sow that field that is poor, hard, saltish, of bad soil. AVhy so ? 
Because in any case it might do for cattle-food.’ 

‘ Well, headman, just like that excellent field are my 
ordained disciples, both men and women. I teach them the 
Norm that is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle and 
lovely in its ending, both in spirit a nd in letter. I make known 
to them the righteous life that is wholly perfect and utterly 
pure. dVhy is that ? Because, headman, these people abide 
with me for their island, with me for their cave of shelter, me 
for their stronghold, me for their refuge. 

Then, headman, just like that moderate field are my lay- 
disciples, both men and women. I teach them the Norm 
that is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle and lovely 
in its ending, both in spirit and in letter. I make known 


1 Sakkaccay. - Kassaka. lit. ploughman. 

3 Jangala (jungle), expl. by Coiny. as ‘ stiff, not soft.’ 

* Corny, reads bhumi for te-vt’s hJiumikay. The parable reminds us 
of that of the Sower in N.T. 



222 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 316 

to them the righteous life that is wholly perfect and utterly 
piu-e. ^Vhy is that ? Because, headman, these people abide 
with me for their island, with me for their cave of shelter, me 
for their stronghold, me for their refuge. 

Then, headman, just like that field that is poor, hard, saltish, 
of bad soil, are my^ wandering recluses and brahmins that 
hold other views than mine. To them also I teach the Norm 
that is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle, lovely 
in its ending, both in spirit and in letter, I make known to 
them the righteous life that is wholly perfect and utterly pure. 
IVliy so ? Because if so be they understand but a single 
sentence of it, that would be to their profit and happiness for 
many a long day. 

Again, headman, suppose a man has three waterpots, one 
not cracked, not leaky, not letting (water) run to waste and 
one waterpot not cracked, but leaky and letting water run 
to waste: and one waterpot that is both cracked and leaky, 
and letting water run to waste. Now what think you, head- 
man ? If that man wants to store up water, which pot 
would he put it in first, — in the one that is not cracked, not 
leaky, not letting water run to waste ? Or would he put it 
in the pot that is not cracked, but leaky, letting water run 
to waste 1 Or would he put it in the one that is both cracked 
and leaky, and letting water run to waste V 

‘ Why, lord, that man would first store his water in the 
first-named pot, then in the second, and as to the third he 
might or he might not put it in that. Why so ? At any rate 
the water might do for washing pots.’ 

‘ Well, brahmin, just like that waterpot, first-named are 
my ordained disciples, both men and women. I teach them 
the Norm ... I make known to them the righteous life . . . 
"Wliy so ? Because, headman, those people abide with me 

^ Mayhatj of the two first comparisons is repeated here, possibly 
for the sake of the framework. Nowhere else, as far as I know, does 
the Buddha call the heretics ‘his.’ One recalls the saying of Jesus. 
‘ other sheep I have.’ 

^ Ahdri, aparihdri. Corny, udnhty tm harati, lui harita-parihdriyeti. 
PCili Diet. s.v. has ‘ worth (?) keeping.’ Hdriy generally = capax. 



xLii, VIII, § 8] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 223 

for their island, with me for their cave of shelter, me for their 
stronghold, me for their refuge. 

Again, headman, just like that second-named waterpot 
are my lay-disciples both men and women. I teach them 
the Norm ... I make known to them the righteous life . . . 
that is utterly pure. A^diy so ? Because, headman, they 
abide with me for their island . . . for their refuge. 

Again, headman, just like that waterpot that is both 
cracked and leaky, and letting water run to waste, are my 
wandering recluses and brahmins that hold other views than 
mine. I teach them the Norm that is lovely in its beginning, 
lovely in its middle and lovely in its ending, both in spirit and 
in letter. I make known to them the righteous life that is 
wholly perfect and utterly pure, ^^'hy so 1 Because, head- 
man, if so be they can understand a single sentence, that will 
be for their profit and happiness for many a long day.’ 

At these words Asibandhaka’s Son said to the Exalted 
One: — 

‘ Excellent, lord ! Excellent it is, lord ! . . . Let the 
Exalted One accept me as a lay-disciple from this day forth 
so long as life shall last, as one who has taken refuge in him.’ 

§ 8. The conch} 

Once the Exalted One was staying at Nalanda in Pavarika 
Mango Grove. 

Then Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, a follower of the 
Unclothed,^ came to see the Exalted One. ... As he sat at 
one side the Exalted One said to him : — 

‘ Headman, in what way does the Unclothed, Nata’s Son, 
teach doctrine to his followers V 

‘ Thus, lord, does the LTnclothed, Nata’s Son, teach doctrine 
to his followers; “'Whosoever slayeth a living creature, — all 
such go to the Woeful Lot, to Purgatory. Whosoever taketh 
what is not given, whosoever acts wrongly in respect of sensual 

1 Sankha. 

2 Left untranslated above: NigantJia. He would by liis fellow-Jains 
be described as a Dlgamhara, air-clothed. 



224 The Salayatanci BooJc [text iv, 317 

passion, whosoever tells lies, — all such go to the Woeful Lot, 
to Purgatory. According as a man habitually^ lives, so goes 
he forth- to his destiny.” That, lord, is how the Unclothed, 
Xata's Son, teaches doctrine to his followers.’ 

‘ But you say, headman, “According as a man habitually 
lives, so goes he forth to his destiny.” That being so, no one 
will go to the Woeful Lot, to Purgatory, according to the 
teaching of the Unclothed, Nata’s Son. 

Now what think you, headman ? If a man takes life by 
night or by day or from time to time, which of the three times 
is the most habitual to him, that in which he slays or that 
in which he slays not V 

‘ Wliy, lord, of course in such case the time during which 
he is not slaying is the more habitual to him.’ 

‘ But you say, “ According as a man habitually lives, so 
goes he forth to his destiny.” This being so, no man 
at all goes to the Woeful Lot, to Purgatory, according to the 
teaching of the Unclothed, Nata’s Son. 

Now what think you, headman 1 If a man takes what is 
not given by night or by day or from time to time, which of 
the three times is the more habitual to him, that in which 
he is stealing or that in which he is not stealing V 

‘ Mdiy, lord, of course in such case the time in which he is 
not stealing. . . .’ 

‘ But you say, “ According as a man habitually lives . . .” 
So none go ... to Purgatory. Now what think you, head- 
man 1 If a man acts wrongly in respect of sensual passion 
... if he be a liar, which of these three times is the more 
habitual to him V 

‘ Wliy, lord, of course that in which he is not so doing is the 
more habitual to him.’ 

‘ But you say, “ According as a man habitually lives . . .” 
So no one goes to . . . Purgatory. 

Now herein, headman, if a certain teacher teaches such 
doctrine as this, his follower has faith in his teacher. He 
thinks thus : My teacher teaches this doctrine, holds this view : 


‘ Bahulatj bahulaij. 


^ Xiyyati (neli), lit. ‘ goe.s forth.’ 



xLii, VIII, § 8] Kitidred Sayings about Headmen 225 

“ Whoso slayeth a living creature, — all such are hound for the 
Woeful Lot, for Purgatory.” Now I too have slain a living 
creature, so I am bound for the Woefid Lot, for Purgatory. 
So he lays hold of that view, and not abandoning that saying, 
that thinking, not renouncing that view, he is cast into 
Purgatory sure enough.^ 

He thinks thus: My teacher teaches this doctrine, holds 
this view: “ Whoso taketh what is not given, — all such are 
bound for the Woeful Lot, for Purgatory.” Now I too have 
taken what is not given, so I am bound ... for Purgator}^. 
So he lays hold of that view, and not abandoning that saying, 
that thinking, not renouncing that view, he is cast into 
Purgatory sure enough. 

He thinks thus: My teacher teaches this doctrine, holds 
this view: “'Whoso acteth WTongly in respect of sensual 
passion . . . Whoso telleth lies, — all such are bound . . . 
for Purgatory.” "Why I too have done these things, so I am 
bound ... for Purgatory. So he lays hold of that view, 
and, not abandoning that saying, that thinking, he is cast 
into Purgatory sure enough. 

Now herein, headman, the Tathagata arises in the world, the 
Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One, the Happy One, the 
Charioteer of men to be tamed. Teacher of Devas and mankind, 
the Buddha, the Exalted One. He censures, strongly censures 
taking life, saying: “Abstain ye from taking life.” He 
censures, strongly censures stealing, wrong-doing in respect 
of sensual passion, and falsehood, saying: Abstain ye from 
that.” 

Now, headman, the disciple has faith in his master, and 
thus he ponders: The Exalted One in divers ways censures, 
strongly censures the taking of life, saying, “ Abstain ye from 
taking life.” Now by me such and such creatures have been 


1 Tlie text's uathO. liahuj should piobably be yatlmhliatmj, the usual 
phrase. C/. A. i, 8, 105; ii,20 ff.-, liiv., 12, 26, etc. The idea of dropping 
something taken up. The phrase at Itiv. where it reads ijatha bhaiaij 
(thatay) is explained by the gdtha which follows, yuthd ImritvCi nikkhi- 
peyya, which supports the reading luitay. See Pali Diet., which favours 
the idea of retribution. J.d. on A. i, 8: ‘ — yaihd dharilva thapilo.' 

15 


IV 



226 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 321 

slain. That is not well done. It is not good. Moreover as 
a result of it I may be remorseful at the thought ; That evil 
deed cannot be undone by me. 

So pondering, he abandons that slaying of creatures, and 
in time to come he is one who abstains from slaying. Thus 
does he get beyond this evil deed. 

He ponders thus ; The Exalted One in divers ways censures, 
strongly censures the taking of what is not given . . . wrong 
conduct in respect of sensual passion . . . and lying, saying, 
“ Abstain ye from these things.” Now I have taken such and 
such things not given ... I have acted wrongly in such and 
such ways in respect of sensual passion ... I have told such 
and such falsehoods. That is not well done. It is not good, 
iloreover as a result of that I may be remorseful at the thought : 
That evil deed cannot be undone. So pondering he abandons 
that stealing, that wrong practice in sensual passion, that 
falsehood, and in time to come is one who abstains from such 
deeds. Thus does he get beyond those evil deeds. 

By abandoning the slaying of creatures he becomes an 
abstainer from slaying. By abandoning stealing . . . wrong 
practice in respect of sensual passion ... by abandoning 
falsehood he becomes an abstainer from those things. By 
abandoning backbiting, bitter speech and idle babble he 
becomes an abstainer from them. By abandoning covetous- 
ness he becomes uncovetous, by abandoning malevolence he 
becomes one not malevolent of heart. By abandoning per- 
verted view he becomes one of right view. This Ariyan 
disciple, headman, being thus freed from coveting, freed from 
malevolence, not bewildered, but self-possessed and concen- 
trated, abides suffusing one quarter of the world with a heart 
full of kindliness, likewise the second quarter, the third and 
fourth quarters, likewise above, below, across, everywhere, 
for all sorts and conditions,^ — ^the whole world does he abide 
suffusing with a heart possessed of kindliness that is wide- 
spreading, grown great and boundless, free from enmity and 
peaceful. 


^ Cf. Bk. vii above, § 7. 



xLii, VIII, § 8 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 227 

Even as, headman, a stout conch-blower^ with slight effort 
gives notice to the four quarters, — even so, headman, by 
that kindliness that releaseth the heart, thus practised, what- 
soever finite thing there be,- naught is left out, naught remains 
apart from it. 

That Ariyan disciple, headman, thus freed from coveting, 
freed from malevolence, not bewildered, but self-possessed and 
concentrated, with a heart possessed by compassion ... by 
sympathy ... by equanimity, abides suffusing one quarter 
of the world, likewise the second, third and fourth quarters : 
likewise above, below, across, everywhere, for all sorts and 
conditions, — the whole world does he abide suffusing with 
heart possessed of equanimity that is widespreading, grown 
great and boundless, free from enmity and peaceful. 

Even as, headman, a stout conch-blower with slight effort 
gives notice to the four quarters, even so, headman, by that 
equanimity which releaseth the heart, thus practised, what- 
soever finite thing there be, naught is left out, naught remains 
apart from it.’ 

At these words Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, said to 
the Exalted One: — 

‘ Excellent, lord ! Excellent it is, lord ! . . . Let the 
Exalted One accept me as a lay-disciple from this day forth 
so long as life shall last, as one that hath gone to him for 
refuge.’ 


1 Cf. Dialog, i, 31S; *1. v, 299. The conch-blower, trans. ‘ trumpeter ’ 
there, is the town-crier of the cast, like the lam-lam man. 

^ Yam pamma-katay kammay =: kamuvacaray (the world of sensuous 
pleasure), this and the next world. Appamanakatay is rupdvacaray. 
Corny, says, ‘ like the mighty ocean flooding a little creek ... he even 
reaches up to Brahma.’ At Jdt. ii, No. 169, the saying occurs thus : 

To ve, me.ttena ciltena sabbalok' anukampati 
Uddhay adho ca tiriyaii ca appamdnena sabba-^o, 

Appamdnay hitay cittay paripunnay subhavilay, 

Yay pamdna-katay kammay im lay latravasis-snti. 

where Dr. Rouse trans. differently: ‘ (in such a heart) naught narrow 
or confined can ever be.’ 



228 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 322 


§ 9. Clem. 

Once the Exalted One was going his rounds among the 
Kosalans together with a great company of brethren and 
reached Nalanda. Then the Exalted One stayed at Ealanda 
in Pavarika Mango Grove. 

Now at that time Nalanda was stricken with famine, hard to 
get one’s living in,^ white with men’s bones, ^ its crops grown 
to mere stubs.® 

And on that occasion Nata’s Son, the Unclothed, was lodging 
at Nalanda, together with a great following of the Unclothed. 

Then Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, a follower of the 
Unclothed, came to visit Nata’s Son, the Unclothed, and on 
coming to him saluted him and sat down at one side. Then 
said Nata’s Son, the Unclothed, to Asibandliaka’s Son, the 
headman, as he thus sat: — 

‘ Come thou, headman ! Go and join issue'* with Gotama, 
the recluse, and such a goodly report of thee shall he noised 
abroad, to wit: “ Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, has joined 
issue with Gotama, the recluse.” ’ 

‘ But, how, sir, shall I join issue with Gotama, the recluse, 
who is of such great magic power, of such great prestige V 

‘ Go thou, headman, to visit Gotama, the recluse, and on 
coming to him say this : — 

Lord, is it not a fact that in divers ways the Exalted One 
extols consideration for clansmen, extols carefulness, extols 
compassion for clansmen ?” Now, headman, if Gotama, the 
recluse, thus questioned replies thus: “Even so, headman, 

1 DrJhitikd (? du-ihitikd), a word of doubtful origin. Corny, explains 
it as a dilemma, viz. : ‘ shall we live or shall we not live V At Vin. iii, 7, 
Corny, has strange explanations. Considering the neighbouring word 
saldhl-i-iiltd. I conjecture dti-rlla-tild (where paddy grows badly)! 

“ Or ‘ with men's ribs showing white (beneath the skin).’ 

^ Saldkd-vvtld, 'gromi to mere slips and fruitless.’ Cmny. [Dr. 
Andersen (tPord^ in /S'.), J.P.T.S., 1909, p. 128. has ‘subsisting by 
means of pegs; a kind of famine when scraps of food are scraped to- 
gether with saldkas.’ But saldkas there means ‘ slips of wood ’ used as 
tickets or ‘ talUcs.’ This is an alternative expl. of T’..-!. i, 175]. 

* Vadarj dropehi. Cf. Dialog, i. 15 n.; K.kl. iii, 13. 



XLii, viii, §9] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 229 

the Tathagata in divers ways does extol consideration for 
clansmen, does extol carefulness, does extol compassion for 
clansmen,” — then do you say thus: “ But, lord, how is it that 
the Exalted One, with a great company of brethren, goes 
about on his rounds in a place that is stricken with famine, 
a place hard to get a living in, that is white with men’s bones, its 
crops grown to mere stubs ? Surely the Exalted One is acting 
for the destruction of the clansmen, for the loss of the clans- 
men, is acting to the injury of the clansmen in so doing.” 

Thus questioned by you, headman, with a two-horned 
question,^ Gotama, the recluse, will be unable either to vomit 
it up or to swallow it down.’ 

‘ Very good, sir,’ said Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, in 
reply to Nata’s Son, the Unclothed, and rose from his seat, 
saluted him by the right, and went away to visit the Exalted 
One. On coming to him he saluted the Exalted One and 
sat down at one side. So seated Asibandhaka’s Son, the 
headman, said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ Lord, does not the Exalted One in divers ways extol con- 
sideration for clansmen, extol carefulness, extol compassion 
for clansmen V 

‘ So it is, headman. The Tathagata does in divers ways 
extol consideration, carefulness and compassion for clansmen.’ 

‘ Then, lord, how is it that the Exalted One, with a great 
company of the brethren, is going his rounds in a place that 
is stricken with famine, hard to get a living in, white with 
men’s bones, its crops grown to mere stubs ? Surely the 
Exalted One in so doing is acting for the destruction of the 
clansmen, for the loss, for the injury of the clansmen.’ 

‘ Headman, from ninety and one kalpas ago up to now’ 
I do not remember, I am not conscious of ever having wronged 
a clan to the extent even of a cooked meal given in oSering. 
Those clans were rich, very rich, of exceeding great wealth, 

^ U bhata-Loplkiiy pahhay, ' tlio horns of a dilemma.’ CJ. Mil. P., 5, 
108. 

2 Dialog, i, 2, the age when Vipassi. the Buddlia, was horn into the 
world. A halpa is reckoned as 1,000 ijiigas or ages, which make up 
one day of a Brahma. 



230 


The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 324 

abounding in gold and silver, abounding in sources of wealth, 
abounding in wealth of crops. All that wealth was amassed 
through charity, amassed through truthfulness, amassed 
through self-restraint. 

There are eight reasons, headman, there are eight causes 
for the injury of clans. Clans meet with injury from rajahs, 
from robbers, from fire, from water, they find not treasure 
that is hidden,^ through sloth they abandon toil, or else in the 
clan arises a wastreP w'ho scatters, destroys and breaks up 
its wealth. The impermanence of things is the eighth cause. 
These, headman, are the eight reasons, the eight causes for 
the injmy of clans. 

Now, headman, since these eight reasons, these eight causes 
exist and are found to be, he who should say thus of me: 
“ The Exalted One acts for the destruction, for the loss, for 
the injury of the clans,” — if he abandon not that saying, if he 
abandon not that thought, if he give not up adherence to 
that view, he is cast into Purgatory sure enough.’ 

At these words Asibandhaka’s Son, the headman, said to 
the Exalted One : ‘ Excellent, lord ! Excellent it is, lord ! 
Let the E.xalted One accept me as a lay-disciple from this 
day forth so long as life shall last, as one that has gone to him 
for refuge.’ 

§ 10. Crest-jewel. 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Rajagaha at the 
Squirrels’ Feeding-ground. 

Now at that time in the royal palace among those of the 
royal retinue who sat together in conclave there arose this 
topic in casual talk: ' The recluses who are the sons of the 
Sakyaii are permitted to take gold and silver, they let gold and 
silver be offered, the recluses who are the sons of the Sakyan 
accept gold and silver.’ 

Now on that occasion there sat in that company Jewel- 
crested,^ the headman. Then said the headman: ‘My good 

^ Cf. Khud., 7 {The Buried Treasure). 

- KuV angdra (‘ clan-charcoal ’), wealth-destroyer. 

^ Maniculaho. He gives the decision laid doini by the Second 
Council at Vesall. Cf. fin. ii, 290, for this s^itla. 



XLii, VIII, § lo] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 231 

sirs, say not that ! It is not permitted to the recluses who 
are the sons of the Sakyan to take gold and silver, to let gold 
and silver be ofiered, to accept gold and silver. Rejected 
by them are gems and gold, they have done with gold and 
silver.’ Howbeit, Jewel-crested, the headman, could not 
convince that company. 

So Jewel-crested, the headman, went to visit the Exalted 
One, and on coming to him saluted him and sat down at one 
side. So seated Jewel-crested, the headman, said to the 
Exalted One; — 

‘ Lord, in the royal palace here, when those of the royal 
retinue had gathered and were sitting in conclave, this topic 
of casual talk arose; “ The recluses who are the sons of the 
Sakyan are permitted to take gold and silver, they let gold and 
silver be offered, the recluses who are the sons of the Sakyan 
accept gold and silver.” At these words, lord, I said to 
that company; “ 0 my good sirs, say not that ! It is not so. 
The recluses who are the sons of the Sakyan do not take, do 
not permit the offering of, do not accept gold and silver. 
Rejected by them are gems and gold. They have done with 
gold and silver.” But, lord, I could not convince that com- 
pany. Pray, lord, in so explaining did I speak in accordance 
with the Exalted One’s view, without misrepresenting the 
Exalted One by stating what is wrong ? Did I answer in 
conformity with his teaching, so that no one who is of the 
same view,^ a follower of the Exalted One’s view, could give 
opportunity for censure V 

‘ Truly, headman, in so explaining you did speak in ac- 
cordance with my view. You did not misrepresent me by 
stating what is wrong. You did answer in conformity with 
my teaching, so that no one who is of my view, a follower of 
my view, could give opportunity for censure. 

No, indeed, headman ! It is not permitted to the recluses 
who are the sons of the Sakyan to take gold and silver, to let 
it be offered, to accept gold and silver. They do not so. 
Rejected by them are gems and gold. They have done with 


CJ. K.S. ii, 28. SaJta-dhamyniko, perliapa ‘ reasonable,’ as at p. 208. 



232 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 326 

gold and silver. To him, headman, who is permitted to take 
gold and silver, the five sensual delights are also permitted. 
You may downright aver, headman, of him to whom the 
taking of gold and silver is permitted that he is not a recluse 
by nature, not of the nature of the Sakyan’s sons. 

However, headman, this do I declare. Grass’ is to he sought 
for by those in need of grass. Firewood is to be sought for 
by those in need of firewood. A cart is to be sought for by 
those in need of a cart ; a servant by him who is in need of a 
servant. But, headman, in no manner whatsoever do I declare 
that gold and silver should be accepted or sought for.’ 

§ 11. Luchy- (or Bhagandka-Haithaha). 

Once the Exalted One was staying among the Mallas^ at 
Uruvelakappa, a township of the Mallas. 

Then Bhadragaka, the headman, came to visit the Exalted 
One. On coming to him he saluted him and sat down at one 
side. So seated Bhadragaka, the headman, said to the 
Exalted One: — 

‘ Well for me, lord, if the Exalted One would teach me the 
arising and the coming to an end of 111.’ 

‘ If I were to teach you, headman, the arising and the 
coming to an end of 111, beginning with past time, saying, 
“ Thus it was in the past,” you would have doubt and per- 
plexity. And if, headman, I were to teach you the arising 
and the coming to an end of 111, beginning with future time, 
saying, “ So will it be in the future,” you would likewise have 
doubt and perplexity. But sitting here and now, headman, 
with you sitting here also, I will teach you the arising and 
the coming to an end of 111. Do you listen attentively. Apply 
your mind and I will speak.’ 

‘ Even so, lord,’ replied Bhadragaka to the Exalted One. 

‘ Tor thatching one's hut or shelter.’ Corny. 

2 The meaning of the name is obscure. Blaidnika (text Bhadragaka) 
means ‘luckj'.’ 

^ CJ. Brethren, 10. ‘The IVIallas, a confederation of independent 
clans, located by the two great Chinese chroniclers on the mountain- 
slopes eastward of the Buddha’s own clan.’ Text has Malald. 



XLii, VIII, § ii] Kindred Satjings about Headmen 233 

The Exalted One said: — 

‘ Now what think you, headman ? Are there any men in 
Uruvelakappa owing to whose death or imprisonment or loss 
or blame there would come upon you sorrow and sufiering, 
woe, lamentation and despair V 

‘ There are such men in Uruvelakappa, lord.’ 

‘ But, headman, are there any men in Uruvelakappa owing 
to whose death or imprisonment or loss or blame, no sorrow 
and suffering, no woe, lamentation and despair would come 
upon you V 

‘ There are such men in Uruvelakappa, lord.’ 

‘ Now, headman, what is the reason, what is the cause why 
sorrow and suffering, woe, lamentation and despair would 
come upon you in respect of some, but not of the others ?’ 

‘ In the case of those, lord, owing to whose death or im- 
prisonment or loss or blame I should suffer such sorrow . . . 
it is because I have desire and longing for them. And in the 
case of the others, lord, because I have not such desire and 
longing.’ 

‘ You, say, “ I have not such desire and longing for them.” 
Now, headman, do you shape your course^ by this Norm, 
when you have seen and known it, when you have reached 
it without loss of time, — plunged into it both in respect of 
the past and of the future, thus: AVhatsoever 111 arising has 
come upon me in the past, — ^all that is rooted in desire,- is 
joined to desire. Whatsoever 111 arising may come upon me 
in futiue time, — all that is rooted in desire, is joined to desire. 
Desire is the root of 111.’ 

‘ Wonderful, lord ! Strange it is, lord, how well said is 
this saying of the Exalted One: “ Whatsoever 111 arising comes 
upon me, — all that is rooted in desire. Desire is indeed the 
root of 111.” 

Now, lord, there is my boy, — Ciravasi is his name. He 
lodges away from here.^ At the time of rising up, lord, I 
send off a man, saying: “ Go, my man, inquire of Ciravasi.” 


1 Nayay nehi. - Chanda. 

® ‘ He was acquiring learning (at school).’ Corny. Pron. Chira-. 



234 


The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 329 

Then, lord, till that man comes back again, I am in an anxious 
state,^ fearing lest some sickness may have befallen Ciravasi.’ 

‘ Now what think you, headman ? Would sorrow and grief, 
woe, lamentation and despair come upon you if your boy 
Ciravasi were slain or imprisoned or had loss or blame V 

‘ Lord, if such were to befall my boy Ciravasi, how should 
I not have sorrow and grief, woe, lamentation and despair V 

‘ But, headman, you must regard it in this manner ; “ What- 
soever 111 arising comes upon me, — all that is rooted in desire, 
is joined to desire. Desire is indeed the root of 111.” 

Now what think you, headman ? When you did not see, 
did not hear Ciravasi’s mother, did you feel desire or longing 
or affection for her V 

‘ No indeed, lord.’ 

‘ But, headm.in, when you got sight of her, got hearing of 
her, did you then have desire or longing or affection for her V 

‘ Yes, lord.’ 

‘ Now what think you, headman "? Would sorrow and 
grief . . . come upon you if Ciravasi’s mother were slain or 
imprisoned or had any loss or blame V 

‘ ^Vhy surely, lord, sorrow and grief . . . would come 
upon me.’ 

‘ So in this manner, headman, must you look upon it : 
Whatsoever 111 arising may come upon me, — all that is rooted 
in desire, is joined to desire. Desire is indeed the root of 111.’ 

§ 12. Rdsiya. 

Then Kasiya,- the headman, came to visit the Exalted One, 
and on coming to him saluted him and sat down at one side. 
So seated, Rasiya, the headman, said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ I have heard, lord, that Gotama the recluse censures all 
ascetic ways, that he downright chides and abuses any ascetic 
who lives a rough life.® Those who say thus, lord, — that 

^ Anhatlialla, generally in the meaning of ‘ otherness, change.’ 

- “ Heaper ” was the name given him by the Elders who compiled 
the Texts.’ Corny. 

^ Lakha-jlvin. For the ascetic see Intr. to Dialog, i, 223. 



xLii, VIII, § 12 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 235 

Grotama the recluse does so, do they speak in conformity with 
the Exalted One’s view, without misrepresenting the Exalted 
One by stating what is wrong ? Do they speak in conformity 
with his teaching, so that no one who is of the same view, 
a follower of his view, coidd give opportunity for 
censure V 

‘ They who speak thus, headman, saying that Gotama the 
recluse censures all ascetic ways, that he downright chides and 
abuses any ascetic who lives a rough life, — such speak not in 
accordance with my view, such do misrepresent me in so saying 
what is wrong. 

1 . 

These two extremes,’- headman, should not be followed by 
one who has gone forth from the world: Devotion to the 
pleasures of sense, — a low, pagan practice of the manyfolk, 
not Ariyan, not bound up with welfare and devotion to 
self-mortification, which is painful, not Ariyan, not bound 
up with welfare. Not following after these two extremes, 
headman, is the Middle Way of approach, fully known 
by the Tathagata, which giveth vision, giveth knowledge, 
leading to calm, to supernormal knowledge, to wisdom, to 
Nibbana. 

And what,headman , is that Middle Way of approach, fully 
known by the Tathagata, that giveth vision, giveth know- 
ledge 1 . . . It is this Ariyan Eightfold Path, to wit : right 
view, right aim, right speech, right action, right living, 
right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This, 
headman, is that Middle Way of approacli, fully known to the 
Tathagata. . . . leading to Nibbana T 

2 . 

There are found existing in the world, headman, these three 
who are given to sensual pleasures.^ What three ? 


^ Antd. Pali Diet, ‘standards of life.’ Corny, kotthdse. for the 
first statement of these see The First Sermon; Yin. i, 10 (Buddhist 
Sutlas, Rhys Davids); and S. v, 421. 

® Kdmabhogin. 



236 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 331 


(i) . 

Herein, headman, a certain one, given to sensual pleasures, 
seeks wealth unlawfully and by violence. So seeking wealth 
he gets no ease, no pleasure for himself, he shares it not with 
others, he does no meritorious deeds. 

(ii) . 

... So seeking wealth, he gets ease and pleasure for him- 
self, but shares it not with others and does no meritorious 
deeds. 

(iii) . 

... So seeking wealth, he gets ease and pleasme for 
himself, shares it with others and does meritorious deeds. 

(iv) . 

Herein, headman, a certain one, given to sensual pleasmres, 
seeks wealth both lawfully and unlawfully, by violence and 
without violence. So seeking it he gets no ease, no pleasure 
for himself: he shares it not with others and does no meri- 
torious deeds. 

(v) . 

... So seeking it, he gets ease, gets pleasure for himself, 
but shares it not with others and does no meritorious deeds. 

(vi) . 

... So seeking it, he gets ease, gets pleasure for himself, 
shares it with others and does meritorious deeds. 

(vii) . 

Herein, headman, a certain one given to sensual pleasiues, 
seeks wealth by lawful means, without violence. So seeking 
it, he gets no ease, gets no pleasure for himself, shares it not 
with others and does no meritorious deeds. 

(viii). 

... So seeking it, he gets ease, gets pleasure for himself, 
but shares it not with others and does no meritorious deeds. 



xLii, VIII, § 12 ] Kindred. Sayings about Headmen 237 

(ix). 

... So seeking it, he gets ease, gets pleasure for himself, 
shares it with others and does meritorious deeds. But he 
makes use of his wealth with greed and longing, he is guilty 
of offence, heedless of danger, blind to his own salvation.’^ 

(x). 

Herein again, headman, a certain one given to sensual 
pleasures seeks wealth by lawful means, without violence. 
So seeking it, he gets ease, gets pleasure for himself, shares it 
with others and does meritorious deeds. But he makes use 
of his wealth without greed and longing, he is guiltless of 
offence, he is heedful of danger and alive to his own salvation. 

3 . 

(i) . 

Now, headman, this one who, given to sensual pleasures, 
seeks wealth by unlawful means, with violence, who by so 
doing gets no ease, gets no pleasure for himself, who shares it 
not with others, who does no meritorious deeds, — this one, 
headman, given to sensual pleasures, is blameworthy in three 
respects. In what three ? He is blameworthy in the first 
instance because he seeks wealth by unlawful means and 
violence. He gets no ease, gets no pleasure for himself, so he 
is to blame in the second instance. He shares not with others 
and does no meritorious deeds, so he is blameworthy in the 
third instance. 

This one, headman, given to sensual pleasures, is blame- 
worthy in these three respects. 

(ii) . 

Now, headman, this one •who, given to sensual pleasures, 
seeks wealth by unlawful means, w^ith violence, is blame- 
worthy in two respects, praiseworthy in one respect. In 
what two respects is he blameworthy ? Seeking wealth by 


1 Gadhita-mucchita; ajjhdpanna; amdinava-dassdvJ; anissarana-panna, 
as at K.S. ii, 181, etc. 



238 


The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 333 

unlawful means and by violence, be is first to blame for that. 
Secondly, in so seeking wealth he shares it not nor does meri- 
torious deeds, that is the second respect. And what is the 
one respect in which he is praiseworthy ? In getting ease 
and pleasure for himself. In this respect he is praise- 
worthy. 

So this one, headman, given to sensual pleasures, is blame- 
worthy in two respects, praiseworthy in one. 

(iii) . 

Xow, headman, this one who . . . seeks wealth by un- 
lawful means, with violence . . . if in so seeking he gets ease 
and pleasure for himself, shares it and does meritorious 
deeds ... he is blameworthy in one respect, praiseworthy 
in two. In what respect is he blameworthy ? In seeking 
wealth by unlawful means and by violence, he is blameworthy 
in this one respect. And in what two respects is he praise- 
worthy ? In getting ease and pleasure for himself. That is 
the first. In sharing with others and doing meritorious 
deeds. That is the second respect in which he is praise- 
worthy. 

So this one, headman, given to sensual pleasures, is blame- 
worthy in one respect, praiseworthy in two. 

(iv) . 

Xow, headman, this one who . . . seeks wealth both 
lawfully and unlawfully, both with and without violence, 
in so seeking ... he gets neither ease nor pleasure for 
himself, he shares not, he does no meritorious deeds. So in 
this one respect he is praiseworthy, in three respects is he 
blameworthy. What is the one 1 He seeks wealth lawfully, 
without violence. Thus in one respect he is praiseworthy. 
In what three respects is he blameworthy ? In seeking 
wealth unlawfully, with violence. That is the first. In get- 
ting neither ease nor pleasure for himself. That is the second. 
In not sharing or doing meritorious deeds, — -that is the third. 
Thus in one respect he is praiseworthy, in three respects he is 
blameworthy. 



xLii, viii, § 12 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 239 

(v) . 

Now, headman, this one who seeks wealth both lawfully 
and unlawfully, both with and without violence ; — by seeking 
it lawfully, but with and without violence, he gets ease and 
pleasure for himself, hut he shares it not nor does meritorious 
deeds. Thus in two respects he is praiseworthy, in two he is 
blameworthy. In which two is he praiseworthy ? By 
seeking it lawfully and without violence, — that is the first 
respect. By getting ease and pleasure for himself, — that is 
the second respect in w'hich he is praiseworthy. And in what 
two respects is he blameworthy ? In seeking it unlawfully 
and with violence, — that is the first. In not sharing or doing 
meritorious deeds, — that is the second respect in which he is 
blameworthy. 

So in these two respects he is praiseworthy, and in these 
two he is blameworthy. 

(vi) . 

Then, headman, this one who . . . seeks wealth both law- 
fully and unlawfully, both with and without violence; — by 
seeking it lawfully ... he gets ease and pleasure for himself, 
he shares it and does meritorious deeds. This one, headman, 
is praiseworthy in three respects, and in one respect blame- 
worthy. In what three ? By seeking it lawfully, without 
violence, — that is the first. By getting ease and pleasme 
for himself, — that is the second. By sharing it and doing 
meritorious deeds, — that is the third respect in which he is 
praiseworthy. And in what one respect is he blameworthy ? 
By seeking it unlawfully and by violence. That is the one 
respect. 

(vii) . 

But, headman, he w'ho, given to sensual pleasmes, seeks 
wealth by lawful means and without violence, yet in so 
seeking it gets neither ease nor pleasure for himself nor shares 
with others nor does meritorious deeds, this one is praiseworthy 
in one respect, blameworthy in two respects. In what one 
respect is he praiseworthy ? In seeking it lawfully, without 
violence. That is the one. And what are the two ? In 



240 The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 336 

getting neither ease nor pleasure for himself, — that is the 
first. In not sharing or doing meritorious deeds, — that is the 
second respect in which he is blameworthy. 

So in this one respect he is praiseworthy, in these two 
blameworthy. 

(viii). 

Then ... he who seeks wealth lawfully, without violence ; 
who in so seeking gets both ease and pleasure for himself, 
but shares not with others and does no meritorious deeds, — 
this one is praiseworthy in two respects, blameworthy in one. 
In what two 1 In seeking it lawfully and without violence, — 
that is the first. In getting both ease and pleasure for him- 
self ,— that is the second. Then in what one respect is ho blame- 
worthy ? In not sharing and not doing meritorious deeds. 
That is the one respect. 

So in these two respects he is praiseworthy, in this one 
blameworthy. 

(i.x). 

But he who, given to sensual pleasiues, seeks wealth law- 
fully and without violence, who in so seeking it gets both 
ease and pleasiure for himself, who shares it and does meri- 
torious deeds, but who makes use of his wealth with greed and 
longing, who is guilty of offence, heedless of danger and blind 
to his own salvation, — such an one, headman, is praiseworthy 
in three respects, blameworthy in one. In what three ? In 
seeking it lawfully and without violence. That is the first. 
In getting both ease and pleasure for himself. That is the 
second. In sharing it and doing meritorious deeds. That is 
the third. And in what one respect is he blameworthy ? 
In using his wealth with greed and longing, in being guilty 
of offence, heedless of danger and blind to his own salvation. 
That is the one respect in which he is blameworthy. 

So, headman, in these three respects he is praiseworthy, 
in this one respect he is blameworthy. 

(x). 

But he who . . . seeks wealth lawfully and without 
violence, who in so seeking it gets both ease and pleasure 




XLii, VIII, § 12 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 241 

for himseH, who shares it with others and does meritorious 
deeds, who uses not his wealth with greed and longing, who 
is guiltless of offence, heedful of danger, alive to his own 
salvation, — such an one is praiseworthy in four respects. In 
what four ? In seeking it lawfully, without violence, in 
getting both ease and pleasure for himself, in sharing it with 
others and doing meritorious deeds ... in being alive to his 
own salvation. 

So, headman, one who is given to sensual pleasures is praise- 
worthy in these four respects. 


4 . 

(i) - 

Now there are these three sorts of ascetics who live a rough 
life to be foimd existing in the world, headman. What three ? 

Herein, headman, a certain ascetic, living a rough life, in 
faith goes forth from the home-life to the homeless as a 
Wanderer. He thinks : Maybe I shall come to some profitable 
state. Maybe I shall realize some superhuman experience, 
some truly Ariyan excellence of knowledge and insight. 
So he tortures himself, goes to extremes in torturing himself. 
But he wins thereby no profitable state. He realizes no super- 
human experience, no truly Ariyan excellence of knowledge 
and insight. 

(ii) . 

Here again, headman, some ascetic, living a rough life, in 
faith goes forth . . . He tortures himself, goes to extremes 
in torturing himself, and comes to some profitable state, but 
he realizes no superhuman experience, no truly Ariyan excel- 
lence of knowledge and insight. 

(iii) . 

Herein again, headman, some ascetic, living a rough life, 
goes forth . . . He both comes to some profitable state 
and realizes some superhuman experience, some truly Ariyan 
excellence of knowledge and insight. 


IV 


16 



242 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 338 


5 . 

(i) . 

Now herein, headman, this ascetic who lives a rough life 
. . . but comes to no profitable state nor realizes any . . . 
insight, — this ascetic so living is blameworthy in three respects. 
In what three ? He tortures himself, goes to extremes in 
torturing himself. That is the first respect in which he is 
blameworthy. Then he comes to no profitable state. That 
is the second. Then he realizes no . . . knowledge and 
insight. That is the third respect in which he is blameworthy. 

So, headman, this ascetic ... is blameworthy in these 
three respects. 

(ii) . 

Now herein, headman, this ascetic . . . does come to some 
profitable state, but does not realize . . . knowledge and 
insight. Thus he is blameworthy in two respects and is 
praiseworthy in one. In what two ? He tortures himself 
. . . That is the first. He does not realize . . . That is the 
second respect in which he is blameworthy. And in what 
one respect is he praiseworthy ? He comes to some profitable 
state. That is the one respect in which he is praiseworthy. 

So, headman, this ascetic ... is blameworthy in two 
respects, praiseworthy in one respect. 

(iii) . 

Now herein, headman, this ascetic, living a rough life, who 
tortures himself, who goes to extremes in torturing himself, 
who comes to some profitable state, who realizes some super- 
human experience, some truly Ariyan excellence of knowledge 
and insight, — this ascetic, headman, is blameworthy in one 
respect, praiseworthy in two respects. In what one respect 
is he blameworthy ? In torturing himself, in going to extremes 
in torturing himself. That is the one respect in which he is 
blameworthy. And in what two respects is he praiseworthy ? 
In coming to some profitable state. That is the first. And 
in realizing some superhuman experience, some truly Ariyan 



xLii, VIII, § 12 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 243 

excellence of knowledge and insight. That is the second 
respect in which he is praiseworthy. 

So, headman, this ascetic, living a rough life, is in this one 
respect blameworthy, in these two respects praiseworthy. 

6 . 

There are these three things, headman, belonging to this 
life, that are undecaying, not subject to time, inviting to come 
and see, leading onward (to Nibbana), to be realized each for 
himself by the wise. What three ? 

(i) . 

Since the lustful man, because of his lust, directs thought 
to his own harm, directs thought to the harm of others, to the 
harm both of himself and of others, hut when lust is abandoned 
directs thought neither to his own harm nor to that of others, 
nor of both, — thus these (results) belong to this life, they are 
undecaying, not subject to time, inviting to come and see, 
leading onward (to Nibbana), to be realized each for himself 
by the wise. 

(ii) . 

Since the depraved man, because of his depravity, directs 
thought to his own harm, to that of others, to the harm both 
of himself and of others, but when depravity is abandoned 
he does so no longer, — thus these three results belong to this 
life ... to be realized each for himself by the wise. 

(iii) . 

Since the deluded man, because of his delusion, directs 
thought to his own harm, to that of others, to his own harm 
and that of others, when delusion is abandoned he does so no 
longer, — thus these results belong to this life ... to be 
realized each for himself by the wise. 

These, headman, are the three things belonging to this 
life, that are undecaying, not subject to time, inviting to come 
and see, leading onward (to Nibbana), to be realized each for 
himself by the wise.’ 



244 The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 340 

At these words Easiya, the headman, said to the Exalted 
One: — 

‘ Excellent, lord ! . . . May the Exalted One accept me 
as a lay-disciple from this day forth so long as life shall last 
as one who has gone to him for refuge.’ 

§ 13 Pdtali^ (or Charming). 

Once the Exalted One was staying among the Koliyans^ at 
Uttara, a township of the Koliyans. 

Then Pataliya, the headman, came to \dsit the Exalted One, 
and on coming to him saluted him and sat down at one side. 
So seated Pataliya, the headman, said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ I have heard it said, lord, “ Gotama the recluse knows 
magic. Those who thus aver, lord, that Gotama the recluse 
knows magic, — do they speak in accordance with the Exalted 
One’s view, without misrepresenting the Exalted One by 
stating what is \vrong ? Do they speak in conformity with 
his teaching, so that no one who is of the same view,'* a follower 
of his view, could give opportunity for censure ? We wish 
not to speak falsely of the Exalted One, lord.’ 

‘ They who said thus, headman, that I know magic, do 
speak in accordance mth my view. They do not misrepresent 
me by stating what is wTong. They do speak in conformity with 
my teaching, so that no one who is of the same view as I, who 
is a follower of my view, could give opportunity for censure.’ 

‘ So then it is true, my friend,® though I did not believe those 
recluses and brahmins when they said: “ Gotama the recluse 
knows magic.” So after all,® my friend, Gotama the recluse 
is a trickster.’ 

‘ Now, headman, does he who says that I know magic, — 

1 The word means • trumpet tiower,’ Pdtali-gdma was the ancient 
name of modern Patna. See Ud.A. 407. 

^ The clan next to the Sakyans. ^ Mdyd, the conjuror’s art. 

“ Saha-dhammiko ; or is it ‘reasonable,’ as at text, p. 299 ? 

® The man lapses at once into the familiar 'bho,’ a less respectful 
term. He began by saying ‘ bhanle.’ Considering, however, that in the 
sentences below he says bhante again, it is possible that we should read 
kho here. 

® Khalil, the emphatic particle; or ‘ indeed.’ 



xLii, VIII, § 13] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 245 

does he in so saying thereby imply that I am a trickster, 
saying, “ Such is the Exalted One, such is the Happy One ” ? 
Now, headman, in this matter I will question you. Do you 
answer as you think fit. 


1 . 

(i). 

Now what think you, headman 1 Do you know the 
hirelings of the Koliyans, who have drooping crests 

‘ Yes, lord, I do know them.’ 

‘ Now what think you, headman ? For what purpose are 
these hirelings of the Koliyans, who have drooping crests V 

‘ To check robbers, lord, among the Koliyans and to carry 
messages for the Koliyans. That, lord, is the reason for those 
hirelings of the Koliyans, who have drooping crests.’ 

‘ Now what thick you, headman ? As to those hirelings 
of the Koliyans, do you know them as honest or as rogues F 

‘ I know them, lord, as wicked rogues. If there be any 
wicked rogues among the Koliyans, it is they.’ 

‘ Now, headman, if anyone should say: “ Pataliya, the head- 
man, knows that the hirelings of the Koliyans, who have 
drooping crests, are wicked rogues. Therefore Pataliya, the 
headman, is himself a wicked rogue,” — would he be speaking 
truth in so saying ?” 

‘ Surely not, lord. The hirelings of the Koliyans are one 
thing, but I am quite another thing, of quite another nature 
from that of the Koliyans’ hirelings who have drooping crests, 
of quite another natme !’ 

‘ So, headman, you will get“ this said about you: “ Pataliya, 
the headman, knows that the Koliyans’ hirelings with drooping 
crests are wicked rogues, but Pataliya, the headman, is not a 
wicked rogue.” Why then does not the Tathagata get this 

^ Lamba-culakd hlidtd. Cf. Buddhist India (Rhys Davids), p. 21: 
‘ The Koliyan central authorities were served by a special body of 
peons, or police, distinguished, as by a kind of uniform, from which 
they took their name, by a special head-dress. These particular men 
had a bad reputation for extortion and violence,’ 

^ Lacchasi (lahhissasi). Gk. Tev^ets. 



246 


The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 342 

said of him: “ The Tathagata knows magic, hut the Tathagata 
is not a trickster ” ? Magic I do know, headman, and the 
fruit of magic, and, how practising, the trickster, when body 
breaks up, after death is reborn in the Woeful State, the Evil 
Lot, the Downfall, in Purgatory, — that also do I know.’ 

(ii). 

The taking of life, headman, do I know and the fruits 
thereof, and, how practising, one who takes life is reborn . . . 
in Purgatory,— that also do I know. 

The taking of what is not given, headman, do I know, and 
the fruits thereof, and, how practising, one who so takes is 
reborn ... in Piugatory, — that also do I know. 

Wrong practice in respect of sensual passion, headman, do 
I know, and the fruits thereof, and, how practising, one is so 
reborn. The telling of falsehood . . . backbiting . . . bitter 
speech . . . idle babble . . . covetousness . . . hatred and 

ill-will . . . perverted view, headman, do I know and the 

fruits thereof, and, how practising, those who do these things, 
when body breaks up, after death are reborn in the Woeful 
State, the Evil Lot, the Downfall, in Purgatory, — that also 
do I know. 

2 . 

There are, headman, certain recluses and brahmins who 
teach this, who have this view; “ Whosoever takes the life of 
a being — all such in this very life suffer sorrow and grief. 
Whosoever takes what is not given . . . whosoever acts 

wrongly in respect of sensual passion . . . whosoever tells 

lies, — all such in this very life suffer sorrow and grief.” 

(i). 

Yet, headman, we see here a certain one, garlanded, be- 
ringed, well groomed, well perfumed, with hair and beard 
trimmed, fostering lust for womenfolk, like a rajah, forsooth. 
About him men ask: “Good fellow, what has this man 
done, that, garlanded, be-ringed, well groomed, well per- 
fumed, with hair and beard trimmed, he . . . just like a 
rajah, forsooth ?” And of him they reply: “ Why, my good 



XLii, VIII, § 13 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 247 

fellow, this man crushed the rajah’s foe and took his life. 
Delighted with that the rajah bestowed a gift on him. That 
is why that man, garlanded ... for womenfolk, just like a 
rajah, forsooth.” 

(ii). 

Again, headman, we see here a certain one^ with his arms 
strongly bound behind him with a stout rope, with shaven 
crown, paraded round to the beat of a harsh-sounding drum, 
from street to street, from crossroads to crossroads, then led 
forth by the southern gate, and to the south of the town 
beheaded. About such an one they ask; “ Good fellow, what 
has this man done that he has his arms strongly bound behind 
him . . . that to the south of the town he is beheaded ?” 
And of him they reply : “ ^Vhy, my good fellow, this man was 
the rajah’s foe. He killed a woman or a man. So the royal 
police have caught him and treat him thus.” 

Now, how say you, headman ? Have you ever seen or heard 
of such an one ?’ 

‘ I have both seen and heard, lord, of such an one, and shall 
again.’ 

‘ Now, headman, those recluses and brahmins who thus 
teach, who hold this view: “ Whoso taketh life, — all such in 
this very life sufier sorrow and grief,” — did they speak truth 
or falsehood ?” 

‘ Falsehood, lord.’ 

‘ Now are those who tell baseless lies good men or bad V 

‘ Bad, lord.’ 

‘ Now bad men, evil-doers, — do they live wrongly or 
rightly V 

‘ Wrongly, lord.’ 

‘ And those who live wrongly, — ^have they wrong views 
or right views V 

‘ Wrong views, lord.’ 

‘ Now is it proper to put faith in those who hold wrong 
views V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 


Cf. K.S. ii. 91. 



248 


The Salayatana Book [text iv, 345 


(iii) . 

‘ Now, headman, we see here a certain one garlanded, be- 
ringed, well groomed and well perfumed, with hair and beard 
trimmed, fostering lust for womenfolk, just like a rajah, 
forsooth. About him men ask: “ Good fellow, what has this 
man done, that, garlanded . . . just like a rajah, forsooth ?” 
Then they reply: “ WTiy, my good fellow, this man, by 
crushing the rajah’s foe, won a treasure. The rajah, pleased 
thereat, gave him a gift. So this man goes about thus, just 
like a rajah, forsooth.” 

(iv) . 

Again, headman, we see here a certain one, with his arms 
strongly bound behind him with a stout rope. ... To the 
south of the town he is beheaded. Then they ask about him : 
“ Good fellow, what has this man done that ... to the south 
of the town he is beheaded ?” Then they reply: “ This man, 
my good fellow, either in village or in forest took something 
^vith thievish intent.^ So the royal police caught him and 
treat him thus.” 

Now how say you, headman ? Have you ever seen or heard 
of such a thing ?’ 

‘ Yes, lord. I have both seen and heard and shall hear of 
such a thing.’ 

‘ Now, headman, those recluses and brahmins who teach 
thus, who hold this view: “ Whoso taketh what is not given, — 
all such in this very life suffer sorrow and grief,” — did they 
speak truth or falsehood ? {as before) . . . 

Is it proper to put faith in those who hold wrong views V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

(v)- 

Again, headman, we see here a certain one, garlanded, be- 
ringed ... for womenfolk, like a rajah, forsooth. Then 
they ask about him: “ Who, good fellow, is this man ?” And 
they reply to him: “My good fellow, this man was guilty of 


^ Theyya-satikhdlatj ddiyi. Adverb, ‘ with what is reckoned theft.’ 
Latin fur-tim. 



XLii, VIII, § 13 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 249 

intercourse with the wives of the rajah’s foe, and the rajah, 
pleased thereat, gave him a gift. That is why . . . fostering 
lust for womenfolk, like a rajah, forsooth.” 

(vi) . 

Then again, headman, we see here a certain one bound with 
a stout rope. ... At the south of the town he is beheaded. 
They ask about him: “ Good fellow, who is this man 1” And 
they reply: “ This man, my good fellow, was guilty of inter- 
course with women and girls of the clan. So the royal police 
seized him and treat him thus.” 

Now what say you, headman ? Have you ever seen or 
heard of such a thing V 

‘ Yes, lord. I have both seen and heard of such and shall 
again.’ 

‘ So, headman, those recluses and brahmins who teach thus 
and hold this view, that whoso acts wrongly in respect of 
sensual passion, — ^that all such in this very life suffer sorrow 
and grief, — did they speak truth or falsehood ? . . . Is it 
proper to put faith in such V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

(vii) . 

Then again, headman, we see here a certain one, garlanded, 
be-ringed . . . fostering lust for womenfolk, just like a 
rajah, forsooth. And about him they ask: “ Pray, good 
fellow, who is this man . . . 1” And they reply: “This 
man, my good fellow, delighted the rajah with falsehood, 
and pleased thereat the rajah gave him a gift. That is why, 
garlanded ...” 

(viii). 

Then again, headman, we see here a certain one bound with 
a stout rope. ... At the south of the town he is beheaded. 
About him they ask . . . And they reply: “ This man, my 
good fellow, by falsehood spoiled the fortunes^ of some house- 
father or housefather’s son. So the royal police seized him, 
and treated him thus.” - 


1 Althaij hhanji, ‘destroyed the good.’ 



250 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 347 

Now how say you, headman % Have you ever seen or 
heard of such a thing '?’ 

‘ Yes, lord, I have both seen and heard and shall hear again 
of such a thing.’ 

‘ So, headman, those recluses and brahmins who teach . . . 
that whoso tells falsehoods, — all such in this very life suffer 
sorrow and grief, — did they speak truth or falsehood ?’ 

‘ Falsehood, lord.’ 

‘ But those who tell empty lies at random, — are they good 
men or bad V 

‘ Bad, lord.’ 

‘ Now bad men, evil-doers ... do they live wrongly or 
rightly ?’ 

‘ Wrongly, lord.’ 

‘ And those who live wrongly, — have they rnrong views or 
right views V 

‘ Wrong views, lord.’ 

‘ Now is it proper to put faith in such ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 


3 . 

‘ Wonderful, lord ! Strange it is, lord ! Now, lord, I have 
a rest-house. Therein are beds and seats, a waterpot and a 
lamp. Whatsoever recluses or brahmins come to reside there, 
to the best of my power and as well as I can I share it with 
them. Now on a former occasion, lord, four teachers holding 
different views, following different systems, came to reside in 
that rest-house. 

(i). 

One teacher taught thus,^ held this view : There is no alms- 
giving, no sacrifice, no offering. There is no fruit, no result 
of good or evil deeds. This world is not, the world beyond is 
not. There is no mother or father, no beings of spontaneous 
birth.^ In the world are no recluses and brahmins who have 

^ CJ. K.8. iii, 205. The aimihilationist view of Ajita, of the hair- 
garment. Cf. D. i, 55, etc. (Dialog, i, 69). 

- O/iapfitilca (upapatti), ‘a happener,’ they just become in the heaven 
world — i.e., there was no knowledge of the other body among Buddhists. 



XLii, VIII, § 13 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 251 

won the summit, who have won perfection, who of themselves 
by supernormal power have realized both this world and the 
world beyond, and proclaim it. 

(ii). 

One teacher taught thus, had this view : There is almsgiving, 
sacrifice, offering. There is fruit, there is result of good and 
evil deeds. This world is, the world beyond is. There is 
mother and father, there are beings of spontaneous birth. In 
the world are recluses and brahmins who have won the summit, 
who have won perfection, who of themselves have realized by 
supernormal power both this world and the world beyond, 
and proclaim it. 

(ill). 

One teacher taught thus,^ had this view: For him who acts 
or makes others act : for him vrho mutilates or makes others 
mutilate, who torments or makes others torment, who causes 
grief of himself or through others, who enfeebles or causes others 
to enfeeble, who binds'- or makes others bind, who causes life 
to be taken, who causes thieving, breaks into houses, carries 
oS plunder, plays the burglar,^ lurks in ambush, who visits 
another’s wife, who tells lies, — by one so acting no evil is done. 

Even though with a razor-edged tool he should make all 
beings on earth one mash of flesh,"* one heap of flesh, no evil 
results from that, there is no coming by any evil. Though he 
should go along the right bank of the Ganges slaying and 
striking, mutilating and causing mutilation, tormenting and 
causing torment, — yet therefrom results no evil, no coming 
by any evil. Though he should go along the left bank of the 
Ganges, making burnt offerings and causing them to be made, 
sacrificing and causing sacrifice, — yet therefrom results no 
merit, no coming by any merit. 

1 The heresy of Parana Kassapa (D. i, 5o. etc.). He was one of the 
‘ unclothed.’ 

^ Bhatidato, for text’s pJuindato, as suggested at K.S. iii, 205, and 
read there by C. 

^ Ekagarilcaij karolo, a rather curious phrase. DA. has ekay eva 
agarayj parivdrdvd, ‘ surrounding a single liouse ’ for plunder. 

* Maijsa-khalay. 



252 


The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 350 


(iv). 

One teacher taught thus, had this view; For him who acts 
or makes others act . . . who tells lies, — by one so acting evil 
is done. If with a razor-edged tool he should make all beings 
on earth one mash of flesh, one heap of flesh, evil results from 
that, there is coming by evil. If he should go along the right 
bank of Ganges, slaying and striking . . . therefrom results 
evil, there is coming by evil. If he shordd go along the left 
bank of the Ganges, making burnt oflerings . . . therefrom 
results merit, there is coming by merit. 

At this, lord, I had doubt and wavering, and I thought ; I 
wonder which of these recluses and brahmins is speaking truth, 
which is speaking falsehood.’ 

‘ You might well doubt, headman. You might well waver. 
But it was on a doubtful point that wavering arose in you.’ 

‘ But I have such faith in the Exalted One, lord. The 
Exalted One can teach me a teaching herein so that I may 
abandon my doubt.’ 

4 . 

‘ There is, headman, a peace of mind that comes by 
righteousness.^ If you corfld win mental calm thereby, you 
would thus abandon your state of doubt. And what, head- 
man, is that peace of mind that comes by righteousness ? 

(i). 

Herein, headman, the Ariyan disciple, abandoning the 
taking of life, abstaining therefrom: abandoning the taking 
of what is not given, abstaining therefrom: abandoning wTong 
practice in respect of sensual passion, abstaining therefrom: 
abandoning falsehood . . . backbiting . . . bitter speech and 
idle babble, he abstains therefrom. Abandoning covetous- 
ness, he is no more covetous. Abandoning malevolence and 
hatred, his heart becomes freed from ill-will. Abandoning 
wrong view, he becomes one of right view. 

This Ariyan disciple, headman, thus freed from covetous- 
ness,^ freed from malevolence, not bewildered but self- 


1 Dhamma-samadhi, ‘ by the ten good ways.’ Corny. 

2 Supra, xlii, § 8 . 



xLii, VIII, § 13 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 253 

possessed and concentrated, with a heart possessed by com- 
passion, abides sufiusing one quarter of the world, likewise 
the second, third and fourth quarters, likewise above, below, 
across, everywhere, for all sorts and conditions, — the whole 
world does he abide suffusing with heart possessed of kindli- 
ness that is widespreading, grown great and boundless, free 
from enmity and peaceful. He ponders thus: This teacher 
who teaches thus, who holds this view: “ There is no alms- 
giving, no sacrifice, no offering. There is no fruit, no result 
of good and evil deeds. This world is not, the world beyond is 
not. There is no mother or father, no beings of spontaneous 
birth. In the world are no recluses or brahmins who have 
won the summit, who have won perfection, who of them- 
selves by supernormal power have realized both this world 
and the world beyond, and proclaim it,” — even if the word 
of that worthy teacher be true, yet have I a ground of surety,^ 
for I oppress naught, or weak or strong. Herein doubly I 
have made the lucky cast,- for I am restrained in body, speech 
and mind: and, when body breaks up, after death I shall arise 
in the Happy Lot, the Heaven World. 

At this thought gladness springs up in him. Thus glad, 
in him arises joy, and as he thus rejoices his body is calmed. 
So with body calmed he feels happiness. In the happy one 
the heart is at peace. This, headman, is the peace of mind 
that comes by righteousness. Thereby if you could win the 
mental calm, you would abandon this state of doubt. 

(ii). 

Now that Ariyan disciple, headman, thus freed from 
covetousness . . . abides suffusing the whole world with 

^ Text kas apannakatdya maijhay (? mihi pro ce^o est). The passage 
in MSS. is garbled. Corny, reads apannaka-tMnay, which I follow in my 
translation. Corny, takes it as anaparadJiataya emy ralfati. The word 
apannaha (of doubtful origin) is a synonym for Nibbana, the sure, the 
absolute. A sutta at A. i, 113 (c/. V.M. 392) is so called, where Corny, 
ad loc. says it = aviriiddha (unhindered). The way to Nibbana by the 
Paths is called apatmaka-patipadd. 

2 Kakiggaha {kata = kata, good); ‘thrower of the lucky die ’ -juytty- 
galia. Corny. Cf. Jat. iv, 322. 



254 


The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 352 

heart possessed of kindliness that is widespreading, grown 
great and boundless, free from enmity and peaceful. He 
ponders thus: This teacher who teaches thus, who holds this 
view: “ There is almsgiving, there is sacrifice, there is offering. 
There is fruit, the result of good and evil deeds. This world 

is, the world beyond is. There is mother and father, there 
are beings of spontaneous birth. In the world are recluses 
and brahmins who have won the summit, who have reached 
perfection, who of themselves by supernormal power have 
realized both this world and the world beyond, and proclaim 

it, ” — even if the word of this worthy teacher be true, yet have 
I a ground of surety, for I oppress naught of things or weak or 
strong. Herein I have doubly made the lucky cast, for I am 
restrained in body, speech and mind. . . . 

At this thought gladness springs up in him. ... In the 
happy one the heart is at peace. This, headman, is the peace 
that comes by righteousness. Thereby if you could win the 
mental calm, you would abandon this state of doubt. 

(iii). 

Now, headman, that Ariyan disciple, thus freed from 
covetousness . . . ponders thus: — 

This teacher who teaches thus, who holds this view: “ For 
him who acts or makes others act . . . who tells lies,— by 
such an one so acting no evil is done. If with a razor-edged 
tool he should make all beings on earth one mash of flesh, one 
heap of flesh . . . yet therefrom results no merit, no coming 
by any merit, . . .” — even if the word of that worthy teacher 
be true, yet have I a ground of surety, for I oppress naught 
of things or weak or strong ... I shall arise in the Happy 
Lot, the Heaven World. 

At this thought gladness springs up in him. ... In the 
happy one the heart is at peace. This, headman, is the 
peace that comes by righteousness. Thereby if you could 
win the mental calm, you would abandon this state of 
doubt. 



xLii, VIII, § 13 ] Kindred Sayings about Headmen 255 

(iv). 

Now that Ariyan disciple, headman, thus freed from covet- 
ousness . . {the same throughout for the reflection on the 
negating the above teacher’s vieiv). 

5. 

(i) . 

{The whole is the same as in § 1 above, with ‘ sympathy ’ for 
‘ kindliness,’ in the brahma-vihara.) 

(ii) . 

{The same as in § 2, with ‘ equanimity ’ for the brahma- 
vihara, and ‘ there is merit in action,’ etc.) 

(iii) . 

{The same as in above, with ‘ equanimity ‘for the brahma- 
vihara.) 

(iv) . 

{The same as in § 4 above, with ‘ equanimity ’for the brahma- 
vihara.) 

At these words Pataliya, the headman, said to the Exalted 
One : — 

‘ Excellent, lord ! Excellent it is, lord ! . . . May the 
Exalted One accept me as a lay-disciple from this day forth 
so long as life lasts, as one who has gone to him for refuge.’ 



PART IX 


[CHAPTER XLIII] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT THE UNCOMPOUNDED* 

1 . 

§ 1 (i). Body. 

I WILL teach you, brethren, the Uncompounded and the path 
that goes to the Uncompounded. Do ye listen to it. 

And what, brethren, is the Uncompounded ? The de- 
struction of lust, brethren, the destruction of hatred, the 
destruction of illusion, — that is called the Uncompounded. 

And what, brethren, is the path that goes to the Uncom- 
pounded ? Mindfulness relating to body.^ That, brethren, 
is called ‘ the path that goes to the Uncompounded.’ 

Thus, brethren, have I taught ye the Uncompounded. 
Thus have I taught ye the way that goes to the Uncom- 
pounded. Whatever should be done by a teacher that seeks 
the welfare of his disciples, in compassion, feeling compassion, 
that have I done for you. 

Here, brethren, are the roots of trees.^ Here are empty 
places. Do you meditate. Be not remiss. Be not remorseful 
hereafter.^ This is our instruction to you. 

§ 2 (ii). Calm. 

I will teach you, brethren, the Uncompounded and the 
path that goes to the Uncompounded. Do you listen to it. 

* Asankliata-sarjyutla. ^ Kdyagata sati. 

^ C/. supra, § 145. 

* Corny. — ‘ i.e. now in the time of your youth and health, with the 
opportunities now open to you. In old age, in the hour of death, when 
the Teacher has passed away, you may regret your lost opportunities.’ 

266 



xLiii, IX, I, § 7 ] Sayings about the Vncom'pounded 257 

And what, brethren, is the Uncompounded ? The destruc- 
tion of lust . . . 

And what, brethren, is the path that goes to the Uncom- 
pounded ? Calm and insight. That, brethren, is called ‘ the 
path that goes to the Uncompounded.’ 

§ 3 (iii). Directed thought} 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path that goes to the 
Uncompounded ? Concentration accompanied by thought 
directed and sustained: concentration without directed, but 
just with sustained, thought: concentration that is without 
thought either directed or sustained.^ That, brethren, is 
called ‘ the path that goes to the Uncompounded.’ 

§ 4 (iv). Void. 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path that goes to the 
Uncompounded ? Concentration that is void, signless and 
aimless.® That, brethren, is called ‘ the path that goes to the 
Uncompounded.’ 

§ .5 (v). Stations of mindfulness.'^ 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path that goes to the 
Uncompounded ? The four stations of mindfulness. That, 
brethren, is called ‘ the path that goes to the Uncom- 
pounded.’ 

§ G (vi). Right efforts. 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path that goes to the 
Uncompounded 1 The four best efforts . . 

§ 7 (vii). Bases of effective power.^ 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path . . . ? The four 
bases of effective power . . . 

^ Vitakha. 

- For this threefold cla.ssilication of samddhi see Buddh. Psych. Eth., 

§ 166 (h), n. 

^ Supra, xli, § 6. 

* Sati-pntthfind. of body, feelings, mind, and phenomena. Cf. K.S. 
iii, 81, foi these 37 items (v-xi summed), called hodhipakkhiyd dkammd. 

® See next chapter. ® Iddhipada. 

TV 17 



258 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 361 


§ 8 (viii). Controlling power. 

. . . And wtat, brethren, is the path . . . ? The five 
controlling powers . . 

§ 9 (Lx). Strength. 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path ... 1 The five 
strengths . . ? 

§ 10 (x). Limbs of wisdom. 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path ... 1 The seven 
limbs of wisdom . . 

§ 11 (xi). By the path. 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path that goes to the 
Uncompounded ? The Ariyan Eightfold Path. That, 
brethren, is called ‘ the path that goes to the Uncompounded.’ 

Thus, brethren, have I shown'* you the Uncompounded and 
the path that goes to the Uncompounded. Whatever should 
be done by a teacher that seeks the welfare of his disciples, 
in compassion, feeling compassion have I done that for you. 

Here, brethren, are the roots of trees. Here are empty 
places. Do you meditate. Be not remiss. Be not remorseful 
hereafter. This is our instruction to you. 


2 . 

§ 12 (1). The Uncompounded. 

§ i. Calm. 

{The same as § 1 above, with ‘ calm ’for ‘ concentration.’) 

§ ii. Insight. 

{The same as § 1 above, with ‘ insight ’ - . .) 

^ Saddha, viriya, sati, samadhi, jtannd. ^ Same as ('viii). 

^ Sati, dtiamrmvicaya, viriya, plti, passaddhi, samadhi, upekkhd. 

* Text has vedayitar), prob. a misprint for desitay, occurring in other 
passages. 



XLiii, IX, 2 , § 12 ] Sayings about the Uncompounded 259 

§§ iii-viii. The sixfold concentration. 

. . . Concentration together with thought directed and 
sustained . . . without thought directed and sustained, but 
with thought sustained only . . . without thought either 
directed or sustained . . . that is empty . . . that is sign- 
less . . . that is aimless. 

§§ ix-xii. The four stations of mindfulness. 

. . . And what, brethren, is the Uncompounded ? 

Herein, brethren, a brother abides contemplating body 
in body, ardent, self-possessed, mindful, by restraining the 
coveting and dejection that are in the world. This, brethren, 
is called ‘ the path going to the Uncompounded.’ 

§§ xiii-xvi. The four best efforts. 

. . . And what, brethren, is the path . . . ? Herein, 
brethren, a brother originates desire that evil, unprofitable 
states not yet arisen shall not arise. He strives, puts forth 
energy, exerts his mind and strives. This, brethren, is 
called ... He originates desire that evil, -unprofitable states 
that have arisen shall be abandoned. 

. . . He originates desire that good, profitable states not 
yet arisen shall arise. 

. . . He originates desire that good, profitable states that 
have arisen shall be established, shall not be confused, shall 
be made better, grow to increase, be practised and fulfilled. 

§§ xvii-xx. The four bases of effective power. 

. . . Herein, brethren, a brother practises the basis of 
effective power^ which is attended by concentration and effort, 
compounded "with desire . . . compounded with energy . . . 
with idea . . . with investigation.^ 

§§ xxi-xxv. The five faculties. 

. . . Herein, brethren, a brother practises the faculty of 
faith, which is founded on singleness of heart, founded on 
dispassion, on cessation, which leads to gi-ving up. 


1 Cf. Dialog, ii, 110 n. 


2 Ib., 246-7. 



260 The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 366 

. . . He practises the faculty of energy which is founded 

on . . . 

... He practises the faculty of mindfulness, which is 
founded on . . . 

. . . He practises the faculty of concentration, which is 
founded on . . . 

. . . He practises the faculty of wisdom, which is founded 
on singleness of heart, founded on dispassion, on cessation, 
which leads to giving up. 

§§ xxvi-xxx. The jive poivers. 

. . . Herein, brethren, a brother practises the power of 
faith, which is founded on singleness of heart . . . 

... He practises the power of energy, which is founded 

on . . . 

... He practises the power of mindfulness, which is 
founded on . . . 

... He practises {as above) . . . 

§§ xxxi-xxxvii. The seven factors of wisdom. 

. . . Herein, brethren, a brother practises the factor of 
wisdom which is mindfulness, which is founded on singleness 
of heart . . . 

. . He practises the factor of wisdom which is investigation 
of the Norm . . . 

. . . He practises the factor of wisdom which is energy . . . 

. . . which is zest . . . 

. . . which is calm . . . 

. . . which is concentration . . . 

. . . He practises the factor of wisdom which is disin- 
terestedness, which is founded on singleness of heart, founded 
on dispassion, on cessation which leads to giving up . . . 

§§ xxxviii-xlv. The Ariyan eightfold path. 

... He practises right view, which is founded on single- 
ness of heart . . . right aim . . . right speech . . . right 
action . . . right living . . . right effort . . . right mindful- 
ness . . . right concentration, which is foimded on singleness 



xLiii, IX, 2, § i6] Sayings about the Uncompounded 261 

of heart, which is founded on dispassion, on cessation, which 
leads to giving up. This, brethren, is called ‘ the path that 
goes to the Uncompounded.’ 

Thus, brethren, have I taught ye the Uncompounded and the 
path that goes to the Uncompounded. 

Whatever, brethren, should be done by a teacher who seeks 
the welfare of his disciples, in compassion, feeling compassion 
have I done that for ye. 

Here, brethren, are the roots of trees. Here are empty 
places. Do ye meditate. Be not remiss. Be not remorseful 
hereafter. This is our instruction to you. 

§ 12 (2)^ (ii). The end.^ 

1-44. 

I will teach you the end, brethren, and the path that goes 
to the end. Do ye listen to it. And what, brethren, is the 
end ? 

(Here follow 44 sections [as in each of the nexi] to he developed 
as the previous 44.) 


§ 13. Without dsavas. 

I will teach you, brethren, what is free from the asavas,^ 
and the path that goes thereto . . . 

§ 14. Truth. 

I will teach you, brethren, the truth'* and the path that goes 
thereto . . . 

§ 15. The further share. 

I will teach you . . . the further shore® and the path that 
goes thereto . . . 

§ 16. The subtle. 

I will teach you . . . the subtle and the path that goes 
thereto ... * 

^ The sections are OTongly numbered in the text. 

2 jMte, the goal, i.e. Nibbana. ^ ‘The four.’ Corny. 

* ‘ The transcendental,’ lohiltara. Corny. 

^ Pdray, ‘ beyond the round (of rebirth).’ Corny. 



262 


The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 369 


§ 17. The hard to see. 

I will teach you . . . the hard to see and the path that 
goes thereto . . . 

§ 18. The unfading. 

I will teach you . . . the uniading’^ and the path that goes 
thereto . . . 

§ 19. The stable. 

I \vill teach you . . . the stable and the path that goes 
thereto . . . 

§ 20. The undecaying. 

I will teach you . . . the undecaying^ and the path that 
goes thereto . . . 

§ 21. The invisible. 

I will teach you . . . the invisible and the path that goes 
thereto . . 

§ 22. The taintless. 

I will teach you . . . the taintless® and the path that goes 
thereto . . . 

§ 23. The peace. 

{The same formula for the rest.) 

§ 24. The deathless. 

§ 25. The excellent. 

§ 26. The blissful.* 

§ 27. The security. 

§ 28. Destr^txlion of craving. 

1 Ajajjara. Vis. 31. 294, quoting, has ajara, ‘ageless.’ 

2 Text has apalolcita (‘asked permission’), with v.l. apalokinay^ 
which, I follow with Corny., who derives it from '\/ luj (the usual deriva- 
tion of loka). 

® Reading with Corny, nippapaikay (the ‘ taints ’ are ianhd, mdna, 
ilittM) for text’s nippdpay. 

^ S ii-ay, the Vedio Shiva. Corny, dassil'atihena (1). At /Sw.d. 173, 411 
Corny, gives the word as a synonym of khema (which follows here). 
At jS. i. 181 Corny, takes it as equivalent to Setlha. 



xLiii, IX, 2 , § 43 ] Sayings abont the Uncompounded 263 
§ 29. The wonderful. 

§ 30. The marvellous. 

§ 31. The free from ill} 

§ 32. The state of freedom from ill. 

§ 33. Nibbdna.* 

§ 34. The harmless. 

§ 35. Dispassion. 

§ 36. Purity. 

§ 37. Release.^ 

§ 38. Non-attachment. 

§ 39. The island.^ 

§ 40. The cave of shelter. 

§ 41. The stronghold. 

§ 42. The refuge. 

§ 43. The goal.* 

[All of the above sections are in the following shape and form.) 

(i). 

I will teach you, brethren, the goal and the path that goes 
to the goal. Do ye listen to it. 

And what, brethren, is the goal ? It is the destruction of 
lust, the destruction of hatred, the destruction of illusion. 
That, brethren, is called ‘ the goal.’ 

And what, brethren, is the way that goes to the goal 1 

^ Anitika, ‘free from dukktia.' Corny. * Here and at <S. i. 136; 
VibhA. 314, Corny, derives from ni-vdmy (=ni-laiihu). 

^ Text misprints tnaltin ca for muttiii ca. ^ For these titles cf. xlii, § 7. 
* Pardyana,=‘ paray dyaiMy gati pcUitthd.’ Corny. 



264 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 372 

It is mindfulness relating to body. That, brethren, is called 
‘ the way that goes to the goal.’ 

Thus, brethren, have I taught ye the goal and the way that 
goes to the goal. 

Whatsoever, brethren, should be done by a teacher that 
seeks the welfare of his disciples, in compassion, feeling com- 
passion that have I done for you. 

Here, brethren, are the roots of trees. Here are lonely 
places. Do you meditate. Be not remiss. Be not remorseful 
hereafter. This is our instruction to you. 

(ii). 

(§§ ii-xliv are to be developed as in (he sections on the 
Uncompounded.) 



PART X 


[CHAPTER XLIV] 

KINDRED SAYINGS ABOUT THE UNREVEALED' 

I. Sister Khemar the Elder. 

Once the Exalted One was staying near Savatthi at Jeta 
Grove in Anathapindika’s Park. 

Now on that occasion the sister Khema, after going her 
rounds among the Kosalans, took up her quarters at Tora- 
navatthu, between Savatthi and Saketa.® 

Now the rajah Pasenadi of Kosala was journeying from 
Saketa to Savatthi, and midway between Saketa and Savatthi 
he put up for one night at Toranavatthu. 

Then the rajah Pasenadi of Kosala called a certain man 
and said ; ‘ Come thou, good fellow ! Find out some recluse 
or brahmin such that I can wait upon'* him to-day.’ 

‘ Even so, your majesty,’ said that man in reply to the 
rajah Pasenadi of Kosala, and after wandering through all 
Toranavatthu he saw not anyone, either recluse or brahmin, 
on whom the rajah Pasenadi might wait. 

Then that man saw the sister Khema, who had come to 

' Avijakata. 

- Tor the Sister Ivheina see Psalms of the Sisters, p. SI ff. As a 
slave-girl in the time of the Buddha Padumuttara. she renounted the 
world and aspired to be a disciple of a future Buddha, a wish that was 
fulfilled under the Buddlias Vipassi, Kakusaiidha, Konagamana, Kas- 
sapa, and Gotama. In this last birth she was wife of the rajah Bim-v^ 
bisara, and of great beauty. Pride in this was destroyed in her by 
the Master, who conjured up a vision of beauty decaying. She was 
convinced, entered the Order, and ultimately became Arahant. She 
was ranked first in insight by the Master (as mahapannd) in the list 
of ‘ great ones ’ at A. i, 2.5; AA. i. 342. Cf. K.S. ii, 160. 

^ Cf. Buddhist India, p. 40. 

* Payiriipusei/i/ay. lit. ‘ sit beside as a teacher.’ 

265 



266 


The Saldyaiana Book [text iv, 374 

reside at Toranavatthu. And on seeing lier he went back to 
the rajah Pasenadi of Kosala, and said : — 

‘ Yoxir majesty, there is no recluse or brahmin in Tora- 
navatthu such that your majesty can wait upon him. But, 
your majesty, there is a sister named Khema, a woman- 
disciple of that Exalted One, who is Arahant, an All- 
enlightened One. Now of this lady a lovely rmnom has gone 
abroad, that she is sage, accomplished, shrewd, widely learned, 
a brilliant talker,^ of goodly ready wit. Let yomr majesty wait 
upon her.’ 

So the rajah Pasenadi of Kosala went to visit the sister 
Khema, and on coming to her saluted and sat down at one 
side. So seated he said to her: — 

‘ How say you, lady ? Does the Tathagata exist after 
death 

‘ That the Tathagata exists after death, maharajah, is not 
revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ How say you, lady ? So the Tathagata does not exist 
after death.’ 

‘ That also, maharajah, is not revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ What then, lady ? Does the Tathagata both exist and 
not exist after death ?’ 

‘ That also, maharajah, is not revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ Then, lady, the Tathagata neither exists nor not-exists 
after death.’ 

‘ That also, maharajah, is not revealed by the Exalted 
One.’ 

‘ How then, lady ? When asked, “ Does the Tathagata 
exist after death ?” you reply, “ That is not revealed by the 
Exalted One,” and, when I ask . . . the other questions, 
you make the same reply. Pray, lady, what is the reason, 
what is the cause why this thing is not revealed by the Exalted 
One V 

‘ Now in this matter, maharajah, I \vill question you. Do 
you reply as you think fit. Now how say you, maharajah 1 


^ Citta-kathl. 

® For this stock question see K.S. ii, 150; iii, 93 ff., 172. 



267 


XLiv, X, § i] Sayings about the Unrevealed 

Have you some accountant, some ready -reckoner or calculator,^ 
able to coimt the sand in Ganges, thus: There are so many 
hundred grains, or so many thousand grains, or so many 
hundreds of thousands of grains of sand V 

‘ No indeed, lady.’ 

‘ Then have you some accountant, ready -reckoner or 
calculator, able to reckon the water in the mighty ocean, 
thus : There are so many gallons^ of water, so many hundred, 
so many thousand, so many hundreds of thousand gallons 
of water V 

‘ No indeed, lady.’ 

‘ How is that V 

‘ Mighty is the ocean, lady, deep, boundless, imfathom- 
able.’3 

‘ Even so, maharajah, if one should try to define the Tatha- 
gata by his bodily form, that bodily form of the Tathagata 
is abandoned, cut down at the root, made like a palm-tree 
stump, made something that is not, made of a nature not to 
spring up again in future time. Set free from reckoning as 
body, maharajah, is the Tathagata. He is deep, boundless, 
unfathomable, just like the mighty ocean. To say, “ The 
Tathagata exists after death,” does not apply.'* To say, “ The 
Tathagata exists not after death,” does not apply. To say, 
“ The Tathagata both exists and exists not, neither exists nor 
not-exists after death,” does not apply. 


1 Oanaka, muddika, sankhdyaka. Expl. by Corny, (here and) on D. 
i, 51. He says of them: (a) A faultless reckoner. (6) One skilled in 
interpreting finger- signs (is this palmistry or counting on the fingers ?). 
(c) A reckoner of groups of numbers. Rhys Davids trans. (6) ' convey- 
ancer.’ Is it ‘a reader of symbolic gestures ’ ? See in this comiexion 
Bhikkhu Nanatiloka’s Die Fragen des Milindo (Leipzig), note to p. 289, 
which supports this view. See Uddna Corny., 205, on TJd. iii, 9. where 
these arts are reckoned among the sippdni, arts and sciences. As an 
example: ‘ On looking at a tree one could tell at a glance the number 
of leaves on it.’ 

2 Alhaka, a measure. Four pallhd ^^ono dlhaka: four dlhakd^ one 
dona (cauldron or trough). 

^ Gambhira. ‘ 84,000 yepanas in depth.’ Corny. 

* Na upeti — ^ m yujjati {haud idoneum).’ Corny. 



268 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 377 

If one should try to define the Tathagata by feeling, — that 
feeling of the Tathagata is abandoned, cut down at the root. 
. . . Set free from reckoning as feeling is the Tathagata, 
maharajah, deep, boimdless, unfathomable like the mighty 
ocean. To say, “ The Tathagata exists after death . . . exists 
not after death,” does not apply. 

So also if one should try to define the Tathagata by per- 
ception, by the activities, by consciousness ... set free 
from reckoning by consciousness is the Tathagata, maharajah, 
deep, boundless, unfathomable as the mighty ocean. To 
say, “ The Tathagata exists after death . . . exists not after 
death,” does not apply.’ 

Then the rajah Pasenadi of Kosala was delighted with the 
words of the sister Khema, and took pleasure therein. And 
he rose from his seat, saluted her by the right and went away. 

Now on another occasion the rajah . . . went to visit the 
Exalted One, and on coming to him saluted him and sat down 
at one side. So seated he said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ Pray, lord, does the Tathagata exist after death V 

‘ Not revealed by me, maharajah, is this matter.’ 

‘ Then, lord, the Tathagata does not exist after death.’ 

‘ That also, maharajah, is not revealed by me.’ 

{He then asks the other questions and gets the same reply.) 

‘ How then, lord ? When I ask the question, “ Does the 
Tathagata exist ? . . . does he not exist after death ?” you 
reply, “It is not revealed by me.” Pray, lord, what is the 
reason, what is the cause why this thing is not revealed by the 
Exalted One V 

‘ Now, maharajah, I will question you. Do you reply as 
you think fit. Now what say you, maharajah ? Have you 
some accountant . . .’ {the rest is exactly as before). 

‘ Wonderful, lord ! Strange it is, lord, how the explanation 
both of Master and disciple, both in spirit and in letter, will 
agree, will harmonize, will not be inconsistent, — tliat is, in 
any word about the highest. 

On a certain occasion, lord, I went to visit the sister Khema, 
and asked her the meaning of this matter, and she gave me 
the meaning in the very words, in the very syllables used by 



269 


xLiv, X, §2] Sayings about the Unrevealed 

the Exalted One. Wonderful, lord ! Strange it is, lord, 
how the explanation both of Master and disciple will agree, 
will harmonize, in spirit and in letter, how they will not be 
inconsistent,^ — that is, in any word about the highest.- 

Well, lord, now we must be going. We are busy folk. We 
have many things to do.’ 

‘ Do now what you think it time for, maharajah.’ 

Thereupon the rajah Pasenadi of Kosala was delighted 
with the words of the Exalted One and welcomed them. 
And he rose from his seat, saluted the Exalted One by the 
right and went away. 

§ 2. Anuradlia? 

Thus have I heard : Once the Exalted One was staying near 
Vesali, in Great Grove, at the Hall of the Gabled House. 

At that time the venerable Anuradha was staying not far 
from the Exalted One in a forest hut. 

Then a number of heretical Wanderers came to visit the 
venerable Anxiradha, greeted him and exchanged the courtesies 
of civil words and sat down at one side. So seated, those 
heretical Wanderers said to the venerable Anuradha: — 

‘ Friend Anuradha, a Tathagata, a superman, one of the best 
of men, a winner of the highest winning, is proclaimed in (one 
of) these four ways: “A Tathagata exists after death, or he 
does not exist after death, or he both does and does not exist 
after death, or he neither exists nor not-exists after death.” ’ 

Upon this the venerable Anuradha said to those heretical 
Wanderers : — 

‘ Friends, a Tathagata, a superman, one of the best of men, 
a winner of the highest gain, is spoken of in other than those 
four ways, to wit: “ He exists . . . exists not after death.” ’ 

Upon this those heretical Wanderers said of the venerable 
AnurMha : ‘ This brother must be a novice, not long ordained. 
Or, if he is an elder, he is an ignorant fool.’ 

1 The passage occurs at ^1. v, 320. Text and Comij. differ Iiero. 
See Appendix for a discussion of the reading. 

2 Agga-pa(kismhj. AA. on A. v. 320, ‘= iiihbrme.’ 

3 As at K.S. iii, 99 ff. 



270 


The Saldyatana Booh [text iv. 381 

So those heretical Wanderers, having thus abused the 
venerable Anuradha, by calling him ‘ novice ’ and ‘ fool,’ 
rose up and went away. 

Thereupon the venerable Anuradha, not long after those 
heretical Wanderers were gone, thought thus : ‘ If these 
heretical Wanderers were to put me a further question, how, 
in answering, should I tell them the views of the Exalted One 
without misrepresenting the Exalted One by stating an 
untruth 1 How should I answer in accordance with his 
teaching, so that no one who agrees with his teaching and 
follows his views might incur reproach V 

Thereupon the venerable Anuradha went to the Exalted 
One and sat down at one side. So seated the venerable 
Anuradha thus addressed the Exalted One : — 

‘ I am staying here, lord, in a forest hut not far from the 
Exalted One. Now a number of heretical Wanderers came 
to me . . . and said this: “Friend Anuradha, a Tathagata, 
a superman, one of the best of men, a winner of the highest 
winning, is proclaimed in (one of) these four ways: ‘ A Tatha- 
gata exists after death : or he exists not after death : or he both 
exists and exists not after death : or he neither exists nor not- 
exists after death.’ ” Whereupon, lord, I said to those 
heretical Wanderers : “ Friends, a Tathagata is spoken of in 
other than these foiu ways.” 

Whereupon, lord, those heretical Wanderers said of me: 
“ This brother must be a novice, not long ordained. Or, if 
he be an elder, he is an ignorant fool.” 

Thereupon, lord, those heretical Wanderers, after abusing 
me by calling me a novice and an ignorant fool, rose up and 
went away. Not long after they had gone, lord, the thought 
occiured to me: “If these heretical Wanderers were to put 
me another question, how, in answering, should I tell them 
the views of the Exalted One without misrepresenting the 
Exalted One by stating an untruth ? How should I answer 
in accordance with his teaching, so that no one who agrees 
with his teaching and follows his views might incur reproach ?” ’ 

‘ Now what think you, Amuadha ? Is body permanent or 
impermanent ?’ 



271 


xLiv, X, § 2] Sayings about the Unreveakd 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ What is impermanent, is that weal or woe V 

‘ Woe, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent, what is woe, what is of a nature 
to change, — is it proper to regard that thus: “ This is mine. 
This am I. This is my self ” ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Is feeling permanent or impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘Is perception . . . are the activities ... is conscious- 
ness permanent or impermanent V 

‘ Impermanent, lord.’ 

‘ Now what is impermanent ... is it proper to regard that 
thus: “ This is mine. This am I. This is my self ” V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Therefore, Anuxadha, whatsoever body, be it past, future 
or present, inward or outward, subtle or gross, low or high, 
far or near, — every body should be regarded, as it really is, 
by perfect insight, thus : “ This is not mine. This am not I. 
This is not my self.” Whatsoever feelings . . . whatsoever 
perception . . . whatsoever activities . . . whatsoever con- 
sciousness, be it past, future or present, inward or outward 
. . . should be so regarded, as it really is, by right insight. 

80 seeing, Anuradha, the well-taught Ariyan disciple feels 
aversion from body, from feeling, from perception, from the 
activities, from consciousness. So feeling, he is dispassionate. 
By dispassion he is set free. By freedom comes the know- 
ledge that he is free. So that he knows: “ Ended is birth, 
lived is the righteous life, done is the task, for life in such 
conditions there is no hereafter.” 

Now what say you, Anuradha ? Do you regard a Tatha- 
gata’s body as the Tathagata V 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Do you regard him as (his) feeling, (his) perception, (his) 
activities or apart from them ? As (his) consciousness or as 
apart from it ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Now how say you, Anuradha ? Do you regard him as 



272 The Salayatana Book [text iv, 383 

having no body, no feeling, no perception, no activities, no 
consciousness V 
‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Then, Anuradha, since in just this life a Tathagata is not 
met with in truth, in reality,^ is it proper for you to pronounce 
this of him: “ Friends, he who is a Tathagata, a superman, 
one of the best of beings, a winner of the highest gain, is 
proclaimed in other than these four ways: ‘The Tathagata 
exists after death ... lie neither exists nor not-exi.sts after 
death’” V 
‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Well said ! Well said, Anuradha ! Both formerly and 
now also, Anuradha, it is just sorrow and the ceasing of sorrow 
that I proclaim.’ 


§ 3. Sdripittla and KoUMta- (or ‘ vieived ’). 

Once the venerable Sariputta and the venerable Kotthita 
the Great were staying at Benares, in Isijiatana, at Antelope 
Wood. 

Now the venerable Kotthita the Great, rising at eventide 
from his solitary meditation, came to see the venerable 
Sariputta, and on coming to him, after the exchange of 
friendly greetings and the compliments of courtesy,"’’ sat down 
at one side. So seated the venerable Kotthita the Great 
said : — 

‘ How now, friend Sariputta ? Does the Tathagata exist 
after death V 

‘ This is unrevealed by the Exalted One, friend.’ 

(As in previous sections.) 


^ The phra.se adopted in the Kathd-vatIftU (Points of Controversy) I, 1 . 
2 See A'.S'. ii, 7t) and ii. At A'.A'. iii, 143-50 the .same couple discuss 
matters. Our te.xt reads Kottliika. The .sub-title (■jMcjiitay) maj' refer 
to rupa- etc. -gat-wj of the text; I cannot find the word elsewhere. 
(The UddCiJM or summary at the end of text, vol. iv, has paganriy ['i].) 

^ For this oft-recurring phrase see Corny, on «S'. i, 67 (K.S. i, 92): 
‘ Such as mutual inquirie.s after health, etc. By all such a pleasant 
even cuirent i.s .set flowing, as of blended hot and cold streanjs of vatcr.’ 



xLiv, X, § 4] Sayings about the Unrevealed 273 

‘ . What is the reason, friend, that is the cause why this 
thing is not revealed by the Exalted One V 

‘ To hold, friend, that the Tathagata exists after death is to 
view the Tathagata as body^ . . . and so on of the other 
alternatives. To hold that the Tathagata exists after death 
is to view the Tathagata as feeling ... as perception . . . 
as the activities ... as consciousness, and so of the other 
alternatives; that is, that he exists not, that he both exists 
and not-exists, that he neither exists nor not-exists. That, 
friend, is the reason, that is the cause why this thing is not 
revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

§ 4. Sdriputta and Kotlhita (ii) (or ‘ arising ’). 

Once the venerable Sariputta and the venerable Kotthita 
the Great were staying at Benares, in Isipatana, in Antelope 

Wood. . . . 

{Text here abbreviates by pe the whole of the questions and 
answers of the last section, and contimies : — ) 

‘ But, friend, what is the reason, what is the cause why this 
is not revealed by the Exalted One V 

‘ By not knowing, friend, by not seeing body as it really is : 
by not knowing, by not seeing the arising of body as it really 
is: by not knowing . . . the ceasing of body and the way 
that goes to the ceasing of body, as they really are, one holds 
the view: “ The Tathagata exists after death, exists not, both 
exists and exists not, neither exists nor not-exists after 
death.” 

By not knowing, by not seeing, as it really is, feeling . . . 
perception . . . the activities . . . consciousness . . . one 
holds the view . . . 

But by knowing, friend, by seeing, as it really is, the arising 
of body, the ceasing of body, and the way that goes to the 
ceasing of body . . . this view does not occur. 

So also by knowing, by seeing, as they really are, 
feeling . . . perception . . . the activities . . . conscious- 


IV 


1 Rapa-gatai] etaij, lit. ' this is gone to body. 


18 



274 The Salayatana Boole [text iv, 387 

ness . . . one does not hold these views about the Tatha- 
gata. 

That, friend, is the reason, that is the cause why this thing 
is not revealed hy the Tathagata.’ ^ 

§ 5. Sdrifutta and Kotthita (iii) (or ‘ affection ’). 

Once the venerable Sariputta and the venerable Kotthita 
the Great were staying at Benares, in Isipatana, in Antelope 

Wood. . . . 

{Text abbreviates the same discussion as above, and con- 
tinues : — ) 

‘ But what, friend, is the reason, what is the cause why this 
is not revealed by the Tathagata V 

‘ When one has not abandoned passion for body, friend, 
when one has not abandoned desire . . . affection . . . thirst 
, . . feverish longing . . . when one has not abandoned 
craving for body, one holds the view that the Tathagata 
exists, exists not, both exists and not-exists, neither exists 
nor not-exists after death. 

Likewise when one has not abandoned passion ... for 
feeling ... for perception, for the activities, for conscious- 
ness . . . such views do not exist for him. 

That, friend, is the reason, that is the cause why the 
Exalted One has not revealed this thing.’ 


§ 6. Sdrip^itta and Kotthita (iv) (or ‘ Delight ’). 

{The same as in § 3 uf to : — ) 

‘ But what, friend, is the reason, what is the cause why 
this is not revealed by the Exalted One V 

^ It is to bo remembered that Tathagata is defined by the Corny, here 
and elsewhere as equivalent to mlta, any being. The question is that 
common to all, ‘IVhat becomes of us after death?’ not only ‘What 
becomes of the Tathagata (as Buddha) ?’ There are many passages, 
however, where the Master refers to himself in this connexion. At 
the UdCuia Corny., p. 340, Tathagata =aUd, ‘the self.’ At M. i, 338 it 
= .a Saint. See Brethren, 71 . i; K.S, in, 95 n. Perhaps ‘ liberated 
being ’ is the best term for general use 



xLiv, X, §6] Sayings about the Unrevealed 


275 


1 . 

‘ For one who delights in body, who enjoys body, rejoices 
in body, who knows not, who sees not, as it really is, the 
ceasing of body, there is the view that a Tathagata exists after 
death . . . that he neither exists nor not-exists after death. 

For one who delights in feeling, rejoices in feeling, who knows 
not, who sees not, as it really is, the ceasing of feeling . . . 
for one who delights in perception ... in the activities . . . 
in consciousness, who knows not, who sees not, as it really is, 
the ceasing of consciousness . . . such views exist. But 
when he no longer delights in body ... in consciousness, 
those views do not exist. 

That, friend, is the reason, that is the cause why this thing 
is not revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

2 . 

‘ But, friend, can there be any other way of showing how 
this is not revealed by the Exalted One 1’ 

‘ There can, friend. He who delights in becoming, enjoys 
becoming, rejoices in becoming, who knows not, who sees not, 
as it really is, the ceasing of becoming, — for him such views 
exist. But for him who delights not in, enjoys not, rejoices 
not in becoming . . . such views do not exist. That, friend, 
is another way of showing how this was not revealed by the 
Exalted One.’ 

3. 

‘ But can there be, friend, any other way of showing how 
this is not revealed by the Exalted One ?’ 

‘ There can, friend. He who delights in grasping . . . ’ (as 
before). 

4. 

‘ But can there be, friend, any other way . . . ?’ 

‘ There can, friend. He who delights in craving, enjoys 
craving, rejoices in craving ... for him such views exist. 
But when he no longer delights in craving . . . such views do 
not exist. That, friend, is another way . . .’ 



276 


The Saldyatana Book [text iv, 391 


5. 

‘ But can there be, friend, any other way of showing 

‘ Kow, friend Sariputta, why do you want any further 
explanation ? For a brother who is freed, friend Sariputta, 
by the destruction of craving, there is nothing more left 
to point to as a growing.’^ 

§ 7. Moggalldna or ‘ sphere.’ 

Then the Wanderer, Vacchagotta,^ came to visit Mog- 
gallana the Great, and on coming to him greeted him 
courteously, and after the exchange of civilities sat down at 
one side. So seated, the Wanderer, Vacchagotta, said to the 
venerable Moggallana the Great: — 

‘ How say you, master Moggallana ? Is the world eternal V 

‘ This is not revealed by the Exalted One, Vaccha.’ 

‘ How then, master Moggallana. Is the world not eternal, 
then V 

‘ This too, Vaccha, is not revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ Then is the world finite, master Moggallana V 

‘ That too, Vaccha, is not revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ Then, master Moggallana, is the world infinite ?’ 

‘ That too, Vaccha, is not revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

‘ How say you, master Moggallana ? Is life® the same as 
body V 

‘ That is not revealed by the Exalted One, Vaccha.’ 

‘ How then, master Moggallana ? Is life one thing and 
body another V 

‘ That too, Vaccha, is not revmaled by the Exalted One.’ 

' Text has vaddhay n' (Ulhi parindjKimi/a, ‘to point to as growth.’ 
The Burmese lias rattay {lesay) n’ atthi p., as at S. iii, 59 {K.S. iii, 52, 
where see note). Cf. S. i, 16 (K.S. i, 23 n.). There is, however, a 
v.l. valtay. Corny, is silent here, hut on loc. cit. above takes vattay 
as the wheel of existence or as cause, lit. ‘ going on.’ 

^ At 8. iii, 257-63 (K.S. iii, 203), ‘The wanderer of the Vaccha clan ’ 
asks the same questions of the Buddha, who replies that through 
ignorance of body, its arising, its ceasing and the way of its ceasing, 
these opinions arise. 

^ Jiva. 



XLiv, X, § 7 ] Sayvnga about the Unrevealed 277 

‘ Then tell me this, master Moggallana. Does the Tatha- 
gata exist after death V 

‘ That, Vaccha, is not revealed by the Exalted One.’ 

{He then asks the same alternatives and gets the same reply 
as above.) 

‘ Now, master Moggallana, what is the reason, what is the 
cause why the Wanderers of other views, when questioned on 
these points, answer that the world is eternal, that it is not so, 
that the world is finite, that it is infinite and so on, whereas 
Gotama the recluse, when questioned thus, does not so reply V 

‘ The Wanderers of other views, Vaccha, regard the eye 
thus: “This is mine. This am I. This is my self.” They 
so regard the ear, the nose, the tongue, body and mind. That 
is why the Wanderers of other views, when thus questioned, 
thus reply. But, Vaccha, the Tathagata, the Arahant, the 
Fully Enlightened One, does not so regard eye, ear, nose 
and the rest. Therefore the Tathagata, when questioned, 
does not reply that the world is eternal and so forth.’ 

Thereupon the Wanderer Vacchagotta rose from his seat 
and went to see the Exalted One, and on coming to him 
saluted him courteously, and after the excliange of civilities 
sat down at one side. So seated the Wanderer Vacchagotta 
said to the Exalted One: — 

‘ How now, master Gotama 1 Is the world eternal V 

‘ It is not revealed, Vaccha, that the world is eternal.’ 

{Vaccha asks the same questions as before.) 

‘ What then, master Gotama, is the reason, what is the 
cause why the Wanderers of other views, when questioned on 
these matters, answer that the world is eternal or is not 
eternal, and so forth ? Why does master Gotama when so 
questioned not so reply V 

‘ The Wanderers of other views, Vaccha, regard the eye 
thus: “ This is mine. This am I. This is my self.” They so 
regard the ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. That is why, 
when questioned thus, they thus reply. But the Tathagata, 
Vaccha, the Arahant, who is a Fully Enlightened One, does 
not so regard the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. 
Therefore when questioned on these matters he does not reply 



278 


The Saldyatana Booh [text iv, 394 

that the world is eternal or not eternal, and so forth, or say 
whether or no the Tathagata exists after death.’ 

‘ Wonderful, master Gotama ! Strange it is, master 
Gotama, how the explanation both of Master and disciple, 
both in spirit and in letter, can agree, can harmonize, cannot 
be inconsistent, that is, as regards any essential phrase. 

Now, master Gotama, I went to visit the venerable Mog- 
gallana the Great, and I asked him this same thing, and he 
replied to me in the very same words and syllables as the 
worthy Gotama. Wonderful, master Gotama ! Strange it 
is, master Gotama, how the explanation both of master and 
disciple, both in spirit and in letter, will agree, will harmonize, 
will not suffer loss,^ that is, in any word about the highest.’ 

§ 8. Vaccha (or ‘ bond ’). 

Then the Wanderer Vacchagotta came to visit the Exalted 
One . . . and said: — 

‘ Pray, master Gotama, is the world eternal ? ... (as be- 
Jore). . . . What is the reason, what is the cause why master 
Gotama, when so questioned, does not reply that the world is 
eternal and so forth V 

‘ The Wanderers of other views, Vaccha, regard the body as 
the self regard the self as having body, body as being in the 
self, or the self as being in the body. 

They regard feeling as the self . . . they regard perception 
. . . the activities . . . they regard consciousness as the self, 
regard the self as having consciousness, or consciousness as 
being in the self, or the self as being in the consciousness. 
Therefore the Wanderers of other views, when questioned 
thus, reply that the world is eternal or not eternal and so forth. 
But the Tathagata, Vaccha, the Arahant, who is a Fully 
Enlightened One, does not regard body as the self, nor the self 
as having body, nor body as being in the self, nor the self as 
being in the body. He does not so regard feeling . . . per- 
ception . . . the activities or consciousness. Therefore when 
questioned on these things he does not reply that the world 

‘ Vihayiasali. Cf. supra, p. 269. * Cf. K.8. iii, 3. 



xLiv, X, § 9 ] Sayings about the Unrevealed 279 

is eternal and so forth ... or say whether the Tathagata 
exists after death or does not exist after death.’ 

Thereupon the Wanderer Vacchagotta rose from his seat 
and went to see the venerable Moggallana the Great . . . 
and said: — 

‘ How now, master Moggallana ? Is the world eternal ?’ 

(The same questions and answers as before.) 

‘ Wonderful, master Moggallana ! Strange it is, master 
Moggallana, how the explanation both of master and of disciple, 
both in spirit and in letter, will agree, will harmonize, will not 
suffer loss, that is, in any word about the highest. 

Just now, master Moggallana, I went to Gotama the recluse, 
and asked the meaning of this, and Gotama the recluse replied 
to me in the very same words and syllables as the master 
Bloggallana. Wonderful it is ! Strange it is, master Mog- 
gallana, how the explanation . . . will not sillier loss, that 
is, in any word about the highest.’ 

§ 9. The Debating HalU 

Then the Wanderer Vacchagotta went to visit the Exalted 
One, and on coming to him saluted him courteously, anti after 
the exchange of courtesies sat down at one side. So seated 
he said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ Master Gotama, some time ago, on some former occasions, 
when a number of sectarians of different views, both recluses 
and brahmins, who were Wanderers, had met together and 
were sitting in the Debating Hall, this topic of talk arose : — 

“ Purana Kassapa^ here, who has a crowd of followers, 
who is teacher of a crowd, a well-known and famous founder 
of theories,^ one in high repute among the mauyfolk, when 
speaking of a disciple who had passed away, who had made 

1 KiUuhala-sdld. Corny, says it was a place where all sorts of sec- 
tarians met for debate. It was so called from the noise [kuluhala) that 
went on in debate, cries of ’ What says he ? M'hat says he V Cf. D. 
i, 179 (where see note to Dialog, i, 244); M. ii, 2. 

^ The six famous theorizers are referred to. 

^ Tittha-kara, lit. ‘ford-maker,’ one who purposes to show the way, 
or ford, or landing-place to salvation. Cf. K.S. i, 93 n. In a bad 
sense it usually = a quack. 



280 


The Salayatana Booh [text iv, 398 

an end, thus describes his rebirth : ‘ So and so is reborn thus 
and thus. So and so is reborn thus and thus.’ But if one of 
his disciples is a superman, one who has won the highest gain, 
when speaking of such a disciple who has passed away, who has 
made an end, he describes him in terms of rebirth : ‘ So and so 
is reborn thus and thus. So and so is reborn thus and thus.’ ” 

And in like manner they spoke of Makkhali of the Cowpen 
here, and Nata’s Son the Unclothed, and Sanjaya, Belatthi’s 
Son, also Kaccayana of the Pakuddhas and Ajita of the hair- 
cloth, — all of whom, with their crowd of followers . . . when 
speaking of a disciple who has passed away, made an end, . . . 
describe him in terms of rebirth thus: “ So and so is reborn 
thus and thus.” 

Xow Gotama the recluse, who has a crowd of followers, 
who is teacher of a crowd, who is a well-known and famous 
founder of theories, one in high repute among the manyfolk, 
when speaking of a disciple who has passed away, made an 
end, does not describe him in terms of rebirth, saying: “ So 
and so is reborn thus and thus.” But he describes him thus: 
“He has cut off craving. He has broken the bond. By 
perfect comprehension of conceit^ he has made an end of 111.” 

Of this matter, master Gotama, I had doubt and wavering, 
and I thought : How is the teaching of Gotama the recluse to 
be understood in this matter V 

‘ You may well doubt, Vaccha. You may well waver. 
Moreover, your wavering has arisen on a doubtful point. As 
to rebirth, Vaccha, I declare it to be for what has fuel, not 
for what is without fuel.^ 

Just as, Vaccha, a fire with fuel blazes up, but not without 
fuel,® even so, Vaccha, do I declare rebirth to be for what has 
fuel, not for what is without fuel.’ 

1 Cf. supra, xxxvi, § 2. 

2 For upddana, fuel, basis, grasping or attachment, see K.S. ii, 
early chapters. 

3 From Sn. 1074: Acci yatha vdla-vegcna Lhiilo 

Attlmr) inleli, na upeli sankhar/. 

where Com y. says, ‘ It goes to its end, it is not reckoned to have gone in 
this or that direction.’ 



281 


xLiv, X, § lo] Sayings about the Unrevealed 

‘ But, master Gotama, at tlie time when a flame, flung by 
the wind, goes a very long way,^ as to fuel what says the 
master Gotama about this V 

‘ At the time when a flame, Vaccha, flung by the wind goes 
a very long way, I declare that flame to be supported by the 
wind. At that time, Vaccha, the wind is its fuel.’ 

‘ But, master Gotama, at the time when a being lays aside 
this body and rises up again in another body, — what does 
master Gotama declare to be the fuel for that V 

‘ At the time, Vaccha, when a being lays aside this body and 
rises up again in another body, for that I declare craving to 
be the fuel. Indeed, Vaccha, craving is on that occasion 
the fuel.’ 2 ' . 


§ 10. Ananda {or 'The existence of the self’’’^). 

Then Vacchagotta the Wanderer went to visit the Exalted 
One^ . . . and said: — 

‘ Now, master Gotama, is there a self V 
At these words the Exalted One was silent. 

‘ How, then, master Gotama, is there not a self V 
For a second time also the Exalted One was silent. 

Then Vacchagotta the Wanderer rose from his seat and 
went away. 

Now not long after the departure of the Wanderer, the 
venerable Ananda said to the Exalted One : — 

‘ How is it, lord, that the Exalted One gave no answer to 
the question of the Wanderer Vacchagotta V 


1 Durampi. ‘ Even to the liome of the Radiant Do vas.' Corny. 

^ The Buddhist doctrine, that one is relxjrn by force of his last doniin- 
ant thought at the moment of death, either from this world or from 
another world. This thought is called cuti-citla (decease thought). 
Hence on his death-bed a man is urged by Ins friends and relatives 
to fix his thoughts on profitable things, in order to be reborn accordantly. 
See the death-bed scene of Citta {■‘tvpm). The kliiuasava or Arahant, 
having no ujHidana (fuel or grasping), has no thought attaching him 
to any object {kiucunu). so his llanie lliekers out for want of fuel. 

“ AllV attCi. 

' Fill in as in § 9. 



282 


The Salayatana Book • [text iv, 40 

‘If, Ananda, when asked by the Wanderer: “Is there a 
self 1 ” I had replied to him: “ There is a self,” then, Ananda, 
that would be siding^ with the recluses and brahmins who 
are eternalists. 

But if, Ananda, when asked: “Is there not a self?” 
I had replied that it does not exist, that, Ananda, would 
be siding with those recluses and brahmins who are annihi- 
lationists. 

Again, Ananda, when asked by the Wanderer: “Is there a 
self ?” had I replied that there is, would my reply be in accord- 
ance with the knowledge^ that all things are impermanent ?’ 

‘ Surely not, lord.’ 

‘ Again, Ananda, when asked by Vacchagotta the Wanderer : 
“ Is there not a self?” had I replied that there is not, 
it wordd have been more bewilderment for the bewildered 
Vacchagotta. For he would have said: “ Formerly indeed I 
had a self, but now I have not one any more.” ’ 

§ 11 . Sabhiya? 

Once the venerable Sabhiya of the Kaccanas was staying at 
Natika in the Brick Hall. 

Then the Wanderer Vacchagotta went to visit the venerable 
Sabhiya, and on coming to him greeted him in friendly fashion, 
and after the exchange of civilities, sat down at one side. So 
seated the Wanderer Vacchagotta said to the venerable 
Sabhiya : — 

‘ How say you, master Kaccana ? ■* Does the Tathagata 
exist after death ?’ 

(The same as in previous sections.) 

^ Text has tesay etay saddhiy iihlmvissit, but Corny, roads laddhi 
bluivissati, explaining lestty clay laddhiyd saddhiy. I think Comy.’s 
reading preferable. 

2 Anulomay iidnassu. 

3 ty. Sn. pp. 91-102 (Sahliiya-siUta); K.S. hi, 7 n. Formerly a 
Wanderer, meeting the Ma.ster, he became converted and attained 
Arahantship. At Brethren, 177, one of his name is credited with the 
well-known verse of Vhamnutpada, 6, 312 : 

Pare ca mi vijdnanli ‘ mayam eltha yamCtmase.' 

* His clan-name, just as the Buddha is called by his clan-name 
‘ Gotama ’ by non-adherents. 



xLiv, X, §ii] Sayings about the Unrevealed 283 

‘ But, master Kaccana, what is the reason, what is the cause 
why this matter is not revealed by the Exalted One V 

‘ Now as to the reason, the grounds, for describing him as 
embodied or disembodied, as conscious or unconscious, as 
neither conscious nor unconscious, — if such reason, such 
grounds, should cease in every way, entirely, wholly, utterly 
and without remainder, by what definition could one describe 
him as embodied or disembodied, as conscious or unconscious, 
as neither conscious nor unconscious?’^ 

‘ How long have you been ordained, Kaccana ?’ 

‘ Not long, friend. Only three years.’ 

‘ It is indeed a great thing, friend, for one to know thus 
much in so short a time;^ not to speak of things abstruse.’® 


The Burmese MS. has the following : — 

Here ends the Book on the Sixfold Sphere. 

The Contents thereof are these: — 

The Sixfold Sphere, then Feeling, Womankind, 
Kose-apple Eater and Samapdaka, 

Then Moggallana, Citta, with the Headman, 

The Uncompounded, Umevealed, make ten, 

and 

Long may the River of the Conqueror’s Word, that springs 
from the Lord of the Ten Powers, that ends in the mighty 
ocean of Nibbana, whose waters are the Eightfold* Path, 
bear us on. 

The Book of the Sixfold Sphere. 


1 I.e., since the Tathagata, or any saint, in fact, at death undergoes 
asesa-mraga-nirodha (utter cessation of all that one can speak of), 
it is for lack of words that a definition is not given. 

2 Yassa, pi elag ettakena kdlem . . . kdranag bhaveyya. Corny. 

^ Abhikkante, lit. ‘in the going beyond’ or ‘far.’ Corny, chaitnd- 
katd (secret things). 



INDEX 


L— GENEEAL. 


Abandokkg, 8, 9, 15, 26, 137, 
148, 157, 170, 175, 252 
Abstentions, 225 
Acacia tree. 126 
Accidents, loo/. 

Accountant, 267 

Action (bittima) 85, (meritorious), 
208 n. 3. 

Activities (ceasing of), 146; (of 
body, speech, mind). 20l 
Adhering, 26. 54 
Afflicted [addha-hliutti), 11 
Aimless (contact), 203 
Ajita. 250 280 

Ami a taka Grove, 190 n. 

Ananda, 21 n.; asks about the 
world, 28 ff.', asks for teach- 
ing, 29; teaches brethren. 
58; — Ghosita, 71; — Udayin, 
102 ff. ; asks about feelings. 
148 ff.’. overhears Five-tools 
and Udayin, 150 ff.; questions 
the Master about Vaccha, 281 
Anathapindika, his Park, 1, 64. 

179, 185." 2 13, 265 
Antelope Park (or Wood). 73, 101, 
273 

Anuradha, questioned bv heretics, 
269 

Anuruddha asks about women 
with the Master, 163 ff. 
Approach. 11, 171 /f., 178 
Arahants. 19, 33 n.. 37, 79, 80, 
82, 115. 186j/.,210,216,265j/.. 
281 ?!. 

Arahantship, defined, 170; attain- 
ment of, 176 

Arising, 103. 141, 157, 172 
Arivan, 2. 3, 19, 12, 14, 24, 29. 
52, 5!), 84. 95, i»8. 106, 138 /f., 
160, 168. 187 ff., 1 95 ; excellence, 
209, 241 ff. ; disciple, 252 


I Asavas, 11, 15, 25, 66, 80. 110, 
112, 146, 160; defined, 173. 200. 
205, 261 

Asceticism, censured, 234 ff., 241 
I Asibandhaka’s Son, questions the 
! Master about rebirth, 218 ff.; 
, about Norm - teaching, 221; 
about rebirth, 223; visits Nata’s 
Son, 228 
; Asuras, 133 
; Asura Town, 133 
1 Atman view, 14 n. 

Attachment, 16 
: Attention, 118, 131 
! Avanti, 72, 195 and ?i. 

! Batiiya. asks for teaching, 37 
Bait. 09 
Balaam, 203 n. 

Balance, 181 

Bamboo Grove, 11, 19. 70, 154 
BttJMi-prcaching, 117 ?i. 

Banyan Park, 116 
Banyan tree, 126 
Bari), or dart. 135, 139 
Barriers, of mind. 6. 7 
Being {bham, lit.: becoming), 174 
and /i., 275 ff. 

Being, a, 20 

Belatthi’s Son (Sahjaya), 280 
Benares, 101, 273 
Bent. 32, 126/f. 

Betti r, the, 54, 108 
Beyond (Xibbdnu), 98 
Bhadragaka (headman), 232 
I Bhaggi, 73 

! Bharadvaja (Pindola). 68 ff. 

, Bhesakala Grove. 73 
' Bile, 155//. 

Bimbisara, rajah. 91 n., 265 n. 
Bird, 131 
Blameless, 31 



Index 


Blameworthy, 237 ff. 

Blaze, of lust, etc., 10 
Blind Wood, 65 n. 

Bodhisat, 4, 60, 158 
Body, view of. 69; -mindfulness, 
256; delight in, 275 
Bondage, 17, 140 
Bondless, 199 
Border town, 126 
Brahmadatta, 124 n. 

Brahmajnla Snttania, 194 
Brahma’s foot, 74 
Brahmas, 5, 6, 98 
Brahma viliara, 204, 227, 

Brahmin {par excellence), 97, 109 
Brahmini, l%ff. 

Brahmins, 5, 6; habits of, 74 ff., 
218 (-see Recluses and) 
Breathing, 146, 201 
Brick Hall. 55, 282 
Brief teaching, 29, 42, etc. 

Broad water, 109 
Buddhas, 28; Metteyya, 60 n. 
Burnouf, 36 n. 

Calm, 32, 46, 127, 254, 256 
Calmings, 146, 149 
Candana, dovaputta, 189 
Cankers {see Asavas) 

Car, 111; of body, 199 
Carnal, feelings, 147 ff.x taint, 
159 

Cave of shelter {see Refuge) 
Ceasing, 7, 34; without remainder, 
103 ; of activities is gradual, 148, 
149, 154; of feelings, 1,57; of 
sense-sphere, 172, 201 
Channa, suicide of, 30 ff. 
Charioteer, 111; the Buddha, 
187#., 225 
Charred stump, 126 
Ciravasi, 233 
Citta, housefather, 190#. 
Clairvoyance, 163 n. 

Clansmen (formula), 19, 33, 45; 
consideration for, 228; w’astrcl 
of, 230 

Clinging, 32, etc. 

Collected, 142 ff. 

Co-matos,, 59 
Comfort, 22 n.. 172 
Comparisons, 54 
Composure, 47, 142#. 
Compounded, 144 
Comprehension, 9, 16, 172, 175 
Conceits, 11, 12, 37, 38, 134 


I Concentration. 48, 92, 136; void, 
I 257 

! Conditions, 167 ,# 

, Conformity. 176, 231. 244 
; Conqueror, 45. 48#.. 120 
I Conscience, 24 

. Consciousness, 32; due to a triad, 
39; without the self. 103; lord 
, of body, 127 ; iniinite, 201 
' Contacts' 11. 16, 22, 39, 71, 144 
! (appropriate); threefold. 203 
I Control, 63, 69 
! Controlling forces. 258 
Cool Grove, 20 
Co-resident. 86 
Coveting. 64, 69. 112, 2,52 
Craving, 17, 50. 139; def. 174; eq. 

to stream, 200, 275; as fuel, 281 
Crests, 245 
Crocodile. 131 
Crocodile Haunt. 73 
! Crossed over. 110 
I Crossways, 111 

' Cuuda, the Great, visits Channa. 

I 30, 32 

Dark M'ood (Blind Wood). 65 
Dart (barb). 37. 135 
Dead man, 202, 218#. 

; Death. 99; decay and. 7. 8 
Deathless. 262 
Debating Hall, 279 
Dejection. 64. 69 

Delight, 46; delight in, 7, 110, 
176. 275 

Deliverances (three). 203 n. 

■ Demons, 97 
Dependence, 15. 50#., 62 
Desire, 93 ff. ; as root of 111, 234 

■ Destniction. 52, 91. 140. 263 

' Details, 110 ' 

Devas, 65. 114. 133; Court of 
Righteousness of. 1 33 ; 1 hirty- 
Three. 18.5; and mankii d. 5. 
81, 98; fairies, 210; laughing, 
215; of pa.ssionate dcliiht. 216 
; Devatas, 6.5, 186 and >i. 

’ Dice-throwing, 253 
I Disciples. Order of, 187 ff.: grades 
; of. 221 

; Discipline, the, 22; and Doctrine, 

’ 78; respect for. 79 

. Disembodied (arilpT). 1.34 
. Diversity (in elements), 7 1 , 1 92 #. ; 

! of contact, 73. 182 
, Dog. 131 



286 


Index 


Door of faculties. 63, 69, 110, 112 
Downfall, the, 98, 163, 246 
Drug-immune, 83, 137, 147 
Duality, 38 if., 101 ff. 

Dukkha and Sukha, 82 
Dwelling, alone and with a mate, 

n# 

Earnest. 46 Jf. 

Ease, 47, 179 

Effective power, see ‘ Magic ’ 
Efforts, four best, 257 
Egoism, 201 
Eightfold method, 149 
Eightfold Path (Arivan), 85, 127, 
148, 157, 170 ff., 17.5, 177, 235, 
258 

Elements, 12, 50, 71, 127; diver- 
sity in, 192 ff. 

Elephant Town, 67 
Emancipation, 25, 76, 118, 131 
Embodied, 134, 283 
Enamoured, 17 

Equanimity, 181 ; see Brahma- 
vihara 

Escape, 4 ff., 157, 172 
Essential (‘ pith ’), 164 
Essentials, four great, 125 ff., 199 
Eternalists, 282 
Evil One. 99, 134 
Excellences (ten) of devas, 188 
Exertion to attain, 202 
Exhausting, 12 
Existence, factors of, 12 
External, 2 ff. 

Eye (the other factors tvill be found 
under these references), as 111, 
impermanent, void of the self, 
1 ff.; satisfaction, misery of, 
escape from, 416 ff.; as action, 
85; Buddha-, 102; and object, 
103 ; as hook, 99 : range of, 99 ff. ; 
to see the past, 28, 29, 37 ; as 
ocean, 97 ff.; and bondage, 
101; -consciousness, 16, 32; of 
wisdom, 191; should be seared 
and pierced, 104 ff. 

Factors (of existence), 12, 38; of 
grasping, 125, 175; of wisdom, 
260 

Faculties, 63, 69, 89, 111 
Faith, 169; (formula of) in B. and 
Order, 186 jjf., 211 //., 259 
Falling back, 47 
Faultless, 199 


Feelings, diversity of, 73; three- 
fold, 136 ff., 142 ff., 149, 173; 
twofold, etc., 156 
Fetters, 15, 45, 55, 66, 123, 190 
Fighting-man (trainer), 216 
Finger-reckoning, 267 n. 

Fire, 10; -discourse, 104 
j Fisherman, 79 
Five-crest, 62 

' Fivefold, bondage of senses, 134; 

-guilty deed. 164; -powers of 
I women, 165 ff.; conditions, 167; 
I -person-pack, 271 
; Five-tools (carpenter), consults 
tJdayin, 149 
Flesh, lump of, 126 
Floods, four, def., 174 
Forest-dweller, 17 (see pantdni) 
j Four ways, 127 
Freedom, 62, 67, 73, 91, 106 
Fuel (updddna), 280 

Gallons, 267 
Gandharva, 62 

Ganges, 113 ff., 124, 177, 261 ff., 
267 

Gaya, 10 

Gaya Head. 10 

Gestures, 267 

Ghosita, 71 

Ghosita Park, 68, 102 

Goal, the. 21, 263 

Godatta, taught by Citta, 203 ff. 

Going forth (pahbajja), 176 

Going out, 8 

Gold, etc., acceptance of, 267 
Gotama the Recluse, 87, 154, 172, 
228, 234, 244, 280 
Gotamas (clan). 117 
Grasping (updddna), 11, 25, 66, 
90; def., 174, 275 
Growth, 164 
Great Wood, 66, 142 
Guard of sense-organs, 40 ff. 
Guest-house, 147 

Habitual, 224 

Haliddaka (housefather), 72 
Happy Lot, 167. 186, 219, 253 
Happy One (lit. Well-gone), 42, 82 
Hand and foot, 107 
Hatred, 148, 171, 206 
Headmen, 213 ff. 

Heat, 145, 197;' vital, 202 
Heaven-world, 167, 186 ff., 219. 
253 



Ivtdex 


287 


Heedless, 46j5f. 

Hell and heaven. 81 

Highest (agga), 269, 278 

Hindrances, live, 179 n.. 205 and n. 

Hirelings, 245 

Holy life, 27, 98 

Hook, hook-breaker, etc., 99 

Housefathers, 66 ff., 209 

Household life, 114 

Human and non-human, 113 ff. 

Humours of body, loiSff. 

Hundred and eight, method of 
the, 154 jJ. 

Ignorance, 15, 26, 98; def., 173 
111, 27; delight in, 7; arising and 
end of, 22, 32, 43, 52, 232; as, 
impermanence, 1, 96; states of 
121 ff.; as experience, 145; 
comprehension of, 172; under- 
standing and ceasing of, 173 
Ulusion, 148, 171, 206 
Hl-will, 10 

Imaginings (vain), 105, 135 
Immediate use, 21 
Impermanence, 13, 23, 39, 52, 65, 
84, 91 ff., 144, 157, 210, 230, 271 
Imposthume, 50, ISiff. 

Impulse {vega), 98 
Indifference, 159 
Infatuation, 10, 17 
Infinite (space), 182; conscious- 
ness, 183 

Injury (eight reasons for), 230 
Insight, 2, 5, 88; fuUy purified, 
124#., 127, 158 
Instabihty, 4, 81 
Investigation, 130, 259 
Iron, pin, spike, claw, razor, 
104# 

Isidatta, meets Citta, 192 ff. 
Isipatana, 101, 273 
Island {see Refuge) 

Jackal, 112, 131 
Jains, 106 n., 207 n. 
.Jarabukhadaka (rose-apple eater). 
Wanderer, visits Sariputta, 170 
Jota Grove, 1, 179, 185, 213#., 265 
Jivaka’s Mango Grove, 91 ff. 

Joy, 46 

Judas tree, 124#. 

Kaccana (the Great), 72#., 195 n . ; 
Sabhiya, 282 

Kaccayana (Pakuddha), 280 


I Kakusandha (Buddha), 265 n. 
Kamabhu (consults Ananda), 102 ; 

-Citta, 199#. 

Kamandaya, 77 
Kapilavatthu, 116 
Karina (previous and ripe), 155#. ; 
see Action 

Kassapa (Buddha), 265 n. 

ICassapa (the Unclothed), con- 
verses with Citta, 208 
Kassapa, Purana, 279 
Khema (sister), teaches Pasenadi, 
265#. 

Kimbila (brother), 116 
Kindliness, see Brahmavihara 
Kindly, 213, 255 
Knife (of suicide), 31 
Knowledge (triple), 36, 158 
Koliyans, 2-14 

Konagamana (Buddha), 265 n. 
Kosalans, 228. 265 
KosambI, 68, 1 02, 1 13 and Append. 
Kotthika (or Kotthita), the Great; 
taught impermanence, 92 ; con- 
sults Sariputta, 101, 272#. 

Lamp, oil and wick, 143 
i Laughter, Purgatory of, 215 
i Laymen, 33 n. 

I Light (of wisdom), 158 
Lion-posture, 64, 111, 118 
Lohicca (brahmin), 73 (pron. 
-iccha) 

Lonely places. 85, 205 
Lore, versed in. 98, 137 
Lower life. 63. 123 
Lure, 17, 34, 91, 143 
i Lurking tendency, 15, 20, 137, 140 
; Lust, 10, 91, 98, 119, 128, 137, 
171, 200; as hindrance, 205 
Lustful. 118 

. Lute, and parts of, 129 ff. 

j 

j Macchikasanda, 190 ff. 

: Magadha, 170 

Magic power {iddhi), 179, 181 ff., 
228, 244 ff. ; bases of, 257 
Mahaka, works magic, 197 ff. 
Mahout (elephant-trainer), 218 
Makkarakata, 73 
Makkhali, 280 
Malice, 98, 128, 252 
Mallas, 232 
Malunkya’s Son, 42 ff. 
Manifestation, of decay and 
death, 7 



288 


Index 


Manyfolk, 128, 138, 195 
^Mara, 19, m ff., 83, 112, 118, 13-1 
Maras, 5ff., 98 
Marks, 185. 

Mastery (of activities), 1-16, 149 
Mate, 17 jf. 

Men of old, 74 
Mental balance. 160, 206 
Merits (ten). 208; of deeds. 
Messengers, 127 Jf. 

Method of insight, 88 j(/'. 

Middle Way, 235 
Midway, 32, ll'i Jf. 

Migaj’ala, IhjfjC. 

Migapathaka, 180 
Mind {see Eye); work of, 181 
Mindfulness, 80; weak, 123, 127, 
210; body-, 256; stations of, 257 
‘Mine,’ 11.22, 32, 130,277 
Misery, 4, 148; (of feelings) 157; 
of senses, 172 

Moderation (in eating), 63, 110 j(jf. 
Moggallana, teaches the Order, 
117 ; brethren, 179: visits Deva- 
world, 185 //. ; Questioned by 
Vaccha. 276//'. 

Monkey, 131 
Mote-hall, 116 

Nagasena, 155 n. 

Nakednes.s, 208 fj. 

Nakulapitar, housefather. 73 
Nalaka (village), 170 
Nalanda, 67. 218, 220, 223. 228 
Nanda, cowherd, 115 
Nata's Son, argues with Citta, 206; 
teaching of, 223; visited by’ 
.Asibandhaka’s ,Son, 228, 290 
Natika. 55, 282 
Neutral states, 86 
Nibbana, 43 j/., 86, 90. 110. 114; 
message of, 127; defined. 170, 
177, 235, 243 jf.. 253 «.. 263 v. 
Nigantha (Jain), 206 
Night, watches of. 111 
Norm, 21. 26. 51, 82 ff., 233; 
discourse, 106; eye of, 25; 
preacher. 89 /f., 171; teaching, 
56, 209; searcher of the, 141; 
exposition of, various forms of, 
151; discipline, 176, 209; refugo 
in the, 186 ff.: lovely in begin- 
ning, etc., 221 
Nothingness, 1 83. 205 
Not yours. 48 ff. 

. Novice, 23, 192, 269 


Objects, 2ff., 42 ff., 80/f.. 118, 151 ; 
as ocean, 98; lust for is a jungle, 
128 

I Obsession, 135 

I Ocean, 97 ff.; as abysm, 138; 
; unfathomable. 267 
■ One-pointedness, 80, 180 ff. 
Opinion, 174 (.see view and 
ditthi) 

Order, breaking the, 106; refuge 
in the, 186/f. 

Ordination, 115. 216. 283 
Origin (yoni). 110 
Osprev’s Haunt, 72 
Otherness, 39 


Padumuttara (Buddha). 265 n. 
Pain (see Feeling) 

Passion, 21 ; as disease, 37, 38 
Past time, 95 

Pataliya (headman), 244 ff. 

Path, 83; concentration. 65 n.; 

wrong or devious. 128 and n. 
Piuarika Mango Grove, 67, 218, 
220, 223. 228 
Pavilion, 191 

Peaked-Gable Hall. 66. 142 
Peg or post. 132 

Perception. 181 ff.; realm of, 184; 

as activity’ of mind. 201 
Permanence. 13. 23. 65 (.see Im- 
permanence) 

Persisting. 7 
Personal, 2, 21. 96, 107 
Person-pack (sakkdt/a). 93: dc- 
, fined, 175; cause of ditthi. 194 ff. 

I Phagguna, 28 
j Phenomena, 27 
I Phlegm, 155 ff. 

j Pindola (Bharadvaja), teaches the 
I rajah Udena. 68 ff. 

I Pity, see Brahma vi ha r.a 
Pleasance, 199 

Pleasant and unpleaiant, 73. 155 
Pleasure, as such, 1 54, 1 59 
! Police, 248//. 

Powers. 165 
Praiseworthy, 237 ff. 

Profitable .states, 47 
Proper (way'), 11 ; family’, 168 
[ Property, 148 
Pubbavijjhana (village). 33 
Punna, asks for teaching, 34 
Purgatory. 163; of laughter, 215; 
of quarrels, 217, 223, 246, etc. 



htde3> 


289 


Qualities, 164 jf. 

Quarrels, purgatory of, 216 
Quelling, 7 ff. 

Radha, asks for teaching, 25 
Raft, 209 

Rahula, given final teaching, 
Rajagaha, 11, 62, 70, 91, 154, 214, 
230 

Range (dpdtha), 100, 131 (gocara) 
Rasiya (headman), 234 
Ratthapala, 123 n. 

Realms, of consciousness, etc., 
153, 182 if. 

Rebirth, 7, 14, 41, 43; destruction 
formula. 2, 3, 10, 12, 19, 37, 
38, 45, 52. 89, 'Jiff., 104, 271 
Recluse. 114, 230 
Recluses and brahmin.s. 5, 98, 
154 ff.. 159, 244. 265, 282 
(eternalists) 

Refuge. 148; in B. Norm and 
Order. 186 ff'.; island, shelter, 
etc.. 222 

Resort (formula). 149 
Release. 5, 161; heart's. 204 
Remorseful. 226. 250, 264 
Repulsion. 6, 89 ; (repugnance), 
128, 137. 140 
Resentment. 213 
Resident pupils. 73, 86 ff'. 
Resistance (pafight), 153 n. 
Restraint, 47, and non-, 130, 148 
Rest-house. 250 

Righteous (holy) life, 68, 81, 111, 
114, 172 

Right understanding. 95 
Rightly seeing. 95 
Ripcnes.s. 65; (of karma), 155 
Rooted in. 139 
Root of 111, 49 ff. 

Rose-apple eater, 170 
Rotting inwardly, llSjJ. 

Round of rebirth, 41. 98 
Ruin, the. 98 (Downfall) 

Rule and ritual, 174 

Sabhiya (Kaccana), '2S2 ff. 

Sakka, asks for teaching, 61 ; 
addres.ses Devas. 133; visits 
Mogga liana, 186 if. 

Sakyas, 116; the Buddha as one, 
230 

Samiddhi, 19 
Sanjaya. 280 
Santusita, dem-putta, 189 


I Sap-tree, 99 

Sariputta. converses with Upa- 
sena, 20; visits Channa, 31 ff.; 
teaches a brother, 63; teaches 
Jambukhadaka, 170if. 1 Saman- 
I daka. 177 ; questioned by 
kotthika, 272 ff. 

Satisfaction, iff. 

Savatthl, 1, 4, 16, 23, 64, 65, 179, 
185, 265 

Savours, scents, sounds (see Eye) 
Scope, 39 (visaya) 

. Searing of sense-organs, 105 
Season (utu), loo ff. 

Sectarians, 18, 27 
Security, 51 

Self, 32; assertion of, 174; view 
of, 277; existemce of. 281 
Sense-sphere, 172 
Sensual elements, 56 ff., 151, 
159#. 

Service of the Master. 31 
Shampooing. 50 
Sharks, 97 

■ Shavelings, 73 
Shiva, 262 n. 

; Shoal, 113 

Shore (further). 109. 201 

■ Sick,23. 2.3, 142, 210 
Signs, distinctive, 2(»5 

: Signless (contact), 203; (concentra- 
tion), 2.57 

! Similes: — man with sword, 30; 
j butcher. 30; two strong men 
and charcoal pit, 31, 121; 

burning sticks from Jeta Grove. 
48, 83; palm-tree stump. 56, 
51, 171. 200. 205, 267; man 
searching for timber, 58, 104; 

; showing a light, 70. 79, 216. 

I 244, 2.55; raising the fallen, etc.. 

I 70, 79; ball of tangled thread. 

: 98; fisherman and hook, 99; 

! sap-tree. 100; two oxen yoked, 

i 1 01; four .snakes. 107; murder- 

i ous foes. 108; murderous house- 

i breaker, 108; village-plunderers, 

I 109; raft. 109; broad water, 

; 109; ear and driver at cross- 

( ways. 111; tortoise and jackal. 

1 12; log of wood in Ganges, 113: 

' thatched shed, 119; newly 

plastered house. 120; forest of 
I thorns, 122 : red-hot iron pot, 

I 123; otter of wealth to hhikkhu, 
i 123 ff.; attempt to divert the 

19 


rv 



290 


hidex 


Ganges, 124; judas-tree, 124; 
six-gated border-town, 126 jgf.; 
rajab and lute, 120 ff.-, corn- 
watcher and cow, 128 ff.-, six 
animals, 130 ff.-, sheaf of com 
and threshers, 132 ff.-, man 
pierced with barb, 139 ff'.; 
friction of sticks, 145; guest- 
house, 147 ff. ; black and white 
steers yoked, 191; rock thrown 
into water, 219; jar of oil or 
butter throrm into water, 220; 
farmer and three fields, 22 1 ; 
three waterpots, 222; conch- 
blower, 227 ; court-favourite, 
246jfjf. ; arrested criminal,247 j5f. ; 
tire and dame, 280 
Sivaka (Wanderer), consults the 
Master about karma, 1-54 ff. 
Sixfold, sphere of sense (in verse), 
40 if., 61, 80, 127, 172 
Sky, 146 

Sleep (barren, dull and fruitless), 
105 

Snakes, 131 

Solitude, 48, 115, 143 jjf. 

Sona, asks for teaching on free- 
dom, 7 1 
Sorrow, 40 
Space, 182 

Special (are/ti'A'a), 162 
Speculation, 88 
Speech, 148 
Spirit and letter, 204 
Squin'el.-.’ Feeding-ground, II, ! 

70, 1.54, 214, 230 
Stage-players, 21 ff. 

Stations of mastery, 45 ff.; 

mindfulness, 257 
Stream-cutter, 199 
Strengths (five), 258 
Stronghold (see Refuge) 
Struggling, 110 

Sublime states (see Brahmaviha: 
Subtle, 261 
Sudinna, 123 «. 

Suiiering, 155 /f. ; view of, 247 ff 
Siiicide, 31 ff., 36 
Hnl-ha. 82, 151 
Sunaparanta (district), 55 
Sanimniita. deva-piittii, 189 
Superknowledge. 180 ff.; 

perience, 208 if.. 241 ff. 
Supennan. 209 
.Suppabuddha, 30 n. 

Supreme pleasure, 151 


j Suyama, deia-putta, 189 
I Sympathy with joy (see Brahma- 
i viharl) 

I Symptoms, 19 

' Tiilaputa (stage-manager), 2 14 if. 

, Tangibles (see Ey e) 

I Tathagata, 37, 51, 82, 225, 229, 

: 235, 246, 272 ff. 

: Teacher of devas and mankind, 225 
. Teacher’s fee, 78 
Ten questions, 207 
Tethered, 132 
Tiiirty-threc (devas), 133 
j Thorn, 130 

Thought (citakhi), 140, 100, 179, 
180, 257 ; a.s activity of speech, 
201 ; ceasing of, 200 
. Thusncss, 202 n. 

. Todeyya, brahmin, 77 
Topkriot (Moliva or Sivaka), 
i54 ff. 

Torapavatthu, 265 
Tortoise, 112 

I Training of self. 134 if., 211 if. 

■ Trances. 146, 148, 151, 160, 179, 

207, 209 

j Transitory, 28 i)'.. 143 
' Trees (for meditation), 85, 256, 
261,264 

' T'rumpet-tlower. 244 n. 

. Tnith. message of, 127, 261 

Udayin, 77; questions Ananda, 
lo2; teaches Five-tools, 149 
. Uddaka, Rama's Son. 49 if. 

■ Fdena. rajah, 68 

Ugga, housefather, asks for teach- 
ing, 07 

! Ukkavela. 177 

Unclothed (Nigantha,) 206, 208, 
i 223 

! Uncompounded, 256 if. 

) ' Unconditioned, 185 
' FTicontroUed, 128 
' Understanding, 55. 175 
; Unprofitable states, 118 
I Unrevcalcd, the. 205 
Unwavering. iSG ff. 

: Upali. housefather, 67 
j Upasena, 20 
:- . Upavana, 21 
! Uprising. 7 
, Uprooting. 12. 15 
Uruvelakappa (town), 232 
\ Uttara (town), 244 



Index 


291 


Vacohagotta, questions Moggal- i 
lana, .276; — the Master, 278; | 
asks about the self, 281 \ 

Vajjians, 33, 67, 177 
Vakkali, 33 n. 

Vanishing, 32 

Vasa vatti, deva-putta, 189 ' 

Vepaoitti, lord of Asuras, 133 ; 

Verahaccani (clan), 77 
Versed in lore, 49 ff. 

Vesali, 66,142, 177 ?i., 269 
Vexation, 213 

Views, 87 ; sixty-two heretical, 
194; four, 250 ff. 

Village, empty, 108 

Vipassin, Buddha, 229 26.7 n. . 

Virtues of Ariyans, 187 ff. 

Void (of the self )> 1.29; conccntra- i 
tion, 257 ; contact, 203 
Vultures’ Peak, 62 

Wanderers, 87, 154, 170, 235, 
269 ff. 

Watchfulness, 60, 64, 110 
Wavering, 32 


Waves, 97 

Way of Woe, 163, 224 

Weal and woe, 38, 51, 79, 86, 
106 

Welcoming, 17 

Whirlpools, 97, 113 

Wild ilango Grove, 100 ff. 

Winds, divers, 146 ff.; of body, 

155 ff. 

Wisdom, 158; limbs of, 258; 
factors of, 260 

Women, view of, 68: behaviour 
of to preacher, IS ff.; qualities 
of, 162 ff. 

World, 28; rise and fall of, 53; 
end of, 57, 98; conceit of, 59; 
whether eternal, 2~6ff. 

Wrathful (headman), 213 

Wrong, view, 93; practice, 32 

Yoke-tie, 101 

Yonder, 32 

Youths, 6Sff. 

Zest, 159, 179, 181 



292 


Index 


II.-CHIEF PALI WOEDS IN NOTES. 


Akalika, 187 
Akuppa, 205 
Akhila, 75 
Agati-gati, 32 
Agarug karoti, 59 
Agga-pada, 269 
Aggi-mukha, 20 
Angani (paiica), 149 
Ajjhatta, 1 
Aniiato, 27 
Aimathatta, 234 
AMatha-bhavin, 39 
Anna, 88, 206 
Attiyamana, 36 
Addka-bhuta, 11 
Atta-danda, 74 
Attaniya, 29 
Atta-rupa. 60 
Attanuditrhi, 93 
Addavalepana, 120 
Addkana, 68 
Adluppayosa, 139 
Ananta. 153, 183 
Anassasin, 22 
Anikllitavin, 68 
Ani.s.sita, 113 
Aniglia, 200 
Anltika, 263 
Amipada, 2.5 
Anta, 235, 261 
Antacara, 1(»8 
Anupavajja, 31 
Anupuhba, 146, 149 
Anubaddha, 121 
Anuvidhlyati, 131 
Anusarin, 185 
Apannaka, 253 
Aparihari. 222 
Apalokina, 262 
Apaya, 163 
Appai5riata, 23 
Appaniana-cetasa, 77 
Abhinivesa, 26 
Abhisancetayita, 85 
Abhihatthup, 123 
Arahatta-phala, 91 
Alap, 89 
Avassuta, 116 
Avici, 81, 315 
Avecca-pasada, 186 
Avyapajjlia, 204 


I Asatka, 206 
. Asapatti, 168 
I Asekka, 6 
i Assasa-nattka, 22 
' Ass’aroka, '218 
I Akari, 222 
Akara, 60 
Akincanna, 204 
Agantuk’agara, 147 
Adi-brakmacariya, 56 
Apatka, 100 
Amisa, 99, 147 
Ayatana, 12 
Arammaiia, 119 
Alhaka, 267 
Aviuckati, 131 
Avatta, 113 
Avenika, 162 
Asava, 173 
Asivisa, 107 

Itaritara, 41 
Ittk’etap, 72 
Iddkipada, 257, 269 
Indriya, 89, 258, 260 
Ibbka, 74 

Uttari-manussa-dhamma, 20S 
Upari-ghata, 128 
Upavajjana, 33 
Upavioara, 156 
Upavena, 129 
Upadana, 115, 280, 281 
Upekkha, 71 
Ubhata-kotika, 229 
Ummagga, 128 
Uyyapeti, 218 

Ekagara, 251 
Ekodi, 180 
Eja, 37 
Evapkarl, 130 

Okkkayati, 9^ 

Ogha, 110, 174 
Ociraka, 1^6 
Otara, 119 
Odhasta-patoda, 111 
Onlta-patta-, 193 
Opakkamika, 155 
Opapatika, 250 



Index 


293 


Kateggaha, 253 
Ka^a-pakkha, 163 
Kamati, 191 
Kalyana, 196 
Kasambu-jata, 114 
Kassaka, 221 
Kama-guna, 56, 97, 113 
Kama-bhogin, 235 
Kaya-gata, 256 
Kay’indriya, 105 
Kipsuka, 124 
Kikita, 197 
Kincana, 205, 281 
Kinha, 74 
Kutuhala-sala, 279 
Kumara-panlia, 207 
Kumbha, 128 
Kummagga. 128 
Kul'angara, 330 
Kona, 129, 

KhancUia, 48, 151 
Khalu. 244 

Ganaka, 267 
Ganda, 37, 49 
Gati! 32, 33, 163 
Gadhita. 105, 237 
Gnclha. 138 
Gamani, 213. 216 
Gula-gunthika. 98 
Gehasita, 41 
Ghora-visa, 108 

Canda. 213 
Gala, 37, 186 
Cut’upapata. 32 
Cuti-citta, 281 

Jangala, 221 
Jappanuise, 74 
Jati-dhamma, 14 
Jatu, 49 
Jhatta, 131 
Jhana. 124, 129. 202 

Nina, 1 
Thavika, 68 
pa.yati, 131 

Tagglia. 75 
Tajja. 144 
Tanha. 32, 37, 42 
Tathatta. 202 
Tathagata, 274 
Tantakula-jata, 98 
Tannissita, 62 
Tasa-thlvara, 74 


Tittha-kara, 279 
. Tiriya, 204 
Tebhumaka, 4, 26 
Tero-vassika, 100 
! Thlna-middha, 118 
' Theyya-sankhata, 248 
I Thera, 192 

Dassavin, 125 
' lllyaka, 117 
Ditthi, 32, 134, 173, 194 
Digambara, 223 
Dukkhap, 82 
Ouhitika, 128 
Devata, 19, 186 
Dova-sabha, 133 
Dvihitika, 228 
Dhamma, 2. 47, 176 
Dhitu. 12, 71 
Dhavati, 45 

Nakha-cehedana, 105 
Navaka, 192 
Nana, 1 
, Nlnatta, 71 
Nigantha, 223 
; Nicehlta. 136 
\ Nidana. 16 
Ninna, 203 

Niinitta. 33, 63, 185, 2o3 
Ni.\yati. 224 
Nirodha. 147 
i Nekkhamma, 41. 157 
; Nelanga, 199 

Pakiiuiata. 117 
Pakkhin. 131 
Pagata, 272 
Paccatta. 12 
Paccha-bhumaka, 218 
Panca-kkhandha. 12, 93 
Panca-nlvaranani, 179 
Pafuiatti. 19 
Padgha, 153 
Padassaye, 41 
: Pantani, 17 

1 Papafica, 28. 41. 135. 262 
: Pabbhara. 203 
1 Pamana-kata-kamina, 227 
Pamana-karana, 205 
Paniilda, 180 
, Paramasa, 26 
Parayana, 263 
Parikkhara, 29 
Parifma, 9 
Paritta-cetasa, 118 



294 


Index 


Parinibbuta, 113 
Pariyadaya, 80 
Pariyaya, 117 
Parihana, 45 
Palibociha, 203 
Palikhata, 49 
Palujjana, 29 
Paloka, 29 
Paveni, 68 
Pavelij’amana, 107 
Pabasa-niraya, 215 
Pasada, 1 
Patali, 244 
Patala, 138 
Patubbavati, 47 
Pato-sinana, 75 
Paragu, 141 
Parieariya, 163 
Pavarika, 67 
Pavala-nippbotana, 208 
Pindola, 68 
Puta, 214 
Pona, 203 

Pbussa-pbussa, 80, 136 

Bandbu-pad’apacea, 74 
Babula, 129. 224 
Babira, 1 

Brabma-vibara, 204 
Bbagava-miilaka, 52 
Bhaddaka. 171 
Bbadraka, 232 
Bbava-satta, 12 
Bharataka, 74 
Bhijjanaka. 29 
Bhujissa, 187 
Bburi-pafma, 137 

Mapsa, 1 
Mafinasi, 36 
Mailnita, 11 
Manta. 75 
Marana, 19 
Mariyada, 6 
Maba-bhutani. 109. 125 
Matu-gama, 97 
Matu-mattI, 68 
Mana, 1.34 
Mara, 19, 118 
Marisa. 133. 186 
Miiccba, 121. 129. 237 
Mula, 49 
Mulaka. 52 
Momuba, 105 
Moll, 1.54 
Mosa, 136 


I Yaggbo. 75 
1 Yatbabbata, 225 
, Yatba-bbuta, 127 
i Yamaka, 4 
! Yoga, 51, 114 
I Yoga-kkbema, 51 
' Yodha-jiva, 216 
Yoni, 110 
I Yoniso, 91 

Rincati. 137 
Rupa, 2 

; Lagga, 12 
Lamba-culaka, 245 
Lamaka, 41, 130 
. Lfikba-jivin, 234 
i Loka, 20, 28, 56, 59, 98 

Vatuma. 28 
Yatta, 276 
Vann a, 75 
Vatta, 130 
Yatthu, 8. 41 
Vasaratti. 189 
Yaca, 8 
: Yada, 228 
I Yaseti. 167 
! Yijana-vatoni, 17 
; Yinej’ya. 142 
i Yibbava, 174 
' Yimariyada. 6 
j Yimntti-paripacaniya, 65 
i Yirodha, 41 
Yilepana, 50 
Yivattayi. 137 
■ Yiveka, 203 
Yisama, 74. 155 
'■ Yihipsa, 64 
Yina (parts of). 129 
I Yitaccika. 121 
^ Yutthana. 116 
! Yedagu. 49 
! Ycdanlya, 85 

Pa-npadana. 62 
Santaitta, 140 
Sak'kaya. 93, 110, 175. 194 
Sagga. 81 
Safifil, 59 
Sankassara, 114 
Sankha, 137. 223 
Sankbata-dhamma, 141 
Sankhara, 201 n . : see I, Activities 
; Sangayha, 40 
j Satta, 12, 41 
Sati-patthana, 257 



Index 


295 


Sati-sammosa, 123 
Sadutiya, 17 
Santa, 150 
Santaka, 29, 148 
Santaueti, 63 
Santha, 116 
Santhagara, 116 
Sannipata, 155 
Sannissita, 145 
Sappa, 20 
Sappaya, 12 
Sabba, 8, 41 
Samannesati, 130 
Samadhi, 48, 136, 185. 252 
Samunna, 98 
Sampada, 58 
Sambahana, 50 
Sambodba, 4 
SammuUia, 83 
Saranjita, 216 


Sarati, 45 
Sara-sankappa, 45 
Sarajita, 217 
Salaka-vutta, 228 
Salla, 37 
Sasambhara, 1 
Saha-dhammika, 244 
Sacariyaka, 87 
; Sdrattha-ppakasini, 1 
! Sasana, 11 
I Siva, 262 
I Siha-seyj a, 64 
I Sunna, 203 
i Surata, 213 
I Sekha, 22, SO 
I Selissakaiii, 73 

Hata, 225 
Hatth’aroba, 218 
Halidda, 72 



296 


Index 


III.— TITLES OF THE SAYINGS. 


Abandoning (1, 2), 8, 9, 137 
Action, 85 

Adulteress, 164; and not, 165 
Afflicted, 11 
Age, sickness, etc., 14 
All, the, 8 
Ananda, 281 
Anuradia, 269 
Arahantship, 171 
Asava, 173 

Asavas, 1, 2, 15; without, 261 

Bahiya, 37 
Balanced, 181 
Barb, 139 
Because of, 167 
Becoming, 174 
Better, 54 
Bharadvaja, 68 
Birth, 14 
Blissful, the, 262 
Body, 256 
Bottomless pit, 138 
Brief, 29 

Brother, 27, 157; by a, 154, 139 

Calm, 256, 258 
Cave of shelter, 263 
Channa, 30 

Charming (and not), 62 
Clan, 228 

Comfort (and supreme-), 172 
Compr'ehension (1, 2), 9 
Coinprehen.sion of attachment, 16 
Concentration. 48, 136; sixfold, 
259 

Conch, the, 223 
Condition, 167 
Conhdent, 165, 168 
Conquering, 166 
Consciousness. 183 
Contact, rooted in, 144 
Controlling powers, 258 
Craving, 174 
Crest-jewel, 230 

Deathless, the, 262 
Debat ing-hall, 279 
Delighting in. 110 
Dependent. 51 

Desire, by way of (1-18), 93-4 


I Destruction, of the lure (1-4), 91; 

I of craving, 262 
j Devadaha (the moment at), 80 
I Dispassion, 263 
Dread, fivefold, 164 
' Duality (1,2), 38, 39 
I Dwelling heedless, 46 

i Efforts, best, 257, 259 
i Elephant, 218 
End, the, 261 
Energetic, 165 
Enlightenment (1, 2). 4, 5 
Envious (and not). 164-5 
Excellent, the, 262 
Exhausting (1,2). 1, 6 
External (1-3), 84, 97 

' Faculties, five, 259 
Faculty. 89 
■ Falling back. 45 
: Feeling, 173 
i Fetter, 53, 66, 190 
Fetters (1, 2), 15 
Fighting-man, 216 
Fire, on. 10, 104 
Fisherman. 99 
Five-crest, 62 
Flood, 74 
Force, by, 166 
Free from 111. 263 
Further shore, the, 261 

Ghosita, 7 
Goal, the, 263 
i Godatta, 203 
' Grasping. 55. 66, 174 
' Grudging. 164; and not, 165 
Guest-house. 147 

Haliddaka, 72 
Happiness, by, 181 
Hard to do, i76. 178 
, Hard to see, 262 
Harmless, the, 263 
! Helpful (1, 2), 12, 13; (1-4), 86 
! Horse. 218 
Hundred and eight, 156 

Ignorance, 15, 173; abandoning-, 
26 



Index 297 


111 (1-3), 2, 3 

111, arising and destruction of, 52; 

states of, 121 
Immorality, lt>4 
Impermanence (1-10), 14 
Impermanent (1-3), 1-4 
Impermanent, what is ? (1-18), 
95-6 

Impermanent (feelings), 144 
including (sixfold sphere), 40, 42, 
81 

Increase, 168 
Indolent, 164 
Insight, 258 
Invisible, the, 262 
Isidatta (1, 2). 192-6 
Island, the, 263 

Jivaka’s Mango Grove, 91-2 
Judas tree, 124 

Kamabhu, 102; (1.2), 199-203 
Kheraa, sister, 265 
Knowledge, of small. 164; of wide, 
165 

(Kotthika or Kotthita), 92-3, 101 

Leaf-basket, 214 
Leaves (1, 2), 83-4 
Limbs of wisdom. 258 
Log of wood (1, 2), 113-5 
Lohicca, 73 
Lucky, 232 

Lurking tendency (1. 2), 15 
Lustful, 116 
Lute, the, 128 

Magic power, bases of, 257-9 
Mahaka, 196 
Mara’s noose (1, 2). 56-7 
Marvellous, the, 263 
Method, is there a ? 88 
Migajala (1, 2), 16-8 
Mindfulness, stations of, 257-9 
Moggallana, 276 
Moral, 165 

Muddle-headed (and not), 164-5 

Nakulapitar, 73 
Nalanda, 67 

Neither-perceiving-nor-, 184 
Nibbana, 1707 1 77 , 263 
Nigantha, 206 
Non-attachment, 263 
Norm-preacher, 171 
Nothingness, 183 


I Not including (sixfold sphere), 81 
I Not yours (1, 2), 48-9 

I 

I Ocean (1. 2), 97-8 
I One power, 166 
Overhearing, 55 

Passion (1, 2), 37-8 
I Past, by way of the (1-9), 94-5; 

' knowledge of the, 158 
Pa tali, 244 

Path, by the, 258; Ariyan, 260 
I Peace, the, 262 
' Personal (1, 2), 84, 96 

■ Person-pack. 93, 175 
Phagguna, 28 
Pleasure, for, 136 

' Powers. 6ve, 260 
j Preacher. 80 
1 Proper, 11 
Punna, 34 
Purified. 159 
Purity, 263 
Purpose, to what ? 87 

Quality, 166 

Railha (1,2). 25-6 
Rahula, 64 
Rasiya. 234 

Recluses and brahmins (1-3), 
158-9 

, Refuge, the, 263 

■ Regarding, 139 
^ Release, 263 

I Resident pupil, 86 
Restraint, 47 

■ Sabhiya, 282 

■ t>akka, 185 

! Samiddhi (1. 2), 19, 20 
' Sap-tree, 99 

I Sariputta, 63; and Kotthika (1-5), 
272-6 

Satisfaction, by. 5, 6; without, 6. 7 
I Secimity, the, 262 
1 Self, about the, 93 
Sheaf of corn. 132 
Sick (1, 2), 23-5; seeing the, 210 
Sickness (1, 2), 142-4 
Sivaka, 154 
Six animals, 130 

Sixfold sphere of contact (1, 2), 22 
Sky (1, 2), 146 
Snake, 107 

Solitude, 48; given to, 145 



298 Itviex 


Sona, 70 
Space, 182 
Special, 162 
Stable, tbe, 262 
Stinginess, 164 
Strength, 258 
Stronghold, the, 263 
Subtle, the, 261 
Suflering, 175 

Taintless, the, 262 
Taking delight in (1, 2), 7 
Teaching, 220 
They overthrow, 167 
Three things, 163 
Thought cBrected, together with, 
170, 257; without, ISO 
Tortoise, 112 
Transitory, 28 
Truth, 261 

Udcl^in, 102 

Uddaka, 49 
Unclothed, the, 208 
Uncompounded, the, 258 
Unconditioned, the, 185 


Undecaying, the, 262 
Understanding (1, 2), 55 
I Unfading, the, 262 
, Upasena, 20 
. Upavana, 21 
; Uprising (1, 2), 7, 8 

Vaccha, 278 
Vajjians. 67 

Verahaccani, 77 (fron. -cchani) 
Vesali. 66 
Void, the, 257 

Void (world). 29; of the self (1-4), 
2-4 

Wisdom, factors of, 260 
Westlander. 218 
What is it ? 172 
Winner of security, 51 
Wonderful, the, 263 
World. 28; arising of the, 53 
Worldly sense-pleasures (1, 2), 
57-6(» 

Wrathful, 164; and not, 165; 

(headman), 213 
Wrong view, 93 


APPENDIX 

K. to p. 113: “At Kosambi, on the bank of the river Ganges.” 
Dr. E. J. Thomas, in his recently published book. The Life of Bvddha, 
p. 15, doubts, with Cunningham and Vincent Smith, whether Kosambi 
was on the Ganges; and refers to the present passage, text p. 179, and 
S', lii, 140 ( =K.S. iii, 118, where I wTongly printed “Ayojjhaya”) 
a.s the two places in the Canon where Ayojjha is so situated. Our text 
has a variant reading Ayojjhayay in three MSS. 

Addenda to n. 1, p. 269 ( = 279), text p. 379. 

Text reads saijsandissati, samessati, tia virodhayissaii (v.U. vibhdyi- 
mati, vihdyissati). At A. v, 320, in the same context, text reads vigga- 
hissati (v.l. vigayhissati), which Corny, ad loc. explains as na virujjhissati. 

Our Corny., however, reads here vibhoyiseati (with comment na virud- 
dhatj iaddaij hliaviasati). I would read riggahissati (non separabitur) in 
both texts. The meaning in any case is “ there will be found no dis- 
crepancy.” 







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Central AKbaaological Lilurtry, 

NEW DELHI. r> ^ . o 


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